Telenor
Overview
 
Telenor Group is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, with headquarters located at Fornebu
Fornebu
Fornebu is a peninsular area in the suburban municipality of Bærum in Norway, bordering western parts of Oslo.Oslo Airport, Fornebu served as the main airport for Oslo and the country since before WWII and until the evening of October 7, 1998, when it was closed down...

, close to Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

. Today, Telenor Group is mostly an international wireless carrier with operations in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

, Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

 and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, working predominantly under the Telenor brand. At the end of 2010, its 203 million subscribers made it one of the largest mobile phone operators in the world.
Encyclopedia
Telenor Group is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, with headquarters located at Fornebu
Fornebu
Fornebu is a peninsular area in the suburban municipality of Bærum in Norway, bordering western parts of Oslo.Oslo Airport, Fornebu served as the main airport for Oslo and the country since before WWII and until the evening of October 7, 1998, when it was closed down...

, close to Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

. Today, Telenor Group is mostly an international wireless carrier with operations in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

, Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

 and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, working predominantly under the Telenor brand. At the end of 2010, its 203 million subscribers made it one of the largest mobile phone operators in the world. In addition, it has extensive broadband and TV distribution operations in four Nordic Countries
Nordic countries
The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland...

, and a 10-year-old research and business line for Machine-to-Machine technology.

Telegrafverket

Telenor started off in 1855 as a state-operated monopoly
Monopoly
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity...

, named Telegrafverket as a provider of telegraph services. The first ideas for a telegraph were launched within the Royal Norwegian Navy
Royal Norwegian Navy
The Royal Norwegian Navy is the branch of the Norwegian Defence Force responsible for naval operations. , the RNoN consists of approximately 3,700 personnel and 70 vessels, including 5 heavy frigates, 6 submarines, 14 patrol boats, 4 minesweepers, 4 minehunters, 1 mine detection vessel, 4 support...

 in 1848, but by 1852 the plans were public and the Parliament of Norway decided on a plan for constructing the telegraph throughout the country. Televerket began by building from Christiania
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 (now Oslo) to Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 (Norway was at that time in a union with Sweden) as well as between Christiania and Drammen
Drammen
Drammen is a city in Buskerud County, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the eastern and most populated part of Norway.-Location:...

. By 1857 the telegraph had reached Bergen
Bergen
Bergen is the second largest city in Norway with a population of as of , . Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland county. Greater Bergen or Bergen Metropolitan Area as defined by Statistics Norway, has a population of as of , ....

 (west coast) via Sørlandet
Sørlandet
Southern Norway is the name of the geographical region of the Skagerrak coast of southern Norway consisting of the two counties of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder...

 (south coast) and by 1871 it had reached Kirkenes
Kirkenes
is a town in the municipality of Sør-Varanger in the county of Finnmark in the far northeast of Norway...

 (north coast). Cable connections were opened to Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 in 1867 and to Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 in 1869. The telegraph was most important for the merchant marine who now could use the electric telegraph to instantly communicate between different locations, and get a whole new advantage within logistics
Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging, and...

.

Technology

The first telephone service in Norway was offered in 1878 between Arendal
Arendal
is a town and municipality in the county of Aust-Agder, Norway. Arendal belongs to the traditional region of Sørlandet.The town of Arendal is the administrative center the municipality and also of Aust-Agder county...

 and Tvedestrand
Tvedestrand
is a town and municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative center is the village of Tvedestrand....

, while the first international telephone service between Christiania and Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

 was offered in 1893. Automation of the telephone system was started in 1920 and completed in 1985. In 1946 the first Telex service
Telex
Telex may refer to:* Telex , , a communications network** Teleprinter, the device used on the above network* Telex , a Belgian pop group...

 was offered, and in 1976 satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

 telephone connections to oil platform
Oil platform
An oil platform, also referred to as an offshore platform or, somewhat incorrectly, oil rig, is a lаrge structure with facilities to drill wells, to extract and process oil and natural gas, and to temporarily store product until it can be brought to shore for refining and marketing...

s in the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

 were installed. In 1980 the first steps to digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

ise the telephone network were taken.

Televerket opened its first manual mobile telephone system in 1966, being replaced with the automatic NMT system
Nordic Mobile Telephone
NMT is the first fully automatic cellular phone system...

 in 1981 and the enhanced NMT-900 in 1986. Norway was the first country in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 to get an automatic mobile telephone system. The digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

 GSM system
Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM , is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe technologies for second generation digital cellular networks...

 came into use in 1993; the GSM standard was developed in Norway by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology , commonly known as NTNU, is located in Trondheim. NTNU is the second largest of the eight universities in Norway, and, as its name suggests, has the main national responsibility for higher education in engineering and technology...

 (NTNU), but no mobile phone manufacturers emerged in the country. The third generation of mobile technology
3G
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 specifications by the International Telecommunication Union...

 with UMTS system
Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM , is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe technologies for second generation digital cellular networks...

 began full operation 2004. The Opera
Opera (web browser)
Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by Opera Software with over 200 million users worldwide. The browser handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting on IRC, downloading files via BitTorrent,...

 web browser
Web browser
A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content...

 was created in 1994 by Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner
Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner
Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner is the founder and former CEO of Opera Software. He and Geir Ivarsøy were part of a research group at the Norwegian state phone company where they developed browsing software called MultiTorg Opera...

 and Geir Ivarsøy
Geir Ivarsøy
Geir Ivarsøy was the lead programmer at Opera Software. He and Jon von Tetzchner were part of a research group at the Norwegian state phone company where they developed browsing software called MultiTorg Opera...

 during their tenure at Telenor. Opera Software
Opera Software
Opera Software ASA is a Norwegian software company, primarily known for its Opera family of web browsers with over 220 million users worldwide. Opera Software is also involved in promoting Web standards through participation in the W3C. The company has its headquarters in Oslo, Norway and is...

 was established in 1995 after the pair went on to continue development of their browser.

Deregulation and internationalisation

The corporation changed its name to Televerket
Televerket
Televerket is the name of two government telecommunications agencies:*Televerket , former name of Swedish company Telia, later merged to TeliaSonera.*Televerket, former name of Norwegian company Telenor...

 in 1969. In 1994, the then Norwegian Telecom was established as a public corporation. The authorities wanted to deregulate the telecom sector in Norway, and sector by sector was deregulated between 1994 to 1998. An attempt to merge Telenor with its counterpart in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, Telia
TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera AB is the dominant telephone company and mobile network operator in Sweden and Finland. The company has operations in other countries in Northern, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Spain, with a total of 150 million mobile customers...

, failed in 1999, while both still were owned by their respective governments. On December 4, 2000 the company was partially privatised and listed on Oslo Stock Exchange
Oslo Stock Exchange
The Oslo Stock Exchange serves as the main market for trading in the shares of Norwegian companies. It opens at 9:00am and closes 5:30pm local time...

 and NASDAQ
NASDAQ
The NASDAQ Stock Market, also known as the NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange. "NASDAQ" originally stood for "National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations". It is the second-largest stock exchange by market capitalization in the world, after the New York Stock Exchange. As of...

. The privatisation gave the company NOK
Norwegian krone
The krone is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories. The plural form is kroner . It is subdivided into 100 øre. The ISO 4217 code is NOK, although the common local abbreviation is kr. The name translates into English as "crown"...

 15,6 billion in new capital
Capital (economics)
In economics, capital, capital goods, or real capital refers to already-produced durable goods used in production of goods or services. The capital goods are not significantly consumed, though they may depreciate in the production process...

, the Government of Norway owning 77.7% of the company after the privatisation. By 2006 the governments ownership has been reduced to 53%.

In the second half of the 1990s, Telenor became involved in mobile operations in a number of countries: Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (1994), Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 (1997), Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 (1998), Malaysia (1999), Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 and Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 (2000), Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 (2002), Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

 (2004), Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 (2004), Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 (2006). Operations in Greece, Ireland and Germany were sold in 1999/2000 and profits were re-invested in the emerging markets. In October 2005 Telenor acquired Vodafone
Vodafone
Vodafone Group Plc is a global telecommunications company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest mobile telecommunications company measured by revenues and the world's second-largest measured by subscribers , with around 341 million proportionate subscribers as of...

 Sweden, changing the name to Telenor in April 2006. On 31 July 2006, Telenor acquired 100 per cent share of mobile operator Mobi 63, one of two mobile operations existing in that moment in Serbia for Euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

 1.513 billion.

Operations

Telenor offers a full range of telecommunication services in Norway, including mobile and fixed telephony as well as Internet access and content. Telenor still dominates the market place in Norway. However, competition has at times been intense in the mobile market and ADSL market, but Telenor remains the largest company in both sectors.

Telenor holds a prominent position in the Scandinavia
Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

n Broadband and TV market, both with regard to the number of subscribers and to the extent of coverage. The TV distribution is branded Canal Digital
Canal Digital
Canal Digital is a Scandinavian television distributor and internet service provider that was founded in March 1997 as a joint venture between the French pay-TV company Canal+ and the Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor...

.

Telenor used to provide a range of services related to satellite communication, including voice
Voice
Voice may refer to:* Human voice* Voice control or voice activation* Writer's voice* Voice acting* Voice vote* Voice message-In film:* Voice , a 2005 South Korean film* The Voice , a 2010 Turkish horror film directed by Ümit Ünal...

, television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 and data
Data
The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which...

 before its Telenor Satellite Services division was purchased by Vizada
Vizada
Vizada is a worldwide satellite communications provider. Vizada operates land earth stations that connect satellite communications to terrestrial networks. Vizada provides both mobile and fixed satellite telecommunications to a variety of technical industries in the maritime, land based and aero...

 in 2007.

Telenor Maritime Radio
Telenor Maritime Radio
Telenor Maritim Radio is a subsidiary of Telenor that is responsible for the infrastructure for maritime radio communication in Norway, and also includes five manned coast radio stations whose primary purpose is to monitor the maritime radio traffic Telenor Maritim Radio is a subsidiary of Telenor...

 is responsible for the infrastructure for maritime radio communication in Norway, and also includes five manned coast radio stations whose primary purpose is to monitor the maritime radio traffic (over e.g. VHF
Marine VHF radio
Marine VHF radio is installed on all large ships and most seagoing small craft. It is used for a wide variety of purposes, including summoning rescue services and communicating with harbours, locks, bridges and marinas, and operates in the VHF frequency range, between 156 to 174 MHz...

 and MF
Mediumwave
Medium wave is the part of the medium frequency radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. For Europe the MW band ranges from 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz...

 bands) and to assist marine vessels in distress.

Telenor Cinclus
Telenor Cinclus
Telenor Cinclus is a Norwegian supplier of automatic meter reading. Products are marketed as Cinclus Technology. The company is owned by Telenor and Skagerak Energi , the latter being a subsidiary of Statkraft. Telenor Cinclus is based at Fornebu outside Oslo, Norway...

 develops and sells products related to Automatic Meter Reading
Automatic meter reading
Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water meter or energy metering devices and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing.This technology mainly saves utility...

 and other technologies related to machine to machine communication.

Telenor Research and Innovation (Telenor R&I, prior to September 1, 2006 known as Telenor R&D) is Norway's largest research establishment within Information and Communications Technology (ICT), with more than 200 full-time researchers. Telenor R&I has research facilities in Fornebu
Fornebu
Fornebu is a peninsular area in the suburban municipality of Bærum in Norway, bordering western parts of Oslo.Oslo Airport, Fornebu served as the main airport for Oslo and the country since before WWII and until the evening of October 7, 1998, when it was closed down...

, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, Trondheim
Trondheim
Trondheim , historically, Nidaros and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. With a population of 173,486, it is the third most populous municipality and city in the country, although the fourth largest metropolitan area. It is the administrative centre of...

 and Tromsø
Tromsø
Tromsø is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Tromsø.Tromsø city is the ninth largest urban area in Norway by population, and the seventh largest city in Norway by population...

. In 2009 Telenor R&I was merged with Global Coordination team, and is now part of the executive entity Telenor Business Development - headed by EVP Morten Karlsen Sørby.

Telenor also owns 51,8% of EDB Business Partner
EDB Business Partner
EDB Business Partner , branded as EDB is a Norwegian information technology company that supplies a vast array of services relating to computing, including operation, outsourcing and online banking. The company is headquartered in Oslo and listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange. Telenor owns 51.3% of EDB...

 that offers a wide range of IT-services. The company is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange
Oslo Stock Exchange
The Oslo Stock Exchange serves as the main market for trading in the shares of Norwegian companies. It opens at 9:00am and closes 5:30pm local time...

.

Telenor has sold a number of divisions after its privatisation, including Bravida, the former installation division and Findexa, now part of Eniro that is responsible for telephone directories
Telephone directory
A telephone directory is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory...

. Also, the browser vendor Opera Software
Opera Software
Opera Software ASA is a Norwegian software company, primarily known for its Opera family of web browsers with over 220 million users worldwide. Opera Software is also involved in promoting Web standards through participation in the W3C. The company has its headquarters in Oslo, Norway and is...

 origined in Telenor's R&D department.

Mobile

At year-end 2005, Telenor held controlling interests in mobile operations in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

, Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, Malaysia, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Telenor also holds minority interests in mobile operations in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, having recently sold a minority share in Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

.

In accordance with Telenor's strategy of consolidating its position in international mobile by obtaining control of selected international mobile operations, and in order to maximize the benefit of cross-border synergies and increase overall profitability, Telenor also made new acquisitions in 2005.

In October 2006, Telenor entered into an agreement with Vodafone Group for the acquisition of subsidiary Vodafone Sweden
Vodafone Sweden
Vodafone Sweden is one of the old names of the Swedish mobile network of Telenor, now called Telenor Sverige. Prior to becoming Vodafone, it was known as Europolitan.-History:...

 for a consideration of NOK 8,170 million, including assumption of debt.

Effective from 26 October 2005, Telenor increased its economic stake in Total Access Communication (DTAC
DTAC
Total Access Communication Public Company Limited is the second largest GSM mobile phone provider in Thailand . Dtac is owned by Telenor both directly and indirectly...

) in Thailand to 56.9 per cent. Following further transactions based on mandatory tender offers, Telenor's economic stake was raised to 69.3 per cent by year-end 2005.

Telenor's mobile commitments in Asia and Eastern and Central Europe are becoming increasingly important and to ensure optimal follow-up, Telenor has appointed dedicated Executive Vice Presidents for these regions. Telenor has also strengthened the co-ordination of operational and human resources across all the countries in which the group has operations through the appointment of two new Executive Vice Presidents to the Group Executive Management.

During 2005, Telenor successfully extracted a number of cross-border synergies across the group. Common technologies for optimal spectrum and network utilisation have been successfully implemented at each of the group's operations, and Telenor maintains its focus on adopting new technologies to improve service quality and reduce costs.

In order to harmonise the group's customer orientation across all markets, Telenor has developed a common segmentation model that enables more effective targeting, while also providing greater insight into the global markets. Telenor has developed a framework that provides affiliates with a proven concept of developing target segmented offerings and optimised go-to-market strategies.

Revenues from voice services include traffic charges, interconnection fees, and roaming charges. All of Telenor's mobile operations derive the greatest share of their total revenues from voice services, and Telenor continues to focus on developing new products, services and initiatives to increase Telenor's customer base and encourage higher usage.

Fixed-line

In Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, Telenor provides communications solutions on a retail basis to both residential and business customers. Offers include analogue (PSTN) and digital (ISDN) fixed-line telephony, as well as broadband voice services over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Internet access
Internet access
Many technologies and service plans for Internet access allow customers to connect to the Internet.Consumer use first became popular through dial-up connections in the 20th century....

 via PSTN/ISDN and digital subscriber line
Digital Subscriber Line
Digital subscriber line is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ,...

s (xDSL), value-added services and leased lines. Norway has one of the highest numbers of DSL lines per capita, currently at over 80% of households and steadily growing.

Through the acquisitions of Bredbandsbolaget
Bredbandsbolaget
Bredbandsbolaget is a Swedish Internet service provider owned by Telenor. It was founded in 1998 with a focus on high-speed Internet connection for homes and businesses using optical fiber. It is the second largest ISP in Sweden ....

 and Cybercity, made in July 2005 for NOK 4.5 billion and NOK 1.3 billion, respectively, Telenor has gained a strong position in the fast-growing broadband markets in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 and Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

. Bredbandsbolaget is Sweden's second largest provider of broadband services, offering full triple-play
Triple play (telecommunications)
In telecommunications, triple play service is a marketing term for the provisioning of two bandwidth-intensive services, high-speed Internet access and television, and a less bandwidth-demanding service, telephone, over a single broadband connection. Triple play focuses on a combined business...

with high-speed Internet, VoIP and Internet Protocol (IP) television services on an all-IP fibre and xDSL network. Cybercity is Denmark's third largest broadband supplier, providing xDSL-based Internet access and voice services to both residential and business customers.

On 8 February 2006, Telenor increased its shareholding in the Swedish residential voice and broadband provider Glocalnet AB by 13.5 per cent, for a consideration of SEK 136 million (NOK 118 million), to secure a 50.1 per cent ownership interest. The acquisition triggered a mandatory offer for all outstanding shares in Glocalnet AB. This offer was valid until 21 April 2006. As at 28 March 2006, Telenor holds a 96.6 per cent ownership interest in Glocalnet.

In the fourth quarter of 2005, Telenor disposed of its operations in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 and Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

 with a loss of NOK 63 million.

In 2009, Norwegian performing rights agency TONO and the Norwegian section of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI Norge) attempted to force Telenor to block the Pirate Bay BitTorrent website. After several court judgements in favour of the ISP, the case was finally dropped, with an admission from TONO that under Norwegian law the ISP cannot be compelled to block access to the site.

Machine-to-machine

Telenor started exploring the M2M
M2M
M2M is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below:-Computing:* M2M , an implementation of the Object Management Group's QVT standard for model transformation* Many-to-many , as an entity-relationship model...

 potentials in 2000, when Telenor R&D established a project both aimed at technology, services and business models. This was further spurred when Telenor acquired the Swedish mobile company Europolitan, which contained parts of Vodafone
Vodafone
Vodafone Group Plc is a global telecommunications company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest mobile telecommunications company measured by revenues and the world's second-largest measured by subscribers , with around 341 million proportionate subscribers as of...

's research capabilities in the area. As a result, two separate companies have been established: Telenor Connexion in Karlskrona
Karlskrona
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010. It is also the capital of Blekinge County. Karlskrona is known as Sweden's only baroque city and is host to Sweden's only remaining naval base and the headquarters of the...

 (aiming higher up in the M2M value chain), and Telenor Objects
Telenor Objects
Telenor Objects AS is a Norwegian service provider within Machine-to-Machine communication, and constitutes one of the two Telenors strategic initiatives to catch the market for M2M, or connected objects. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Telenor ASA, the incumbent telecommunications company in...

 (aiming further down in the value chain). The initiative has resulted in a substantial market share of Europe's fast-growing M2M market and is being used by Nissan in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 to connect its customers Electric Cars.

Broadcast

Telenor also operates the national terrestrial broadcast network in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, through its subsidiary Norkring
Norkring
is a Norwegian company owned by Telenor. The Norwegian part of the company is responsible for the terrestrial broadcast of radio and television channels in Norway. The company operates 6,500 antennas and 47 main stations. Norkring has built out the DTT and operates the DTT network in Norway with 5...

. It is also part owner of Norges Televisjon
Norges televisjon
Norges Televisjon AS, or NTV, is the company that holds the concession to operate the digital terrestrial television network in Norway. The infrastructure is owned by the Telenor-subsidiary Norkring, while the content is provided by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation and RiksTV. The company...

 and the content provider RiksTV
RiksTV
RiksTV is the distributor of pay television in the Norwegian digital terrestrial television network. It is owned by Norges televisjon as, a consortium owned by Norsk rikskringkasting, the TV 2 Group and Telenor....

. Telenor is also the leading provider of satellite broadcasting services in the Nordic region, utilising three geostationary satellites. Telenor's key objective is to further strengthen Broadcast's position in the Nordic region.

Thor
Thor (satellite)
Thor is a family of satellites designed, launched and tested by Hughes Space and Communications for British Satellite Broadcasting , and were used for Britain's Direct Broadcast Service. Thor is owned by Telenor...

 is a satellite-family owned by Telenor. On 11 February 2008 the THOR 5 satellite was launched into geostationary orbit by a Proton rocket
Proton rocket
Proton is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches. The first Proton rocket was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2011, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight...

. The launch was provided by International Launch Services
International Launch Services
International Launch Services is a U.S.-Russian joint venture with exclusive rights to the worldwide sale of commercial Proton rocket launch services from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.- Ownership :...

 using a launch vehicle
Launch vehicle
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure....

 built by Khrunichev Space Center. Cato Halsaa, CEO of Telenor Satellite Broadcasting, said the launch, "Demonstrates our commitment to the satellite industry and our firm belief that satellites will continue to play an important role as a distribution platform for TV entertainment." Telenor operates three satellites from its satellite control center at Fornebu (Thor2, Thor3 & Thor5), with Thor6 being launched in 2009.

Telenor Broadcast provides TV distribution services to more than three million households and businesses in the Nordic region, offering basic tier, "minipay" and premium pay-TV services to subscribers with Direct To Home (DTH
DTH
DTH may refer to:* The Daily Tar Heel, a student newspaper at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill* Dance Theatre of Harlem, New York City* Danmarks Tekniske Højskole, a previous name for the Technical University of Denmark...

) satellite dishes. In Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 and Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, Telenor also offers basic tier TV services, pay-TV and Internet services to cable TV subscribers, and in Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, the same services are marketed through a cable network; OE Kabel TV, acquired in November 2005. In Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, Telenor offers premium pay-TV services to subscribers with access to digital terrestrial television (DTT
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is the technological evolution of broadcast television and advance from analog television, which broadcasts land-based signals...

). Telenor also offers TV services through privately owned satellite master antenna TV networks (SMATV), which serve multiple dwellings such as housing associations and antenna unions.

Telenor's wholly owned subsidiary Canal Digital
Canal Digital
Canal Digital is a Scandinavian television distributor and internet service provider that was founded in March 1997 as a joint venture between the French pay-TV company Canal+ and the Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor...

 is the leading TV content distributor in the Nordic region, offering a wide range of national and international TV channels to households that rely on DTH, cable
Cable
A cable is two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry...

, DTT
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is the technological evolution of broadcast television and advance from analog television, which broadcasts land-based signals...

 or SMATV for their reception of television services.

International activities and markets

Approximately half of Telenor's employees work outside Norway.

Bangladesh

Launched in 1997, Grameenphone
Grameenphone
Grameenphone , widely known as GP, is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh. With more than 32 million subscribers , Grameenphone is the largest cellular operator in the country...

 was the first Telenor venture in the Asian telecom market.

Today, Grameenphone is the largest mobile provider in Bangladesh, serving more than 28 million subscribers as of third quarter 2010; an increase of 6.7 million since third quarter 2009. Telenor and its partners have boosted network capacity and extended coverage to new and often remote areas, connecting millions of previously unconnected people. Telenor holds 55.8 per cent of Grameenphone. Grameenphone started trading its shares on the stock exchanges in Dhaka and Chittagong on November 16, 2009. The headquarters are located in Dhaka.

Denmark

In Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 Telenor owns the following companies: Telenor Denmark
Telenor Denmark
Telenor Denmark is a Danish mobile telephone operator with a customer base in excess of 1.4 million customers. Since 12 February 2004, it has been a subsidiary of the Norwegian mobile telephone company Telenor. Before 15 June 2009 was known as Sonofon....

 which is Denmark's second largest provider of mobile telephony with 1.8 million subscribers and which provides IP telephony and broadband and has 280.000 customers. Tele2
Tele2
Tele2 AB is a major European telecommunications operator, with about 34 million customers in 11 countries. It serves as a fixed-line telephone operator, cable television provider, mobile phone operator and Internet service provider.- Overview :...

 which provides telephony and internet. CBB Mobil which provides low cost prepaid mobile telephony.

On 15 June 2009 Sonofon, Cybercity and Tele2 were unified under one international brand - Telenor.

Furthermore the digital distributor of TV-channels Canal Digital
Canal Digital
Canal Digital is a Scandinavian television distributor and internet service provider that was founded in March 1997 as a joint venture between the French pay-TV company Canal+ and the Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor...

 owned by Telenor is also present in Denmark.

Hungary

The company offers mobile telephony, has 3 million subscribers and a market share of 33%.

Telenor Hungary owns Digitania Zrt., a sms company which was run by the Dutch politician James Sharpe
James Sharpe (Dutch politician)
James Emanuel Johan Willem Sharpe is a Dutch former politician, businessman and athlete of Aruban descent. As a member of the Party for Freedom he was an MP from June 17 till November 19, 2010...

, and which was fined twice by the Hungarian competition authority GVH for misleading customers

India

Uninor
Uninor
Uninor is a mobile operator in India. The company holds Unified Access Service licences to offer mobile telephony services in each of India’s 22 telecom circles, and has received spectrum to roll out services in 21 of these...

 had started its mobile services on 3 December 2009, in 21 of the 22 circles in India. Telenor has acquired a 67.25% equity stake in Unitech Wireless, which has the requisite government approvals and licenses to provide mobile services pan-India. It has rolled out its network nation-wide under the brand name Uninor. While the network is growing, it has run into numerous problems with the acquisition and is currently fighting significant charges that have been levelled against it in the biggest scam in Indian history - the 2G scam.

Malaysia

Telenor holds a 49% stake in DiGi Telecommunications, Malaysia's third largest mobile telephony company.

Montenegro

Telenor Montenegro is Telenor's subsidiary in Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

 and offers mobile telephony.

Pakistan

Telenor Pakistan
Telenor (Pakistan)
Telenor Pakistan is a Pakistani GSM cellular service provider, and is a subsidiary of Telenor, Norway.-History:Telenor acquired the license for providing GSM services in Pakistan in April 2004, and had launched its services commercially in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Karachi on March 15, 2005, and...

 is a wholly owned subsidiary that started operations on 15 March 2005 and holds one of six mobile licences in Pakistan. It's also the fastest growing cellular network of Pakistan - this may be attributed to their aggressive marketing and advertising campaign. Currently,October 2011 Telenor holds the second largest GSM and the largest GPRS and EDGE coverage in Pakistan which competes with Ufone
Ufone
Ufone GSM is a Pakistani GSM cellular service provider, It's one of five GSM Mobile companies in Pakistan, and is a subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company. After the privatization of PTCL, Ufone is now owned by Etisalat. Ufone has a subscriber base of 20.23 million as of September 2010.-...

. with the recent launch of its nationwide EDGE-enabled network. It achieved the third largest retailer network in Pakistan within the 2 years span of its operations and has started operations in northern areas of Pakistan and in Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

 (AK). Telenor reached its breakeven
Breakeven
In economics & business, specifically cost accounting, the break-even point is the point at which cost or expenses and revenue are equal: there is no net loss or gain, and one has "broken even"...

 in the first quarter of 2007. Telenor proactively participated in the earthquake disaster relief, and carried out a campaign for the welfare of flood victims in Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

. The current CEO of Telenor Pakistan is Christian Albech and the CTO is Gyorgy Koller.

Russia and CIS

Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

's second largest mobile telephone company is VimpelCom, which Telenor owns about a third of. VimpelCom also operates in Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

 and Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

. The company is listed on New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, USA. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at 13.39 trillion as of Dec 2010...

.

For a description of Telenor's legal battle with Alfa Group over VimpelCom and Kyivstar, see: Alfa Group
Alfa Group
Alfa Group Consortium is one of Russia's largest privately owned investment groups, with interests in oil and gas, commercial and investment banking, asset management, insurance, retail trade, telecommunications, water utilities and special situation investments...

.

Serbia

Telenor owns 100% of Telenor Serbia
Telenor Serbia
Telenor Serbia , subsidiary of Norwegian company Telenor, is the second largest Serbian mobile network operator.According to its most recent annual financial report submitted to the Serbian Economic Register Agency, the company has 1,102 employees and it posted an annual profit of RSD 6,459,361,000...

, one of the three mobile vendors in Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 and has a customer base of around 2.99 million. It is second mobile operator in the Serbian market.

Sweden

Telenor owns a number of different companies in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

. Telenor Sverige AB is the result of Telenor's purchase of Vodafone Sweden
Vodafone
Vodafone Group Plc is a global telecommunications company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest mobile telecommunications company measured by revenues and the world's second-largest measured by subscribers , with around 341 million proportionate subscribers as of...

 in 2005, offering mobile telephone services with a market share of approximately 15%. Telenor also owns Bredbandsbolaget
Bredbandsbolaget
Bredbandsbolaget is a Swedish Internet service provider owned by Telenor. It was founded in 1998 with a focus on high-speed Internet connection for homes and businesses using optical fiber. It is the second largest ISP in Sweden ....

, Sweden's second largest provider of broadband and the largest provider of IP telephony. Canal Digital
Canal Digital
Canal Digital is a Scandinavian television distributor and internet service provider that was founded in March 1997 as a joint venture between the French pay-TV company Canal+ and the Norwegian telecommunications operator Telenor...

 offers TV distribution as well. In 2006 Telenor Sweden purchased Glocalnet, Sweden's fourth largest complete provider of telecom services. Telenor Sverige AB‘s headquarter is located on Campus Grasvik in the southeastern city Karlskrona
Karlskrona
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010. It is also the capital of Blekinge County. Karlskrona is known as Sweden's only baroque city and is host to Sweden's only remaining naval base and the headquarters of the...

.

Thailand

Telenor holds an indirect position in DTAC
DTAC
Total Access Communication Public Company Limited is the second largest GSM mobile phone provider in Thailand . Dtac is owned by Telenor both directly and indirectly...

, a mobile telephony company in Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

. DTAC currently has about 23 million users which put DTAC as the second-largest mobile operator in the Thai market.

Ukraine

Telenor owns 56.51% of the shares in one of Ukraine's largest GSM operators, Kyivstar
Kyivstar
Kyivstar is the largest mobile phone operator in Ukraine, serving 24,944,592 subscribers as of October 2010. Kyivstar's wireless network operates using the GSM standard and provides coverage accessible by approximately 99% of the Ukrainian population....

.

Probable strategy

The company started commercial operations in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 on 14 March 2005. It will continue its focus on mobile operations in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and Asia, become the largest provider of TV and Broadband to customers in Scandinavia, and sell non-core assets outside this scope.

Generally, the company's strong growth has derived from focusing on mobile communication in low-income, but fast-growing markets. These potentials being fulfilled, new incomes could come from either new market entries, or increased revenues from more services in existing emerging markets, from both mobile and broadband services.

Telenor hoped to acquire a sixth mobile operator in Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 in 2006, in competition with other global telco's, among them Vimpelcom. Telenor announced to the business newspaper Dagens Næringsliv in 2007 that they are looking at possible prospects for mobile operations in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

.

Telenor is a sponsor of Rosenborg BK.

Norwegian Internet Exchange

In June 2007 Telenor announced that it would withdraw from the Norwegian Internet Exchange
Norwegian Internet Exchange
The Norwegian Internet Exchange or NIX is an Internet exchange point in Oslo, Norway. NIX is owned and operated by the Centre for Information Technology Services , University of Oslo, and has two physical locations in the Oslo area...

 (NIX). It would allow other internet service providers to connect to Telenor's own exchange point, but wants to be able to charge content providers, like NRK
Norsk Rikskringkasting
The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation , which is usually known as NRK, is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway...

 or Schibsted
Schibsted
Schibsted is a Norwegian media conglomerate with operations in 20 countries, the most important being Norway and Sweden. The company has its headquarters in Oslo, Norway and is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange....

, for prioritised access to their network. The Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority
Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority
Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority is a Norwegian government agency responsible for controlling and regulating the telecommunication and postal sector of Norway...

 stated they would look at the legality of this move, but concluded that the withdrawal from NIX would not negatively affect the Norwegian Internet infrastructure. This raised demands that the network division be demerged
Demerger
Demerger is a form of corporate restructuring in which the an entity's business operations are segregated into one or more components. It is the converse of a merger or acquisition....

 from Telenor and made a separate company. Critics feel that this move compromises the network neutrality
Network neutrality
Network neutrality is a principle that advocates no restrictions by Internet service providers or governments on consumers' access to networks that participate in the Internet...

 of Norway, especially since Telenor has a 57% market share
Market share
Market share is the percentage of a market accounted for by a specific entity. In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 67 percent responded that they found the "dollar market share" metric very useful, while 61% found "unit market share" very useful.Marketers need to be able to...

 domestically. Telenor chose not to fulfill their threats, and continue to connect to NIX through a ten gigabit ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks commercially introduced in 1980. Standardized in IEEE 802.3, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies....

 connection.

Grameen Bank gentlemen's agreement

After Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus is a Bangladeshi economist and founder of the Grameen Bank, an institution that provides microcredit to help its clients establish creditworthiness and financial self-sufficiency. In 2006 Yunus and Grameen received the Nobel Peace Prize...

 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.-Background:According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who...

 in 2006, he claimed during his visit in Norway to receive the prize that Grameen Bank
Grameen Bank
The Grameen Bank is a microfinance organization and community development bank started in Bangladesh that makes small loans to the impoverished without requiring collateral...

 had a gentlemen's agreement
Gentlemen's Agreement
The ' was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations...

 with Telenor where Telenor was to sell part of GrameenPhone to the bank. Telenor was not interested in fulfilling this agreement, arguing it was not juridically binding.

Illegal VoIP Operations

Telenor's subsidiary Grameenphone was fined multiple times and later sued because they participated in illegal VOIP operations. VOIP operations went against the BTRC's (Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission ) rules and as a result Grameenphone's offices were also raided in the process. BTRC claimed that the regulator and government was denied large revenue which Telenor/Grameenphone earned through these activities. Shortly after, Grameenphone's profits fell 32% when BTRC forced Grameenphone to cease VOIP operations.

Use of child labor and hazardous working conditions

A Danish TV documentary has revealed miserable working conditions and environmental violations at companies in Bangladesh that act as suppliers to GrameenPhone. Employees were shown working with hazardous chemicals and heavy metals virtually without protection. Workers were as young as 13 years, a clear violation of child labour laws. The firms were caught allowing polluted waste water to spill into nearby rice fields. And in one case, a worker was killed when he fell into an unsecured pool of acid.

Telenor opted to reveal some of the findings of the documentary even before it was aired.

Muhammad Yunus

Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.-Background:According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who...

 recipient and co-owner of Grameenphone, Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus is a Bangladeshi economist and founder of the Grameen Bank, an institution that provides microcredit to help its clients establish creditworthiness and financial self-sufficiency. In 2006 Yunus and Grameen received the Nobel Peace Prize...

, was considering taking legal action against Telenor, for the company's failure to stamp out the use of child labour by its subcontractors in Bangladesh. In a press release published on September 4, 2008, Yunus wrote that:

-Neither I nor Grameenphone can accept this conduct. Twice the authorities in Bangladesh have found the company not to be in compliance with the current legislation of the country.

Telenor's CEO, Jon Fredrik Baksaas, has promised to look into the matter.

Legal battles with Alfa Group

For a detailed description of Telenor's legal battle with Alfa Group over VimpelCom and Kyivstar, see: Alfa Group
Alfa Group
Alfa Group Consortium is one of Russia's largest privately owned investment groups, with interests in oil and gas, commercial and investment banking, asset management, insurance, retail trade, telecommunications, water utilities and special situation investments...

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Telenor stake in Russian mobile phone company Vimpelcom were seized in April 2009 after Telenor refused to pay a $1.7 billion in damage compensation to Russian owner Farimex Ltd. In October 2009, Telenor and Alfa Group reached an agreement that envisions an end to all ongoing legal disputes concerning VimpelCom and Kyivstar.
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