Tomsk
Overview
 
Tomsk is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . It lies in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, located on the Tom River
Tom River
Tom is a river in Russia, a right tributary of the Ob. Its length is 540 miles . Its source is in the Abakan mountains , and it flows northward through the Kuznetsk Basin...

. One of the oldest towns in Siberia
Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

, Tomsk celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2004. Population:

It is served by the Bogashevo Airport
Bogashevo Airport
Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is an airport that serves Tomsk, Russia. It is located near the Bogashevo village of the Tomsk raion of Tomsk Oblast.The airport opened in November 1967 and replaced another airport within the Kashtak district in the city of Tomsk...

.
Tomsk is divided into four city districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, and Sovetsky.

In 2005, the city annexed the settlements of Eushta, Dzerzhinsky, Timiryazevskoye, Zonalny, Loskutovo, Svetly, Kirgizka, and Kopylovo.

Tomsk is located about 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) southeast of the town of Seversk
Seversk
Seversk is a closed city in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Tomsk on the right bank of the Tom River. Population: Founded in 1949, it was known as Pyaty Pochtovy until 1954 and as Tomsk-7 until 1992. Town status was granted to it in 1956.The current Chair of the City Duma and Mayor...

, a major center of plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation...

 production and reprocessing and uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

 enrichment.
Tomsk has a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb).
Encyclopedia
Tomsk is a city and the administrative center of Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . It lies in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, located on the Tom River
Tom River
Tom is a river in Russia, a right tributary of the Ob. Its length is 540 miles . Its source is in the Abakan mountains , and it flows northward through the Kuznetsk Basin...

. One of the oldest towns in Siberia
Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

, Tomsk celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2004. Population:

It is served by the Bogashevo Airport
Bogashevo Airport
Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is an airport that serves Tomsk, Russia. It is located near the Bogashevo village of the Tomsk raion of Tomsk Oblast.The airport opened in November 1967 and replaced another airport within the Kashtak district in the city of Tomsk...

.

Geography

Tomsk is divided into four city districts: Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, and Sovetsky.

In 2005, the city annexed the settlements of Eushta, Dzerzhinsky, Timiryazevskoye, Zonalny, Loskutovo, Svetly, Kirgizka, and Kopylovo.

Tomsk is located about 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) southeast of the town of Seversk
Seversk
Seversk is a closed city in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Tomsk on the right bank of the Tom River. Population: Founded in 1949, it was known as Pyaty Pochtovy until 1954 and as Tomsk-7 until 1992. Town status was granted to it in 1956.The current Chair of the City Duma and Mayor...

, a major center of plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation...

 production and reprocessing and uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

 enrichment.

Climate

Tomsk has a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb). The annual average temperature is 0.6 °C (33.1 °F). Winters are severe and lengthy, and the lowest recorded temperature was -55 C in January 1931. However, the average temperature in January is between -21 C and -13 C. The average temperature in July is 18.7 °C (65.7 °F). The total yearly rainfall is 554 millimetres (21.8 in). In 2006, Tomsk experienced what might have been its first recorded hurricane-force winds, which toppled trees and damaged houses.

History

Tatar duke of Eushta location, Toyan, asked for protection from Tsar Boris Godunov
Boris Godunov
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov was de facto regent of Russia from c. 1585 to 1598 and then the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. The end of his reign saw Russia descend into the Time of Troubles.-Early years:...

 against Kirghiz robbers and in 1604, Tomsk was established under a decree from the Tsar
Tsar
Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism...

. The Tsar sent 200 Cossack
Cossack
Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in what is today Ukraine and Southern Russia inhabiting sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins and who played an important role in the...

s under the command of Vasiliy Tyrkov and Gavriil Pisemsky to construct a fortress on the bank of the Tom River
Tom River
Tom is a river in Russia, a right tributary of the Ob. Its length is 540 miles . Its source is in the Abakan mountains , and it flows northward through the Kuznetsk Basin...

 overlooking what would become the city of Tomsk. Toyan ceded the land for the fortress to the Tsar.

In 1804, the government selected Tomsk to become the center for a new governorate
Guberniya
A guberniya was a major administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire usually translated as government, governorate, or province. Such administrative division was preserved for sometime upon the collapse of the empire in 1917. A guberniya was ruled by a governor , a word borrowed from Latin ,...

 which would include the modern cities of Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and the largest city of Siberia, with a population of 1,473,737 . It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District...

, Kemerovo
Kemerovo
Kemerovo is an industrial city in Russia, situated on the Tom River, east-northeast of Novosibirsk. It is the administrative center of Kemerovo Oblast, located in the major coal mining region of the Kuznetsk Basin...

, Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third largest city in Siberia, with the population of 973,891. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of...

, as well as the territories which are now in eastern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

. The new status brought development and the city grew quickly.

The discovery of gold in 1830 brought further development to Tomsk in the 19th century. However, when the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

 bypassed the city in favor of the village of Novonikolayevsk (now Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and the largest city of Siberia, with a population of 1,473,737 . It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District...

), development began to move south to connect with the railway. In time, Novosibirsk would surpass Tomsk in importance.

In the mid-19th century, one-fifth of the city's residents were exiles. However, within a few years, the city would be reinvented as the educational center of Siberia with the establishment of Tomsk State University
Tomsk State University
Tomsk State University , formerly Imperial Tomsk University, is the first university in Siberia—it was founded in 1878 in Tomsk, Russia. TSU opened in 1888 with only one department, the medical school...

 and Tomsk Polytechnic University
Tomsk Polytechnic University
Tomsk Polytechnic University in Tomsk, Russia, is the oldest technical university in Russia east of the Urals. The university was founded in 1896 and opened in 1900 as the Tomsk Technological Institute. In 1923, the school was renamed the Siberian Technological Institute and in 1930, the institute...

. By World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, every 12th resident of the city was a student, giving rise to the city's informal name - Siberian Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

.

After the Russian Revolution the city was a notable center of the White movement
White movement
The White movement and its military arm the White Army - known as the White Guard or the Whites - was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces.The movement comprised one of the politico-military Russian forces who fought...

, led by Anatoly Pepelyayev
Anatoly Pepelyayev
Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev was a White Russian general who led the Siberian armies of Admiral Kolchak during the Russian Civil War. His elder brother Viktor Pepelyayev served as Prime Minister in Kolchak's government.-Trans-Siberian march:...

 and Maria Bochkareva
Maria Bochkareva
Maria Leontievna Bochkareva was a Russian woman who fought in World War I and formed the Women's Battalion of Death.Of a peasant family, Maria Frolkova was born in the Novgorod Guberniya in 1889. She left home aged fifteen to marry Afanasy Bochkarev and they moved to Tomsk, Siberia where they...

, among others. After the capture by the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

, Tomsk was incorporated into West Siberian Krai
West Siberian Krai
West Siberian Krai was an early krai of Russian SFSR. By the 1937 All-Union Census, it had population of 6,433,527....

 and later into Novosibirsk Oblast
Novosibirsk Oblast
Novosibirsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia located in southwestern Siberia. Its administrative and economic center is the city of Novosibirsk. Population: -Overview:...

.

As in many Siberian cities, Tomsk became the new home for many factories relocated out of the War Zone at the beginning of the Second World War
Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941. Over 4.5 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a front., the largest invasion in the history of warfare...

. The resulting growth of the city led the Soviet government to establish a new Oblast
Tomsk Oblast
Tomsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . It lies in the southeastern West Siberian Plain, in the southwest of the Siberian Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Tomsk. Population:...

 centered on Tomsk.

Politics

Tomsk is governed by a mayor and a 33-member city Duma
Duma
A Duma is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. The State Duma in the Russian Empire and Russian Federation corresponds to the lower house of the parliament. Simply it is a form of Russian governmental institution, that was formed during the reign of the...

. The acting in the capacity of the mayor is Nikolay Nikolaychuk, the member of The United Russia Party
United Russia
United Russia is a centrist political party in Russia and the largest party in the country, currently holding 315 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. The party was founded in December 2001, through a merger of the Unity and Fatherland-All Russia parties...

. Current mayor Alexander Makarov
Alexander Sergeyevich Makarov
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Makarov is the mayor of Tomsk, Russia. He is currently suspended from his office, pending the outcome of a criminal case against him for corruption. Born in Slavyansk-na-Kubani, Krasnodar Krai, his family moved to Tomsk in his childhood...

 was suspended from his post pending the outcome of criminal proceedings against him. in russian Of the 33 members, 16 are elected from the eight double mandate
Plurality voting system
The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member constituencies...

 districts while 17 are chosen from party lists
Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation in elections in which multiple candidates are elected...

.

In the October 2005 local elections, United Russia was expected to cruise to a solid victory; however, the Pensioners Party
Russian Pensioners' Party
The Russian Pensioners' Party is a political party in Russia.The party was founded as the Party of Pensioners in 1997...

 put up a strong showing. The final count was:

Proportional representation

  • 19.42%—5 seats—Pensioners Party
  • 17.85%—5 seats—United Russia
  • 9.95%—3 seatsCommunist Party
    Communist Party of the Russian Federation
    The Communist Party of the Russian Federation is a Russian political party. It is the second major political party in the Russian Federation.-History:...

  • 8.57%—2 seatsUnion of Right Forces
    Union of Right Forces
    The Union of Right Forces, or SPS , was a Russian democratic opposition party associated with free market reforms, privatization, and the legacy of the 'Young Reformers' of the 1990s: Anatoly Chubais, Boris Nemtsov, and Yegor Gaidar. Nikita Belykh was the last party's leader...

    /Yabloko
    Yabloko
    The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Russian: Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko"; is a Russian social...

     coalition
  • 7.77%—2 seatsLiberal Democratic Party of Russia
    Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
    The Liberal Democratic Party of Russia , Liberal'no-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii is a political party in Russia. Since its founding in 1991, it has been led by the charismatic and controversial figure Vladimir Zhirinovsky...

  • 14.67%—Against all candidates

Double mandates

  • 10 seats—No party affiliation
  • 4 seats—United Russia
  • 1 seat—Pensioners Party
  • 1 seat—Liberal Democratic Party of Russia

Education

Tomsk has a number of prominent institutions of higher education, including:
  • Tomsk State University
    Tomsk State University
    Tomsk State University , formerly Imperial Tomsk University, is the first university in Siberia—it was founded in 1878 in Tomsk, Russia. TSU opened in 1888 with only one department, the medical school...

     is the oldest university
    University
    A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

     in Siberia
    Siberia
    Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

     (founded in 1878, opened in 1888). The archives of the Tomsk State University Library are ranked among the richest in Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    .
  • Tomsk Polytechnic University
    Tomsk Polytechnic University
    Tomsk Polytechnic University in Tomsk, Russia, is the oldest technical university in Russia east of the Urals. The university was founded in 1896 and opened in 1900 as the Tomsk Technological Institute. In 1923, the school was renamed the Siberian Technological Institute and in 1930, the institute...

    , founded in 1900 is the oldest technical university in Siberia.
  • Siberian State Medical University
    Siberian State Medical University
    The Siberian State Medical University is a medical school in Tomsk, Russia. Previously, it was called the Tomsk Medical Institute. Founded in 1888 as the Faculty of Medicine of the Imperial Tomsk University, this is one of Russia's oldest medical schools. The school is also the oldest medical...

    , one of the oldest and highest rated medical schools in Russia.
  • Tomsk State Pedagogical University
    Tomsk State Pedagogical University
    Tomsk State Pedagogical University is a university in Tomsk, Russia. It is the successor of the Tomsk Teaching Institute founded in July 1902. The University is the oldest professional establishment for training teachers in Siberia. It was opened on the basis of Tomsk Institute of teachers...

  • Tomsk State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics
    Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics
    The Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics is an engineering university in Tomsk, Russia. It was founded as the Tomsk Institute of Radioelctronics and Electrotechnology in April 1962...

  • Tomsk Economics and Law University
  • Tomsk Institute of Business
  • Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics Siberian Branch of RAS
    Russian Academy of Sciences
    The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

  • Institute of Petroleum Chemistry Siberian Branch of RAS
    Russian Academy of Sciences
    The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

  • Institute for Monitoring Climatic and Ecological Systems Siberian Branch of RAS
    Russian Academy of Sciences
    The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

  • Republican Scientific-Technical Center at ISPMS SB RAS
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences — one of the institutes of Tomsk Research Center of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is located in Tomsk Academic City. The Institute consists of 5 buildings with a...

  • Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of RAS
    Russian Academy of Sciences
    The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

  • High Current Electronics Institute Siberian Branch of RAS
    Russian Academy of Sciences
    The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

  • Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences — one of the institutes of Tomsk Research Center of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is located in Tomsk Academic City. The Institute consists of 5 buildings with a...



The large number of educational institutions in the city have contributed to making Tomsk a major center for Russia's IT industry. Tomsk was one of the first cities in Russia to possess Internet service, which became available in the early 1990s due to grants received by the universities and scientific cooperation.

Culture

Tomsk has many local cultural institutions including several dramatic theaters as well as a children's theater and a puppet theater. Major concert venues in the city include the Conservatory Concert hall and the Tomsk Palace of Sport. The city also has cultural centers dedicated to German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Polish
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 and Tatar languages and culture.

One of the city's prominent theaters was destroyed in an act of terrorism
Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition...

 in 1905. The Korolevsky Theater (built in 1884–85) was being used by a group of communist revolutionaries when the theater was attacked and set on fire by members of the Black Hundred
Black Hundred
The Black Hundreds , also known as the black-hundredists was an ultra-nationalist movement in Russia in the early 20th century. They were a supporter of the House of Romanov and opposed any retreat from the autocracy of the reigning monarch...

, a hard-line nationalist organization. Those who escaped the flames were gunned down by Black-Hundred members waiting outside the theatre. Estimates put the number of casualties at between 200 and 1000.

There are a number of museums in Tomsk devoted to various subjects, most notably art, local history and wood carving. There is also a 'Museum of Oppression' housed in a former KGB dungeon. Tomsk State University has a number of small museums with exhibits on archaeology
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

, paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology "old, ancient", ὄν, ὀντ- "being, creature", and λόγος "speech, thought") is the study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments...

, zoology
Zoology
Zoology |zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...

 as well as a herbarium
Herbarium
In botany, a herbarium – sometimes known by the Anglicized term herbar – is a collection of preserved plant specimens. These specimens may be whole plants or plant parts: these will usually be in a dried form, mounted on a sheet, but depending upon the material may also be kept in...

 and botanical garden
Botanical garden
A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...



As in many other cities in the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, the revolutionary government destroyed a number of old churches in the city including two that had existed since the 17th century. However, Tomsk managed to retain some of its churches by transforming them into machine shops, warehouses, archives, and even residential buildings. Since the end of the communist era some of the churches have been renovated and returned to their congregations.

Tomsk is well known for its intricate "gingerbread" decoration of its traditional wooden houses. However, the number of old homes in this style is decreasing due to fire, as the structures have little to no fire protection, and redevelopment.

Trud (Labor) Stadium
Trud Stadium (Tomsk)
Trud Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Tomsk, Russia. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FC Tom' Tomsk. The stadium holds 15,000.. It was built in 1929....

, in central Tomsk hosts FC Tom’, the city’s professional soccer club. The team’s 2004 promotion to the Russian Premier League
Russian Premier League
The Russian Premier League , currently called SOGAZ Russian Football Championship due to sponsorship reasons, is the top division of Russian football. There are 16 teams in the competition...

 gave local fans a chance to see some of the nation's best teams play at their local stadium.

Tomsk has many local media outlets including the TV2 television station, the radio stations Radio Siberia and Echo of Moscow in Tomsk
Echo of Moscow
Echo of Moscow is a Russian radio station based in Moscow, broadcasting in many Russian cities, in some of the former-Soviet republics , and via the Internet, which some observers describe as "the last bastion of free media in Russia"...

along with several newspapers (Tomskii Vestnik, Tomskaya Nedelya, Krasnoye Znamya and Vechernii Tomsk).

In April 2006 Tomsk received international media attention as the venue of a major summit on economic cooperation, held in the city between Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin served as the second President of the Russian Federation and is the current Prime Minister of Russia, as well as chairman of United Russia and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union of Russia and Belarus. He became acting President on 31 December 1999, when...

 and German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Angela Dorothea Merkel is the current Chancellor of Germany . Merkel, elected to the Bundestag from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, has been the chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union since 2000, and chairwoman of the CDU-CSU parliamentary coalition from 2002 to 2005.From 2005 to 2009 she led a...

.

Notable residents

  • Mikhail Bakunin
    Mikhail Bakunin
    Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a well-known Russian revolutionary and theorist of collectivist anarchism. He has also often been called the father of anarchist theory in general. Bakunin grew up near Moscow, where he moved to study philosophy and began to read the French Encyclopedists,...

     — prominent anarchist
  • Nikolai Borschevsky
    Nikolai Borschevsky
    Nikolai Konstantinovich Borschevsky is a retired professional ice hockey player from Russia, and the current head coach of the Atlant Moscow Oblast of the KHL. Nicknamed "Stick" due to his diminutive frame, he was a star in the Soviet Union and went on to play in the National Hockey League for the...

     — former NHL player
  • Nikolai Burdenko
    Nikolai Burdenko
    Nikolay Nilovich Burdenko was a Russian and Soviet surgeon, the founder of the Russian neurosurgery. He was Surgeon-General of the Red Army , an academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences , an academician and the first director of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR , a Hero of Socialist...

     — surgeon, the first president of the USSR’s Academy of Medical Science
  • Edison Denisov
    Edison Denisov
    Edison Vasilievich Denisov was a Russian composer of so called "Underground" — "Anti-Collectivist", "alternative" or "nonconformist" division in the Soviet music.-Biography:...

     — composer, musicologist, public servant
  • Nikolai Erdman
    Nikolai Erdman
    Nikolay Robertovich Erdman was a Soviet dramatist and screenwriter primarily remembered for his work with Vsevolod Meyerhold in the 1920s. His plays, notably The Suicide , form a link in Russian literary history between the satirical drama of Nikolai Gogol and the post-World War II Theatre of the...

     — dramatist
  • Abram Petrovich Gannibal
    Abram Petrovich Gannibal
    Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal or Ibrahim Hannibal or Abram Petrov , was brought to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer, governor of Reval and nobleman of the Russian Empire...

     — general of the Imperial Army, grandfather of Alexander Pushkin, famously called “The Negro of Peter the Great”, resided in Tomsk from December 1729 to February 1730
  • Leonid Govorov
    Leonid Govorov
    Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov was a Soviet military commander. An artillery officer, he joined the Red Army in 1920. He graduated from several Soviet military academies, including the Military Academy of Red Army General Staff. He participated in the Winter War as a senior artillery officer.In...

     — Marshal of the Soviet Union
    Marshal of the Soviet Union
    Marshal of the Soviet Union was the de facto highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ....

  • Nikolay Kamov
    Nikolay Kamov
    Nikolay Ilyich Kamov ) was the leading constructor of the Soviet/Russian Kamov helicopter design bureau. He was born in 1902 in Irkutsk and died on November 24, 1973.-External links:*http://avia.russian.ee/people/kamov/index_3.html...

     — helicopter designer and founder the Kamov Helicopter Company
    Kamov
    Kamov is a Russian rotor-winged aircraft manufacturing company that was founded by Nikolai Il'yich Kamov, who started building his first rotor-winged aircraft in 1929, together with N. K. Skrzhinskii...

  • Sasha Kaun
    Sasha Kaun
    Alexander Olegovich Kaun is a Russian professional basketball player. He played college basketball in the United States with the University of Kansas for four seasons, including the 2007–2008 national championship team...

     — University of Kansas
    University of Kansas
    The University of Kansas is a public research university and the largest university in the state of Kansas. KU campuses are located in Lawrence, Wichita, Overland Park, and Kansas City, Kansas with the main campus being located in Lawrence on Mount Oread, the highest point in Lawrence. The...

     basketball player
  • Sergei Kirov — revolutionary
    Revolutionary
    A revolutionary is a person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.-Definition:...

  • Nikolai Klyuev
    Nikolai Klyuev
    Nikolai Alekseevich Klyuev , was a notable Russian poet...

     — poet
  • Vladimir Korolenko
    Vladimir Korolenko
    Vladimir Galaktionovich Korolenko was a Ukrainian-Russian short story writer, journalist, human rights activist and humanitarian. His short stories were known for their harsh description of nature based on his experience of exile in Siberia...

     — writer
  • Valerian Kuybyshev — revolutionary
  • Yegor Ligachev
    Yegor Ligachev
    Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev is a Russian politician who was a high-ranking official in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union . Originally a protege of Mikhail Gorbachev, Ligachev became a challenger to his leadership.-Early life:...

     — second in command to Mikhail Gorbachev
    Mikhail Gorbachev
    Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

     (name pronounced “Ligachyov”)
  • Mikhail Mil
    Mikhail Mil
    Mikhail Leontyevich Mil ; 22 November 1909 - 31 January 1970 was a Soviet aerospace engineer. He was founder of the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, which is responsible for many well-known Soviet helicopter models.-Biography:...

     — helicopter designer, founder of the Mil Helicopter Company
    Mil
    -Organizations:* Mapuche International Link, an organization which campaigns on behalf of the Mapuche people* Member of the Chartered Institute of Linguists, a UK-based body serving professional linguists worldwide...

  • Nikolai Nikitin
    Nikolai Nikitin
    Nikolay Nikitkin was a structural designer and construction engineer of the Soviet Union, best known for his monumental structures.-Biography:...

     — scientist that built Ostankino tower
    Ostankino Tower
    Ostankino Tower is a free-standing television and radio tower in Moscow, Russia. Standing tall, Ostankino was designed by Nikolai Nikitin. It is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers, currently the tallest in Europe and 4th tallest in the world. The tower was the first free-standing...

     (tallest building in the world at that moment) and was engaged in the founding of the oblast
  • Vladimir Obruchev
    Vladimir Obruchev
    Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev was a Russian and Soviet geologist who specialized in the study of Siberia and Central Asia. He was also one of the first Russian science fiction authors.- Scientific research :...

     — geologist
    Geologist
    A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Geologists usually engage in studying geology. Geologists, studying more of an applied science than a theoretical one, must approach Geology using...

    , geographer
    Geographer
    A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.Although geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography...

    , writer, academic
  • Anatoly Pepelyayev
    Anatoly Pepelyayev
    Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev was a White Russian general who led the Siberian armies of Admiral Kolchak during the Russian Civil War. His elder brother Viktor Pepelyayev served as Prime Minister in Kolchak's government.-Trans-Siberian march:...

     — White Russian
    White movement
    The White movement and its military arm the White Army - known as the White Guard or the Whites - was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces.The movement comprised one of the politico-military Russian forces who fought...

     general
  • Ivan Petlin
    Ivan Petlin
    Ivan Petlin Petlin), a Siberian Cossack, was the first Russian to have reached China on an official mission . His expedition may have been the second European expedition to reach China from the west by an overland route since the fall of the Yuan Dynasty...

     — thought to be the first Russian to reach China on an official mission (1618)
  • Grigory Potanin
    Grigory Potanin
    Grigory Nikolayaevich Potanin was a Russian explorer of Inner Asia who aligned himself with the Siberian separatist movement...

     — geographer, ethnographer, publicist
    Publicist
    A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a public figure, especially a celebrity, a business, or for a work such as a book, film or album...

    , folklorist, oblast supporter
  • Alexander Radishchev
    Alexander Radishchev
    Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great. He brought the tradition of radicalism in Russian literature to prominence with the publication in 1790 of his Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow...

     — writer, philosopher
  • Nikolai Rukavishnikov
    Nikolai Rukavishnikov
    |Nikolai Nikolayevich Rukavishnikov was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew three space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 16, and Soyuz 33...

     — cosmonaut
  • Gustav Shpet — philosopher
  • Pyotr Sobolevsky
    Pyotr Sobolevsky
    Pyotr Stanislavovich Sobolevsky was a Soviet actor. He appeared in more than 50 films between 1926 and 1973.-Biography:Pyotr Sobolevsky was born on 22 May 1904 in Tomsk. Studied in the Factory of the Eccentric Actor under Grigori Kozintsev and Leonid Trauberg, in 1932 graduated from Leningrad...

     — actor
  • Konstantin Staniukovich
    Konstantin Staniukovich
    Konstantin Mikhailovich Staniukovich or Stanyukovich was a Russian writer, remembered today mostly for his stories of the Russian Imperial Navy.-Early life:...

     — writer
  • Kanysh Satpayev
    Kanysh Satpayev
    Kanysh Imantayuli Satpayev is one of the founders of Soviet metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences.-Biography:...

     — Soviet geologist
  • Herzl Yankl Tsam
    Herzl Yankl Tsam
    Herzl Yankl Tsam was a Jewish cantonist in the Russian Empire. Tsam appears to have been the only Jewish officer in the Tsarist army in the nineteenth century who who rose beyond the rank of a captain....

     — the highest ranked Jewish officer in the Tsarist army
  • Mikhail Usov
    Mikhail Usov
    Mikail Antonovich Usov was a Russian geologist and member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR...

     — geologist, academic
  • Alexandr Volkov — writer
  • Lyubov Yegorova
    Lyubov Yegorova
    Lyubov Ivanovna Yegorova , name also spelled Ljubov Jegorova, is a Russian former cross-country Olympic ski champion, many times world champion , winner of the World Cup and Hero of Russia. Lyubov Yegorova is an honorary citizen of Seversk , Saint Petersburg , and Tomsk Oblast...

     — six-time Olympic
    Winter Olympic Games
    The Winter Olympic Games is a sporting event, which occurs every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating...

     cross-country ski champion
  • Yakov Yurovsky
    Yakov Yurovsky
    Yakov Mikhaylovich Yurovsky was an Old Bolshevik best known as the chief executioner of Russia's last Tsar, Nicholas II and his family in 1918, during the Russian Civil War.- Early life :...

     — bolshevik
    Bolshevik
    The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists , derived from bol'shinstvo, "majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903....

    , chief executioner of the House of Romanov
  • Boris Yavorsky — doctor, Honorary of Russian Medicine

Energy generation

Tomsk has the oldest electrical grid in Siberia
Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

. There are three powerstations in the city:
  1. TEC-1 (launched on January 1, 1896)
  2. GRES-2 (launched on May 28, 1945)
  3. TEC-3 (launched on October 29, 1988)


Tomsk consumes more electric energy than it produces. The bulk of the city's electric and thermal energy is produced by the GRES-2 (281 MWt) and TEC-3 (140 MWt) powerplants, belonging to Tomskenergo Inc. Tomsk supplements its energy needs with electricity generated at Seversk
Seversk
Seversk is a closed city in Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Tomsk on the right bank of the Tom River. Population: Founded in 1949, it was known as Pyaty Pochtovy until 1954 and as Tomsk-7 until 1992. Town status was granted to it in 1956.The current Chair of the City Duma and Mayor...

.

Transportation

Road network:
  • northern branch of the M53 federal road;
  • road R 398 to Kolpashevo
    Kolpashevo
    Kolpashevo is a town and the administrative center of Kolpashevsky District of Tomsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Ob River. Population: It has existed since the beginning of the 17th century as a village. Town status was granted to it in 1938. It is served by the Kolpashevo Airport....

    ;
  • road R 400 to Mariinsk
    Mariinsk
    Mariinsk is a town in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located on the Kiya River northeast of Kemerovo. Population: 39,700 .It was founded in the 18th century as the village of Kiyskoye . In 1856, it was granted town status and renamed Mariinsk after Empress Maria, consort of Alexander II, one...

    ;
  • Northern latitude highway Perm
    Perm
    Perm is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov ....

    Surgut
    Surgut
    Surgut is a city in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River near its junction with the Irtysh River, the largest in the autonomous okrug and the second largest in Tyumen Oblast. Population:...

    —Tomsk (under construction).


There is a commercial and passenger port on the Tom River
Tom River
Tom is a river in Russia, a right tributary of the Ob. Its length is 540 miles . Its source is in the Abakan mountains , and it flows northward through the Kuznetsk Basin...

.

The city is served by Bogashevo Airport
Bogashevo Airport
Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is an airport that serves Tomsk, Russia. It is located near the Bogashevo village of the Tomsk raion of Tomsk Oblast.The airport opened in November 1967 and replaced another airport within the Kashtak district in the city of Tomsk...

.

Railways

Tomsk is a small railway centre that is situated on the Tayga
Tayga
Tayga is a town in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Kemerovo. Population: The town is a railroad junction on Trans-Siberian railroad, and also the starting point of the Tayga–Bely Yar branch of the Western Siberian railway, which provides access to Tomsk.-History:It was founded in...

 (Тайга́)—Bely Yar
Bely Yar
Bely Yar is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.Urban localities*Bely Yar, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, an urban-type settlement in Surgutsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra...

 line (Tomsk branch) of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...



The main line of the Trans-Siberian railway, built in 1896, passes 50 km south of Tomsk and bypasses Tomsk. Access from Tomsk to the Trans-Siberian railway is available via the town of Tayga
Tayga
Tayga is a town in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Kemerovo. Population: The town is a railroad junction on Trans-Siberian railroad, and also the starting point of the Tayga–Bely Yar branch of the Western Siberian railway, which provides access to Tomsk.-History:It was founded in...

. A regional rail
Regional rail
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city center, and the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis...

 line links Tomsk with Tayga.

The Tomsk Railway existed as an independent entity until 1961. At the present time, the Tomsk line belongs to the West-Siberian Railway, branch of Russian Railways Corp.. Trains link Tomsk to Anapa
Anapa
Anapa is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. It was originally a seaport for the Natkhuay tribe of the Adyghe people. Population: The town boasts a number of sanatoria and hotels...

, Asino
Asino
Asino is a town and the administrative center of Asinovsky District of Tomsk Oblast, Russia. Population: -History:It was founded in 1896 as Kseniyevsky transmigratory settlement; in 1930 the construction of the railway Tomsk–Kseniyevskoye started...

, Barnaul
Barnaul
-Russian Empire:Barnaul was one of the earlier cities established in Siberia. Originally chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, the site was founded by the wealthy Demidov family in the 1730s. In addition to the copper which had originally...

, Bely Yar
Bely Yar
Bely Yar is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.Urban localities*Bely Yar, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, an urban-type settlement in Surgutsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra...

, Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Novokuznetsk
Novokuznetsk
Novokuznetsk is a city in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia. It serves as the administrative center of Novokuznetsky District, but it is not administratively a part of it...

, Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is the third-largest city in Russia, after Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and the largest city of Siberia, with a population of 1,473,737 . It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District...

, Sochi
Sochi
Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated just north of Russia's border with the de facto independent republic of Abkhazia, on the Black Sea coast. Greater Sochi sprawls for along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains...

 and Tayga
Tayga
Tayga is a town in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Kemerovo. Population: The town is a railroad junction on Trans-Siberian railroad, and also the starting point of the Tayga–Bely Yar branch of the Western Siberian railway, which provides access to Tomsk.-History:It was founded in...

.

City transport

The main part of inner-city and suburban transportation is provided by marshrutka
Marshrutka
Marshrutka , from marshrutnoye taksi is a share taxi in the CIS countries, the Baltic states, and Bulgaria. Marshrutnoye taksi literally means routed taxicab...

 collective taxis, over 1000 marchrutkas, mainly PAZ) minibuses, serve about 40 bus routes.

Additionally, the city has 11 proper bus routes, 8 trolleybus lines (built in 1967) and five tram lines (constructed in 1949). Private taxis are also readily available.

Air transport

Tomsk Bogashevo Airport is served by the following airlines:
The airport is also served by charter flights operated by UTair and Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise
Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise
Alrosa Mirny Air Enterprise is an airline from Mirny, Russia. Its bases are at Mirny Airport and Polyarny Airport, with a focus city at Lensk Airport...


Twin towns/sister cities

Tomsk is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Monroe, Michigan
Monroe, Michigan
Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 20,733 at the 2010 census. It is the largest city and county seat of Monroe County. The city is bordered on the south by Monroe Charter Township, but both are politically independent. The city is located approximately 14 miles ...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

, United States Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

, Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

 Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for importing grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: -History:...

, Russia Smolensk
Smolensk
Smolensk is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River. Situated west-southwest of Moscow, this walled city was destroyed several times throughout its long history since it was on the invasion routes of both Napoleon and Hitler. Today, Smolensk...

, Russia Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...


External links

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