Treaty of Paris (1856)
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War
Crimean War
The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining...

 between Russia
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

, Second French Empire
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire or French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.-Rule of Napoleon III:...

, and the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the island of Sardinia first as a part of the Crown of Aragon and subsequently the Spanish Empire , and second as a part of the composite state of the House of Savoy . Its capital was originally Cagliari, in the south of the island, and later Turin, on the...

. The treaty, signed on March 30, 1856 at the Congress of Paris
Congress of Paris (1856)
The Congress of Paris was a peace conference held in Paris, France, in 1856, , between representatives of the great powers in Europe to make peace after the almost three year long Crimean War.- Before the Congress :...

, made the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

 neutral territory, closing it to all warships, and prohibiting fortifications and the presence of armaments on its shores. The treaty marked a severe setback to Russian influence in the region.


Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

 and Wallachia
Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians...

 would stay under nominal Ottoman rule, but would be granted independent constitutions and national assemblies, which were to be monitored by the victorious powers. A project of a referendum was to be set in place to monitor the will of the peoples regarding unification. Also, Moldavia received the south of Bessarabia
Bessarabia is a historical term for the geographic region in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the east and the Prut River on the west....

Budjak or Budzhak is a historical region in the Odessa Oblast of Ukraine. Lying along the Black Sea between the Danube and Dniester rivers this multiethnic region was the southern part of Bessarabia...


The treaty also demilitarised the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
The Åland Islands form an archipelago in the Baltic Sea. They are situated at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia and form an autonomous, demilitarised, monolingually Swedish-speaking region of Finland...

 in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

, which belonged to the autonomous Russian Grand Principality of Finland. The fortress Bomarsund
Bomarsund, Åland
The Battle of Bomarsund was fought by an Anglo-French task force against Russian defenses at Bomarsund during the Crimean War.-Background:Bomarsund is a 19th century fortress which had started to built in 1832 by Russia in Sund on the Åland Islands in the Baltic Sea...

 had been destroyed by British and French forces in 1854 and the alliance wanted to prevent its use as a Russian military base.

The Peace of Paris confirmed Nicholas I
Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I , was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 20 million square kilometers...

's failures.
  • Russia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the Danube
    The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

  • It was forced to abandon its claims to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire in favour of France.
  • Russia lost its influence over the Romanian principalities, which, together with Serbia, were given greater independence.
  • Political reforms were called in Russia after they lost the war.

Signing parties

A. Walewski
Alexandre Joseph Count Colonna-Walewski
Alexandre Florian Joseph, Count Colonna-Walewski was a Polish and French politician and diplomat. He was the illegitimate son of Napoleon I by his mistress Countess Marie Walewska.-Life:...

 Bourqueney Buol-Schauenstein
Karl Ferdinand von Buol
Karl Ferdinand von Buol was an Austrian diplomatist and statesman, who served as Foreign Minister from 1852 to 1859.-Biography:Buol was born in Vienna, a scion of a Grisons noble family descending from Fürstenau. His father Johann Rudolf von Buol Karl Ferdinand von Buol was an Austrian...

Count Joseph Alexander Hübner
Joseph Alexander, count Hübner , was an Austrian diplomat, born in Vienna. His real name was Josef Hafenbredl, which he changed to Hübner.-Career:...

George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon
George William Frederick Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon KG, GCB, PC , was an English diplomat and statesman.-Background and education:...

Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley
Henry Richard Charles Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley KG GCB PC , known as The Lord Cowley between 1847 and 1857, was a British diplomat...

 Manteuffel Hatzfeldt Orloff
Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov
Prince Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov , the natural son of Count Fyodor Grigoryevich, was born October 8 in Moscow and took part in all the Napoleonic wars from 1805 to the capture of Paris...

Philipp von Brunnow
Philipp Graf von Brunnow was a Russian diplomat. Brunnow represented Russia in several conferences, and held ambassadorial positions in London , Frankfurt , Berlin , and then returned to London ....

 Cavour di Villamarina Aali
Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha
Mehmed Emin Âli Paşa , , was an Ottoman statesman....


See also

  • The 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Åland Islands was celebrated in Finland by issuing a high value commemorative coin, the €5 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Åland Islands commemorative coin, minted in 2006. The obverse depicts a pine tree, very typical in the Åland Islands. The reverse design features a boat's stern and rudder, with a dove perched on the tiller, a symbol of 150 years of peace.
  • Berwick-upon-Tweed
    Berwick-upon-Tweed or simply Berwick is a town in the county of Northumberland and is the northernmost town in England, on the east coast at the mouth of the River Tweed. It is situated 2.5 miles south of the Scottish border....

    — an apocryphal story concerns Berwick's status with Russia
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