The Hunt for Red October
Overview
 
The Hunt for Red October is a 1984 novel by Tom Clancy
Tom Clancy
Thomas Leo "Tom" Clancy, Jr. is an American author, best known for his technically detailed espionage, military science, and techno thriller storylines set during and in the aftermath of the Cold War, along with video games on which he did not work, but which bear his name for licensing and...

. The story follows the intertwined adventures of Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

 captain Marko Aleksandrovich Ramius and CIA analyst Jack Ryan
Jack Ryan (Tom Clancy)
John Patrick "Jack" Ryan, Sr. is a fictional character created by Tom Clancy who appears in many of his novels.-Backstory:Born in 1950, Ryan's background is established in Patriot Games and Red Rabbit. His father was Emmet William Ryan , a police homicide lieutenant in Baltimore, and World War II...

.

The novel was originally published by the U.S. Naval Institute
United States Naval Institute
The United States Naval Institute , based at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense issues...

 Press — the first fictional work they ever published, and still their most successful.

The book is inspired by the failed mutiny
Mutiny
Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly situated individuals to openly oppose, change or overthrow an authority to which they are subject...

 on board the Storozhevoy by Valery Sablin
Valery Sablin
Captain 3rd Rank Valery Mikhailovich Sablin was a Soviet Navy officer and a member of the Communist Party. In November 1975, he led a mutiny on the Soviet warship the Storozhevoy in the hope of starting a Leninist political revolution in the Soviet Union...

 in 1975; however, the military response depicted in the novel is likely from events surrounding the sinking and subsequent salvaging of K-129.
Marko Alexandrovich Ramius, a Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

n who has risen to high levels of trust in the Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
The Soviet Navy was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy would have played an instrumental role in a Warsaw Pact war with NATO, where it would have attempted to prevent naval convoys from bringing reinforcements across the Atlantic Ocean...

, intends to defect to the United States with his officers and the experimental nuclear submarine Red October, a Typhoon-class
Typhoon class submarine
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s...

 submarine equipped with a revolutionary stealth propulsion system.
Quotations

Once more, we play our dangerous game, a game of chess against our old adversary - The American Navy. For forty years, your fathers before you and your older brothers played this game and played it well. But today the game is different. We have the advantage.

We will pass through the American patrols, past their sonar nets, and lay off their largest city, and listen to their rock and roll... while we conduct missile drills.

It reminds me of the heady days of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin when the world trembled at the sound of our rockets. Now they will tremble again - at the sound of our silence. The order is: engage the silent drive.

...the only sound they will hear is our laughter, while we sail to Havana, where the sun is warm, and so is the...comradeship.

[Today is] a great day, comrades! We sail into history!

When he reached the New World, Cortez burned his ships. As a result, his men were well motivated.

I miss the peace of fishing like when I was a boy. Forty years I've been at sea. A war at sea. A war with no battles, no monuments... only casualties. I widowed her the day I married her. My wife died while I was at sea, you know.

Give me a ping, Vasily. One ping only, please.

Anatoli, you're afraid of our fleet. Well, you should be. Personally, I'd give us one chance in three. More tea anyone?

Well, Sir, I was just thinking that perhaps there's another possibility we might consider. Ramius might be trying to defect.

Encyclopedia
The Hunt for Red October is a 1984 novel by Tom Clancy
Tom Clancy
Thomas Leo "Tom" Clancy, Jr. is an American author, best known for his technically detailed espionage, military science, and techno thriller storylines set during and in the aftermath of the Cold War, along with video games on which he did not work, but which bear his name for licensing and...

. The story follows the intertwined adventures of Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

 captain Marko Aleksandrovich Ramius and CIA analyst Jack Ryan
Jack Ryan (Tom Clancy)
John Patrick "Jack" Ryan, Sr. is a fictional character created by Tom Clancy who appears in many of his novels.-Backstory:Born in 1950, Ryan's background is established in Patriot Games and Red Rabbit. His father was Emmet William Ryan , a police homicide lieutenant in Baltimore, and World War II...

.

The novel was originally published by the U.S. Naval Institute
United States Naval Institute
The United States Naval Institute , based at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense issues...

 Press — the first fictional work they ever published, and still their most successful.

The book is inspired by the failed mutiny
Mutiny
Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly situated individuals to openly oppose, change or overthrow an authority to which they are subject...

 on board the Storozhevoy by Valery Sablin
Valery Sablin
Captain 3rd Rank Valery Mikhailovich Sablin was a Soviet Navy officer and a member of the Communist Party. In November 1975, he led a mutiny on the Soviet warship the Storozhevoy in the hope of starting a Leninist political revolution in the Soviet Union...

 in 1975; however, the military response depicted in the novel is likely from events surrounding the sinking and subsequent salvaging of K-129.

Plot

Marko Alexandrovich Ramius, a Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

n who has risen to high levels of trust in the Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
The Soviet Navy was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy would have played an instrumental role in a Warsaw Pact war with NATO, where it would have attempted to prevent naval convoys from bringing reinforcements across the Atlantic Ocean...

, intends to defect to the United States with his officers and the experimental nuclear submarine Red October, a Typhoon-class
Typhoon class submarine
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s...

 submarine equipped with a revolutionary stealth propulsion system. The propulsion system, described in the novel as an arrangement of pumpjets, is nicknamed the "Caterpillar Drive", and makes sonar
Sonar
Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect other vessels...

 detection extremely difficult. The result, immediately apparent to Jack Ryan and the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Joint Chiefs of Staff is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the President on military matters...

, is a strategic weapon platform that is capable of sneaking its way into American home waters and launching nuclear missiles with little or no warning.

The implications of Red October are not lost upon Ramius, either. In addition, several other factors spurred his decision to defect. In particular he is deeply disillusioned by the death of his wife, Natalia, at the hands of an incompetent doctor who, because he was the son of a Politburo
Politburo
Politburo , literally "Political Bureau [of the Central Committee]," is the executive committee for a number of communist political parties.-Marxist-Leninist states:...

 member, is not punished. Her untimely death, combined with Ramius' long-standing dissatisfaction with the callousness of the Soviet establishment towards its people and his fear of the destabilizing effect the Red October will have on world affairs, ultimately exhausts his tolerance for the failings of the Soviet system.

In the beginning of the novel, Ramius kills Political Officer Ivan Putin to ensure that he will not interfere with the defection. In a letter to Admiral Yuri Padorin (who was Natalia's uncle, and to whom Marko refers as "Uncle Yuri"), Ramius brazenly states that he is going to defect
Defection
In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. More broadly, it involves abandoning a person, cause or doctrine to whom or to which one is bound by some tie, as of allegiance or duty.This term is also applied,...

 to the United States, and that he is not joking. Similar to Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

' burning of his ships upon arrival in the New World, the letter destroys the possibility of return and leaves no option for his fellow conspirators but to press on or die.

The entire Soviet Northern Fleet (except for missile submarines, to avoid confusion) is deployed to sink the Red October. The Soviets conduct this operation on the pretext of a search-and-rescue mission, even though it is within 400 km (about 250 miles) of the American coast, claiming that the massive effort is because some of the missing personnel are close relatives of political VIPs.

An additional component to the storyline is the uncovering and turning of the Soviet agent codenamed Cassius, a senior aide to a senator in Washington
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency . The FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime...

, and using him to feed false information about the Americans' knowledge and response to the situation. This later becomes a very important element in the next chronological book, The Cardinal of the Kremlin
The Cardinal of the Kremlin
The Cardinal of the Kremlin is a novel by Tom Clancy, featuring his character Jack Ryan. It is a sequel to The Hunt for Red October, based on the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative and its Soviet equivalent, covering themes including intelligence gathering and counterintelligence,...

, in persuading a top official to defect to America.

Meanwhile, Jack Ryan, a former U.S. Marine
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 and naval historian turned high-level CIA analyst, flies from London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 to Langley
Langley
Langley is often used as a metonym in U.S. government and military parlance to refer to the Central Intelligence Agency, whose headquarters is located in Langley, Virginia.Langley may also refer to:-Persons:...

, Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

 to deliver British Intelligence's photographs of Red October to Deputy Director of Intelligence, and contacts a friend at the U.S. Naval Academy to find out that the new construction variations house the "Caterpillar" drive system. When the silent drive is engaged, the submarine disappears off the sonar of the USS Dallas
USS Dallas (SSN-700)
USS Dallas is a Los Angeles-class nuclear-powered attack submarine of the United States Navy. It is the Navy's second ship of that name, and the first to be named for the city of Dallas, Texas, although another two ships were scheduled but never completed.-Career:The contract to build Dallas was...

, a Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine
Los Angeles class submarine
The Los Angeles class, sometimes called the LA class or the 688 class, is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines that forms the backbone of the United States submarine fleet. With 43 submarines on active duty and 19 retired, the Los Angeles class is the most numerous nuclear powered...

, which was tracking Red October since she put to sea. Learning this and the subsequent launch of the entire Northern Fleet, Ryan deduces Ramius' plans. The U.S. high command agrees warily, while also planning for contingencies in case the Soviet Fleet has intentions other than those stated. As tensions rise between the U.S. and Soviet fleets, the crew of the Dallas discover a way to detect Red October. Ryan must contact the Red Octobers rebellious captain to prevent the loss of the submarine and its decisive technology. Through a combination of circumstances, Ryan becomes responsible for shepherding the submarine — and Ramius — to safety from the pursuing Soviet fleet.

The United States, in order to make the Soviets believe that the Red October has been destroyed, rescues its crew after Ramius fakes a shipboard emergency; he and the officers heroically stay aboard, claiming they are about to scuttle
Scuttling
Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.This can be achieved in several ways—valves or hatches can be opened to the sea, or holes may be ripped into the hull with brute force or with explosives...

 the submarine. Instead, a decommissioned U.S. ballistic missile submarine, the USS Ethan Allen
USS Ethan Allen (SSBN-608)
USS Ethan Allen , lead ship of her class, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for American Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen....

, is blown up underwater. A depth gauge taken from the main instrument panel of the Red October (with the appropriate serial number
Serial number
A serial number is a unique number assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value...

) is made to appear as if it was salvaged from the wreckage.

Although these events succeed in convincing Soviet observers that the Red October has been lost, a GRU
GRU
GRU or Glavnoye Razvedyvatel'noye Upravleniye is the foreign military intelligence directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation...

 agent masquerading as a ship's cook realizes what is actually happening. He attempts to destroy the Red October by igniting a missile rocket motor inside a launch tube and incinerating the boat. The agent kills one of Ramius's top officers, and wounds Ramius and a British officer who boarded the vessel with Ryan. Ryan attempts to persuade the agent to surrender rather than die in the explosion, but the deeply patriotic man refuses. It is only moments before the agent would have succeeded that Ryan manages to fatally shoot the agent in the submarine's missile compartment. Just in case he got enough wires connected, Ramius orders the missile jettisoned, adding to the American smokescreen.

Meanwhile Captain Viktor Tupolev, a Soviet Alfa-class
Alfa class submarine
The Soviet Union/Russian Navy Project 705 was a class of hunter/killer nuclear powered submarines. The class is also known by the NATO reporting name of Alfa...

 attack submarine commander and former student of Ramius, has been trailing what he at first believes is an Ohio-class
Ohio class submarine
The Ohio class is a class of nuclear-powered submarines used by the United States Navy. The United States has 18 Ohio-class submarines:...

 submarine. He and his political officer come to realize that it is the Red October, and proceed to pursue and engage it. The two U.S. submarines escorting the Red October are unable to fire due to rules of engagement
Rules of engagement
Rules of Engagement refers to those responses that are permitted in the employment of military personnel during operations or in the course of their duties. These rules of engagement are determined by the legal framework within which these duties are being carried out...

, and the Red October is struck by a torpedo but survives. After a tense standoff, Red October rams Tupolev's submarine broadside and sinks it, and the Americans escort Red October safely into the eight-ten dry dock in Norfolk, Virginia. Ramius and his officers are taken by to a CIA safehouse to begin their Americanization, while Ryan is commended by his superiors and flies back to his British post.

Influence on later Clancy books

The Hunt for Red October was the start of a loosely connected series by Tom Clancy which shared a rough continuity. Many of the characters in the novel, particularly Jack Ryan, went on to be the central character of many of Clancy's later novels. The ultimate fate of the Red October is explained in the Clancy novel The Cardinal of the Kremlin
The Cardinal of the Kremlin
The Cardinal of the Kremlin is a novel by Tom Clancy, featuring his character Jack Ryan. It is a sequel to The Hunt for Red October, based on the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative and its Soviet equivalent, covering themes including intelligence gathering and counterintelligence,...

, where it is revealed that the vessel was reverse engineered and stripped of all technology. The Red October was then sunk in a deep ocean trench off Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

 to avoid discovery. Both Ryan and Ramius are on hand to see the submarine off for the last time, and Ramius sentimentally comments, "He was a good ship."

Film

The novel was made into a commercially-successful movie in 1990, starring:
  • Sean Connery
    Sean Connery
    Sir Thomas Sean Connery , better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards and three Golden Globes Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930), better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy...

     as Marko Ramius
  • Alec Baldwin
    Alec Baldwin
    Alexander Rae "Alec" Baldwin III is an American actor who has appeared on film, stage, and television.Baldwin first gained recognition through television for his work in the soap opera Knots Landing in the role of Joshua Rush. He was a cast member for two seasons before his character was killed off...

     as Jack Ryan
    Jack Ryan (Tom Clancy)
    John Patrick "Jack" Ryan, Sr. is a fictional character created by Tom Clancy who appears in many of his novels.-Backstory:Born in 1950, Ryan's background is established in Patriot Games and Red Rabbit. His father was Emmet William Ryan , a police homicide lieutenant in Baltimore, and World War II...

  • James Earl Jones
    James Earl Jones
    James Earl Jones is an American actor. He is well-known for his distinctive bass voice and for his portrayal of characters of substance, gravitas and leadership...

     as Adm. James Greer
  • Scott Glenn
    Scott Glenn
    Theodore Scott Glenn is an American actor. His roles have included Wes Hightower in Urban Cowboy , astronaut Alan Shepard in The Right Stuff ,Emmett in Silverado , Commander Bart Mancuso in The Hunt for Red October , Jack Crawford in The Silence of the Lambs and The Wise Man in Sucker Punch -Early...

     as Cpt. Bart Mancuso
  • Sam Neill
    Sam Neill
    Nigel John Dermot "Sam" Neill, DCNZM, OBE is a New Zealand actor. He is well known for his starring role as paleontologist Dr Alan Grant in Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III....

     as Captain 2nd Rank Vasily Borodin
  • Jeffery Jones as Skip Tyler
  • Fred Thompson as Rear Adm. Joshua Painter


There were several differences between the novel and the film, including the Red October traveling up the Chesapeake Bay and near Tom Clancy's Calvert County waterfront home, and the prominence of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

, including HMS Invincible. The order of many events also has been changed. In the film version
The Hunt for Red October (film)
The Hunt for Red October is a 1990 thriller film based on the novel of the same name by Tom Clancy. It was directed by John McTiernan and stars Sean Connery as Captain Marko Ramius and Alec Baldwin as Jack Ryan...

, the "Caterpillar Drive" is described as a magnetohydrodynamic
Magnetohydrodynamics
Magnetohydrodynamics is an academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water or electrolytes...

 system, essentially, "a jet engine for the water".

Games

The novel also served as the basis for several computer and video games, as well as some board games.

In the card game Killer Bunnies, a limited edition card was made called "Red October".

The Hunt for Red October wargame
Wargaming
A wargame is a strategy game that deals with military operations of various types, real or fictional. Wargaming is the hobby dedicated to the play of such games, which can also be called conflict simulations, or consims for short. When used professionally to study warfare, it is generally known as...

, published in 1988 by TSR, Inc.
TSR, Inc.
Blume and Gygax, the remaining owners, incorporated a new company called TSR Hobbies, Inc., with Blume and his father, Melvin Blume, owning the larger share. The former assets of the partnership were transferred to TSR Hobbies, Inc....

 became one of the bestselling wargames of all time.

On June 2, 2009, the MMORPG
MMORPG
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game is a genre of role-playing video games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual game world....

 RuneScape
RuneScape
RuneScape is a fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game released in January 2001 by Andrew and Paul Gower, and developed and published by Jagex Games Studio. It is a graphical browser game implemented on the client-side in Java, and incorporates 3D rendering...

 released a quest
Quest (gaming)
A quest in role-playing video games — including massively multiplayer online role-playing games and their predecessors, MUDs — is a task that a player-controlled character or group of characters may complete in order to gain a reward...

 titled "The Hunt For Red Raktuber", which is loosely based on this story.

"Red November" by Fantasy Flight Games (2008) is a board game loosely based on The Hunt for Red October. The theme of the game is that a gnomish submarine (with very heavy Russian influence in style) is falling apart and the crew must repair the problems until rescue arrives.

Reception

The Hunt for Red October sold very well and launched Clancy's successful career as a novelist. President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 helped to fuel the success of The Hunt for Red October when he announced that he enjoyed the book at a televised press conference, calling it "unputdown-able" and a "perfect yarn."

Publication history

The hardback edition of The Hunt for Red October is the first and only novel
Novel
A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....

 published by the Naval Institute Press. Clancy had published a few articles in Proceedings of the Naval Institute, so it occurred to him to send the manuscript there. The press accepted the manuscript and sent a small advance. After the book received unexpectedly good reviews and praise from President Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

, the book became a bestseller
Bestseller
A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on lists of currently top selling titles that are based on publishing industry and book trade figures and published by newspapers, magazines, or bookstore chains. Some lists are broken down into classifications and...

. Clancy's later books were published by Penguin Putnam
G. P. Putnam's Sons
G. P. Putnam's Sons was a major United States book publisher based in New York City, New York. Since 1996, it has been an imprint of the Penguin Group.-History:...

.

The paperback edition was the first in a string of successful publications of technothrillers by Berkley Books
Berkley Books
Berkley Books is an imprint of Penguin Group that began as an independent company in 1955. It was established by Charles Byrne and Frederic Klein, who were working for Avon and formed "Chic News Company". They renamed it Berkley Publishing Co. in 1955. They soon found a niche in science fiction...

.

See also

  • Valery Sablin
    Valery Sablin
    Captain 3rd Rank Valery Mikhailovich Sablin was a Soviet Navy officer and a member of the Communist Party. In November 1975, he led a mutiny on the Soviet warship the Storozhevoy in the hope of starting a Leninist political revolution in the Soviet Union...

  • Crazy Ivan
  • Red October (submarine)
  • Soviet frigate Storozhevoy
    Soviet frigate Storozhevoy
    Storozhevoy was a Soviet Navy 1135 Burevestnik-class anti-submarine frigate . The ship was attached to the Soviet Baltic Fleet and based in Riga...

  • United States Naval Institute v. Charter Communications, Inc.
    United States Naval Institute v. Charter Communications, Inc.
    United States Naval Institute v. Charter Communications, Inc., 936 F.2d 692 is a U.S. federal court case. A contract case, it discusses the impropriety of punitive damages and favoring the theory of efficient breach....


External links


Lithuanian edition: "Raudonojo spalio medžioklė", published by Vaga Publishers Ltd. in 2003, translated by Romualdas Grigaliunas (1)
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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