Thermodynamic state

Encyclopedia

A

system

that must be specified to reproduce the system. The individual parameters are known as

of intermediate states — the total

Examples include entropy

, pressure

, temperature

, volume

, etc.

Various thermodynamic diagrams have been developed to model the transitions between thermodynamic states.

, or impermeable

boundaries and not being acted upon by any external force field

s or inertial forces. Based on observation, scientists and engineers have postulated that the state of a simple system at equilibrium can be completely characterized by specifying two independent property variables, such as temperature

and pressure

, and the masses of the particular chemical species

in the system. Relying on this postulate, for many chemical species, phase

distribution and intrinsic phase properties such as density

, heat capacity

, thermal conductivity

, viscosity

, enthalpy

, and entropy

have been reproducibly measured and catalogued as functions of temperature and pressure.

**thermodynamic state**is a set of values of properties of a thermodynamicThermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a physical science that studies the effects on material bodies, and on radiation in regions of space, of transfer of heat and of work done on or by the bodies or radiation...

system

Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is a precisely defined macroscopic region of the universe, often called a physical system, that is studied using the principles of thermodynamics....

that must be specified to reproduce the system. The individual parameters are known as

**state variables**,**state parameters**or**thermodynamic variables**. Once a sufficient set of thermodynamic variables have been specified, values of all other properties of the system are uniquely determined. The number of values required to specify the state depends on the system, and is not always known.## State functions

**State functions**, also called**thermodynamic variables**,**state quantities**, or a**functions of state**describe the momentary condition of a thermodynamic system. Regardless of the path by which a system goes from one state to another — i.e., the sequenceSequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an ordered list of objects . Like a set, it contains members , and the number of terms is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, order matters, and exactly the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in the sequence...

of intermediate states — the total

*change*in any state variable will be the same. This means that the incremental changes in such variables are*exact differential*

s.Exact differential

A mathematical differential is said to be exact, as contrasted with an inexact differential, if it is of the form dQ, for some differentiable function Q....

s

Examples include entropy

Entropy

Entropy is a thermodynamic property that can be used to determine the energy available for useful work in a thermodynamic process, such as in energy conversion devices, engines, or machines. Such devices can only be driven by convertible energy, and have a theoretical maximum efficiency when...

, pressure

Pressure

Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

, temperature

Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic temperature is an "absolute" scale because it is the measure of the fundamental property underlying temperature: its null or zero point, absolute zero, is the...

, volume

Gas volume

In thermodynamics, the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state. The specific volume, an intensive property, is the system's volume per unit of mass. Volume is a function of state and is interdependent with other thermodynamic properties such as...

, etc.

Various thermodynamic diagrams have been developed to model the transitions between thermodynamic states.

## Equilibrium state

Systems found in nature are often dynamic and complex, but in many cases their states are amenable to description based on proximity to ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is that of a stable equilibrium state. Based on many observations, thermodynamics postulates that all systems having no effect on the external environment will change in such a way as to approach unique stable equilibrium states.## Closed simple system

A common example in which the state can be succinctly described is a closed simple system in an equilibrium state. A closed simple system is an ideal system devoid of any internal adiabatic, rigidRigid

In mathematics, a rigid collection C of mathematical objects is one in which every c ∈ C is uniquely determined by less information about c than one would expect....

, or impermeable

Permeation

Permeation, in physics and engineering, is the penetration of a permeate through a solid, and is related to a material's intrinsic permeability...

boundaries and not being acted upon by any external force field

Force field

A force field, sometimes known as an energy shield, force shield, or deflector shield is a concept of a field tightly bounded and of significant magnitude so that objects affected by the particular force relating to the field are unable to pass through the central axis of the field and reach the...

s or inertial forces. Based on observation, scientists and engineers have postulated that the state of a simple system at equilibrium can be completely characterized by specifying two independent property variables, such as temperature

Temperature

Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot...

and pressure

Pressure

Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

, and the masses of the particular chemical species

Chemical species

Chemical species are atoms, molecules, molecular fragments, ions, etc., being subjected to a chemical process or to a measurement. Generally, a chemical species can be defined as an ensemble of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a...

in the system. Relying on this postulate, for many chemical species, phase

Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space , throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, and chemical composition...

distribution and intrinsic phase properties such as density

Density

The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ . In some cases , density is also defined as its weight per unit volume; although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight...

, heat capacity

Heat capacity

Heat capacity , or thermal capacity, is the measurable physical quantity that characterizes the amount of heat required to change a substance's temperature by a given amount...

, thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity

In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a material's ability to conduct heat. It appears primarily in Fourier's Law for heat conduction....

, viscosity

Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear or tensile stress. In everyday terms , viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity...

, enthalpy

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system. It includes the internal energy, which is the energy required to create a system, and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure.Enthalpy is a...

, and entropy

Entropy

Entropy is a thermodynamic property that can be used to determine the energy available for useful work in a thermodynamic process, such as in energy conversion devices, engines, or machines. Such devices can only be driven by convertible energy, and have a theoretical maximum efficiency when...

have been reproducibly measured and catalogued as functions of temperature and pressure.