Trinitrotoluene
Overview
 
Trinitrotoluene or more specifically, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound
Chemical compound
A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure; they consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together...

 with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. This yellow-colored solid is sometimes used as a reagent
Reagent
A reagent is a "substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs." Although the terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably, a reactant is less specifically a "substance that is consumed in the course of...

 in chemical synthesis, but it is best known as a useful explosive material
Explosive material
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure...

 with convenient handling properties. The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard measure of strength
TNT equivalent
TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT...

 of bombs and other explosives.
Encyclopedia
Trinitrotoluene or more specifically, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound
Chemical compound
A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure; they consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together...

 with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. This yellow-colored solid is sometimes used as a reagent
Reagent
A reagent is a "substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs." Although the terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably, a reactant is less specifically a "substance that is consumed in the course of...

 in chemical synthesis, but it is best known as a useful explosive material
Explosive material
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure...

 with convenient handling properties. The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard measure of strength
TNT equivalent
TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT...

 of bombs and other explosives. In chemistry, TNT is used to generate charge transfer salts
Charge transfer complex
A charge-transfer complex or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one very large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities. The resulting electrostatic attraction provides a...

.

Preparation

In industry, TNT is produced in a three-step process. First, toluene
Toluene
Toluene, formerly known as toluol, is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, i.e., one in which a single hydrogen atom from the benzene molecule has been replaced by a univalent group, in this case CH3.It is an aromatic...

 is nitrated
Nitration
Nitration is a general chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into a chemical compound. The dominant application of nitration is for the production of nitrobenzene, the precursor to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate...

 with a mixture of sulfuric
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula . Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates...

 and nitric acid
Nitric acid
Nitric acid , also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid.Colorless when pure, older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming...

 to produce mono-nitrotoluene
Mononitrotoluene
Mononitrotoluene, or methylnitrobenzene or nitrotoluene , is a group of 3 organic compounds, a nitro derivative of toluene...

 or MNT. The MNT is separated and then renitrated to dinitrotoluene
Dinitrotoluene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene or Dinitro is an organic compound with the formula C6H32. This pale yellow crystalline solid is well known as a precursor to trinitrotoluene but is mainly used in the polymer industry....

 or DNT. In the final step, the DNT is nitrated to trinitrotoluene or TNT using an anhydrous
Anhydrous
As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. The way of achieving the anhydrous form differs from one substance to another...

 mixture of nitric acid and oleum
Oleum
Oleum , or fuming sulfuric acid refers to a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid ....

. Nitric acid is consumed by the manufacturing process, but the diluted sulfuric acid can be reconcentrated and reused. Subsequent to nitration, TNT is stabilized by a process called sulphitation, where the crude TNT is treated with aqueous sodium sulfite solution in order to remove less stable isomers of TNT and other undesired reaction products. The rinse water from sulphitation is known as red water and is a significant pollutant and waste product of TNT manufacture.

Control of nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxide can refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds:* Nitric oxide, also known as nitrogen monoxide, , nitrogen oxide* Nitrogen dioxide , nitrogen oxide...

s in feed nitric acid is very important because free nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula it is one of several nitrogen oxides. is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor and is a prominent...

 can result in oxidation of the methyl group of toluene. This reaction is highly exothermic and carries with it the risk of a runaway reaction leading to an explosion.

In the laboratory, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is produced by a two step process. A nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids is used to nitrate toluene to a mixture of mono- and di-nitrotoluene isomers, with cooling to maintain careful temperature control. The nitrated toluenes are separated, washed with dilute sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda . The natural mineral form is...

 to remove oxides of nitrogen, and then carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Towards the end of the nitration, the mixture is heated on a steam bath. The trinitrotoluene is separated, washed with a dilute solution of sodium sulfite
Sodium sulfite
Sodium sulfite is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid. It is a product of sulfur dioxide scrubbing, a part of the flue gas desulfurization process...

 and then recrystallized
Recrystallization (chemistry)
-Chemistry:In chemistry, recrystallization is a procedure for purifying compounds. The most typical situation is that a desired "compound A" is contaminated by a small amount of "impurity B". There are various methods of purification that may be attempted , which includes recrystallization...

 from alcohol.

Applications

TNT is one of the most commonly used explosives for military and industrial applications. It is valued partly because of its insensitivity to shock and friction, which reduces the risk of accidental detonation
Detonation
Detonation involves a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations are observed in both conventional solid and liquid explosives, as well as in reactive gases...

, compared to other more sensitive high explosives such as nitroglycerin. TNT melts at 80 °C (176 °F), far below the temperature at which it will spontaneously detonate, allowing it to be poured as well as safely combined with other explosives. TNT neither absorbs nor dissolves in water, which allows it to be used effectively in wet environments. Additionally, it is stable compared to other high explosives.

Although blocks of TNT are available in various sizes (e.g. 250 g, 500 g, 1,000 g ), it is more commonly encountered in synergistic explosive blends comprising a variable percentage of TNT plus other ingredients. Examples of explosive blends containing TNT include:
  • Amatex
    Amatex
    Amatex is a military explosive consisting of 51% ammonium nitrate, 40% TNT, and 9% RDX....

  • Amatol
    Amatol
    Amatol is a highly explosive material made from a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate. Its name originates from the words ammonium and toluene...

  • Ammonal
    Ammonal
    Ammonal is an explosive made up of ammonium nitrate, trinitrotoluene , and aluminium powder.The ammonium nitrate functions as an oxidizer and aluminium as a power enhancer. To some extent the aluminium makes it more sensitive to detonation...

  • Baratol
    Baratol (explosive)
    Baratol is an explosive made of a mixture of TNT and barium nitrate, with a small quantity of wax used as a binder. TNT typically makes up 25-33% of the mixture...

  • Composition B
    Composition B
    Composition B, colloquially "comp B", is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT. It is used as the main explosive filling in artillery projectiles, rockets, land mines, hand grenades, sticky bombs and various other munitions...

  • Composition H6
    Composition H6
    Composition H6 is a castable military explosive compound composed of the following percentages by weight:* 45% RDX* 30% TNT* 20% powdered aluminium* 5% paraffin wax as a phlegmatizing agent....

  • Cyclotol
    Cyclotol
    Cyclotol is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT.It is related to the more common Composition B, which is roughly 60% RDX and 40% TNT; various compositions of Cyclotol contain from 65% to 80% RDX....

  • Ednatol
    Ednatol
    Ednatol is a yellow high explosive, comprising about 58% ethylenedinitramine and 42% TNT. It was developed in the USA circa 1935 and used as a substitute for Composition B in large general purpose and fragmentation bombs...

  • Hexanite
    Hexanite
    Hexanite was a castable German military explosive developed early in the 20th century before the First World War for the Kaiserliche Marine, intended to augment supplies of trinitrotoluene , which were then in short supply. Hexanite is significantly more powerful than TNT on its own...

  • Minol
    Minol (explosive)
    Minol is a military explosive developed by the Admiralty early in the Second World War to augment supplies of Trinitrotoluene and RDX, which were then in short supply. The aluminium component in Minol significantly prolongs the explosive pulse, making it ideal for use in underwater naval weapons...

  • Octol
    Octol
    Octol is a melt-castable, high explosive mixture consisting of HMX and TNT in different weight proportions.-Composition:Two formulations are commonly used:* 70% HMX & 30% TNT* 75% HMX & 25% TNT...

  • Pentolite
    Pentolite
    Pentolite is a high explosive used for military and civilian purposes e.g. warheads and booster charges.Military pentolite comprises a mixture of 50% PETN and 50% TNT. A 50:50 mixture has a density of 1.65 g/cm3 and a detonation velocity of 7400 m/s. Civilian pentolite sometimes contains a lower...

  • Picratol
    Picratol
    Picratol is a high explosive mixture, comprising 52% 'Explosive D' and 48% TNT. It has a detonation velocity of approximately 6,972 metres per second. Picratol has no civilian applications. It was exclusively intended for military use and was especially popular during the Second World War. The main...

  • Tetrytol
    Tetrytol
    Tetrytol is a high explosive, comprising a mixture of Tetryl and TNT. Typically, the proportion of ingredients is approximately 70% tetryl and 30% TNT...

  • Torpex
    Torpex
    Torpex is a secondary explosive 50% more powerful than TNT by mass. Torpex is composed of 42% RDX, 40% TNT and 18% powdered aluminium. It was used in the Second World War from late 1942. The name is short for Torpedo Explosive', having been originally developed for use in torpedoes...

  • Tritonal
    Tritonal
    Tritonal is a mixture of 80% TNT and 20% aluminium powder, used in several types of ordnance such as air-dropped bombs. The aluminium improves the total heat output and hence impulse of the TNT - the length of time during which the blast wave is positive...


Explosive character

It is a common misconception that TNT and dynamite
Dynamite
Dynamite is an explosive material based on nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth , or another absorbent substance such as powdered shells, clay, sawdust, or wood pulp. Dynamites using organic materials such as sawdust are less stable and such use has been generally discontinued...

 are the same, or that dynamite contains TNT. In fact, whereas TNT is a specific chemical compound, dynamite is an absorbent mixture soaked in nitroglycerin that is compressed into a cylindrical shape and wrapped in paper.

Upon detonation
Detonation
Detonation involves a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations are observed in both conventional solid and liquid explosives, as well as in reactive gases...

, TNT decomposes as follows:
2 C7H5N3O6 → 3 N2 + 5 H2O + 7 CO + 7 C
2 C7H5N3O6 → 3 N2 + 5 H2 + 12 CO + 2 C


The reaction is exothermic
Exothermic
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in the form of light , electricity , or sound...

 but has a high activation energy
Activation energy
In chemistry, activation energy is a term introduced in 1889 by the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius that is defined as the energy that must be overcome in order for a chemical reaction to occur. Activation energy may also be defined as the minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction...

. Because of the production of carbon
Carbon
Carbon is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds...

, TNT explosions have a sooty appearance. Because TNT has an excess of carbon, explosive mixtures with oxygen-rich compounds can yield more energy per kilogram than TNT alone. During the 20th century, amatol
Amatol
Amatol is a highly explosive material made from a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate. Its name originates from the words ammonium and toluene...

, a mixture of TNT with ammonium nitrate was a widely used military explosive.

Detonation of TNT can be done using a high velocity initiator or by efficient concussion.

For many years, TNT used to be the reference point for the Figure of Insensitivity
Figure of Insensitivity
Figure of Insensitivity is an inverse scale of measure of the impact sensitivity of an explosive substance. In this particular context the term 'Insensitivity' refers to the likelihood of initiation/detonation by accidental means e.g. impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, application of...

. TNT has a rating of exactly 100 on the F of I scale. However, the reference has since been changed to a more sensitive explosive called RDX
RDX
RDX, an initialism for Research Department Explosive, is an explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications. It was developed as an explosive which was more powerful than TNT, and it saw wide use in WWII. RDX is also known as cyclonite, hexogen , and T4...

, which has an F of I of 80.

Energy content

TNT contains 4.184 megajoules per kilogram. The energy density of TNT is used as a reference-point for many other types of explosives, including nuclear weapons, the energy content of which is measured in kilotons (~4.184 terajoules) or megatons (~4.184 petajoules) of TNT equivalent
TNT equivalent
TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT...

.

For comparison, gunpowder
Gunpowder
Gunpowder, also known since in the late 19th century as black powder, was the first chemical explosive and the only one known until the mid 1800s. It is a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate - with the sulfur and charcoal acting as fuels, while the saltpeter works as an oxidizer...

 contains 3 megajoules per kilogram, dynamite
Dynamite
Dynamite is an explosive material based on nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth , or another absorbent substance such as powdered shells, clay, sawdust, or wood pulp. Dynamites using organic materials such as sawdust are less stable and such use has been generally discontinued...

 contains 7.5 megajoules per kilogram, gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...

 contains 47.2 megajoules per kilogram (though gasoline requires an oxidant
Oxidizing agent
An oxidizing agent can be defined as a substance that removes electrons from another reactant in a redox chemical reaction...

, so an optimized gasoline and O2 mixture contains 10.4 megajoules per kilogram), and butter
Butter
Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying...

 contains 30 megajoules per kilogram (also requiring an external oxidizing agent).

History

TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Julius Wilbrand  and originally used as a yellow dye. Its potential as an explosive was not appreciated for several years mainly because it was so difficult to detonate and because it was less powerful than alternatives. TNT can be safely poured when liquid into shell cases, and is so insensitive that in 1910, it was exempted from the UK's Explosives Act 1875
History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom
The history of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom formally covers the period from the formation of the united kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, but is founded in the history of such legislation in England and Wales and Scotland prior to the Union....

 and was not considered an explosive for the purposes of manufacture and storage.

The German armed forces adopted it as a filling for artillery
Artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 shell
Shell (projectile)
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot . Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a tracer or spotting charge is used...

s in 1902. TNT-filled armour-piercing shells would explode after they had penetrated the armour of British capital ships, whereas the British lyddite
Picric acid
Picric acid is the chemical compound formally called 2,4,6-trinitrophenol . This yellow crystalline solid is one of the most acidic phenols. Like other highly nitrated compounds such as TNT, picric acid is an explosive...

-filled shells tended to explode upon striking armour, thus expending much of their energy outside the ship. The British started replacing lyddite with TNT in 1907. TNT is still widely used by the United States military, as well as construction companies around the world. The majority of TNT currently used by the US military is manufactured by Radford Army Ammunition Plant
Radford Army Ammunition Plant
The primary mission of Radford Army Ammunition Plant is to manufacture propellants and explosives in support of field artillery, air defense, tank, missile, aircraft and Navy weapons systems...

 near Radford, Virginia
Radford, Virginia
Radford is a city in Virginia, United States. The population was 16,408 in 2010. For statistical purposes, the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Radford with neighboring Montgomery County, including the towns of Blacksburg and Christiansburg, calling the combination the...

.

Safety and toxicity

TNT is poisonous, and skin contact can cause skin irritation, causing the skin to turn a bright yellow-orange color.During the First World War
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, munition workers who handled the chemical found that their skin turned bright yellow, which resulted in their acquiring the nickname "canary girls" or simply "canaries."

People exposed to TNT over a prolonged period tend to experience anemia
Anemia
Anemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin...

 and abnormal liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

 functions. Blood and liver effects, spleen
Spleen
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock...

 enlargement and other harmful effects on the immune system
Immune system
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own...

 have also been found in animals that ingested or breathed trinitrotoluene. There is evidence that TNT adversely affects male fertility
Fertility
Fertility is the natural capability of producing offsprings. As a measure, "fertility rate" is the number of children born per couple, person or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction...

. TNT is listed as a possible human carcinogen
Carcinogen
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes...

, with carcinogenic effects demonstrated in animal experiments (rat), although effects upon humans so far amount to none [according to [IRIS of March 15, 2000].
Consumption of TNT produces red urine
Urine
Urine is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require elimination from the bloodstream...

 through the presence of breakdown products and not blood as sometimes believed.

Some military testing grounds are contaminated with TNT. Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface and subsurface waters
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 may be colored pink because of the presence of TNT. Such contamination, called "pink water", may be difficult and expensive to remedy.

TNT is prone to exudation of dinitrotoluene
Dinitrotoluene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene or Dinitro is an organic compound with the formula C6H32. This pale yellow crystalline solid is well known as a precursor to trinitrotoluene but is mainly used in the polymer industry....

s and other isomers of trinitrotoluene. Even small quantities of such impurities can cause such effect. The effect shows especially in projectiles
Shell (projectile)
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot . Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a tracer or spotting charge is used...

 containing TNT and stored at higher temperatures, e.g. during summer. Exudation of impurities leads to formation of pores and cracks (which in turn cause increased shock sensitivity). Migration of the exudated liquid into the fuze
Fuze
Fuze Beverage, commercially referred to as just Fuze , is a manufacturer of teas and non-carbonated fruit drinks enriched with vitamins. Currently the brand consists of five vitamin-infused lines: Slenderize, Refresh, Tea, Defensify, and Vitalize...

 screw thread can form fire channels, increasing the risk of accidental detonations; fuze malfunction can result from the liquids migrating into its mechanism.

See also

  • TNT equivalent
    TNT equivalent
    TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT...

  • Explosives used during WW II
    Explosives used during WW II
    Almost all the common explosives listed here were mixtures of TNT, RDX or PETN. Please note that this is only a partial list; there were many others.NameCompositionAmatolAmmonium nitrate and TNTBaronalBarium nitrate, TNT and powdered aluminium...

  • Dynamite (Difference from TNT)
  • IMX-101
    IMX-101
    IMX-101 is a high-performance insensitive explosive developed by BAE Systems and the United States Army to replace TNT in artillery shells, starting as soon as 2011....


External links

  • free software website Published on:2005-12-20 (Copyright © 2005 by Francisco Burzi) Video showing detonation (Operation Blowdown
    Operation Blowdown
    Operation Blowdown was a military operation that took place on 18 July 1963. Conducted in northern Queensland, Australia by a joint Australian-American-British team, it was designed to simulate the effects of a nuclear weapon on tropical rainforest, using 50 tons of conventional explosive .A device...

    )
  • free software website Published on: 2008-05-26 (Copyright © 2005 by Francisco Burzi) Video of explosion: Project Dugout of 1965
  • Videoshowing the shockwave and typical black smoke cloud from detonation of 160 kilograms of pure TNT
  • Videoshowing detonation of 453 metric tons of TNT in 1965-(Operation Sailor Hat
    Operation Sailor Hat
    Operation Sailor Hat was an explosives effects test conducted by the United States Navy on the island of Kahoolawe, Hawaii in 1965. As they were not nuclear tests, they instead employed conventional explosives to simulate the effects of a nuclear weapon blast...

    ) – note shockwave and black smoke residue
  • Videoof demolition training using half pound blocks of pure TNT

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