Taxicab
Overview
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire
Vehicle for hire
thumb|190px|[[Taxicab]]s in [[New York City]]thumb|190px|right|[[Cycle rickshaw|Velotaxi]] in [[New York City]]A vehicle for hire is a vehicle providing shared transportation, which transports one or more passengers between locations of the passengers' choice .Vehicles for hire can be distinguished...

 with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice. In modes of public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

, the pick-up and drop-off locations are determined by the service provider, not by the passenger, although demand responsive transport
Demand responsive transport
Demand Responsive Transport or Demand-Responsive Transit or Demand Responsive Service or Dial-a-ride or Flexible Transport Services is "an advanced, user-oriented form of public transport characterised by flexible routing and scheduling of small/medium vehicles operating in shared-ride mode...

 and share taxis provide a hybrid bus/taxi mode.

There are four distinct forms of taxicab, which can be identified by slightly differing terms in different countries: hackney carriage
Hackney carriage
A hackney or hackney carriage is a carriage or automobile for hire...

s, also known as public hire, hailed or street taxis, licensed for hailing on the street; private hire vehicles, also known as minicabs or private hire taxis, licensed for pre-booking only; Taxibuses, also known as Jitneys, operating on pre-set routes typified by multiple stops and multiple independent passengers; and Limousine
Limousine
A limousine is a luxury sedan or saloon car, especially one with a lengthened wheelbase or driven by a chauffeur. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coachbuilder. These are called "stretch" limousines and are traditionally black or white....

s, specialized vehicle licensed for operation by pre-booking.

Although types of vehicles and methods of regulation, hiring, dispatching, and negotiating payment differ significantly from country to country, many common characteristics exist.
Harry Nathaniel Allen of The New York Taxicab Co., who imported the first 600 gas-powered New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 taxicabs from France, coined the word "taxicab" as a contraction of "taximeter
Taximeter
A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in taxicabs and auto rickshaws that calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time...

 cabriolet
Cabriolet (carriage)
A cabriolet is a light horse-drawn vehicle, with two wheels and a single horse. The carriage has a folding hood that can cover its two occupants, one of whom is the driver. It has a large rigid apron, gracefully upward-curving shafts, and usually a rear platform between the C springs for a groom...

".
Encyclopedia
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire
Vehicle for hire
thumb|190px|[[Taxicab]]s in [[New York City]]thumb|190px|right|[[Cycle rickshaw|Velotaxi]] in [[New York City]]A vehicle for hire is a vehicle providing shared transportation, which transports one or more passengers between locations of the passengers' choice .Vehicles for hire can be distinguished...

 with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice. In modes of public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

, the pick-up and drop-off locations are determined by the service provider, not by the passenger, although demand responsive transport
Demand responsive transport
Demand Responsive Transport or Demand-Responsive Transit or Demand Responsive Service or Dial-a-ride or Flexible Transport Services is "an advanced, user-oriented form of public transport characterised by flexible routing and scheduling of small/medium vehicles operating in shared-ride mode...

 and share taxis provide a hybrid bus/taxi mode.

There are four distinct forms of taxicab, which can be identified by slightly differing terms in different countries: hackney carriage
Hackney carriage
A hackney or hackney carriage is a carriage or automobile for hire...

s, also known as public hire, hailed or street taxis, licensed for hailing on the street; private hire vehicles, also known as minicabs or private hire taxis, licensed for pre-booking only; Taxibuses, also known as Jitneys, operating on pre-set routes typified by multiple stops and multiple independent passengers; and Limousine
Limousine
A limousine is a luxury sedan or saloon car, especially one with a lengthened wheelbase or driven by a chauffeur. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coachbuilder. These are called "stretch" limousines and are traditionally black or white....

s, specialized vehicle licensed for operation by pre-booking.

Although types of vehicles and methods of regulation, hiring, dispatching, and negotiating payment differ significantly from country to country, many common characteristics exist.

Etymology

Harry Nathaniel Allen of The New York Taxicab Co., who imported the first 600 gas-powered New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 taxicabs from France, coined the word "taxicab" as a contraction of "taximeter
Taximeter
A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in taxicabs and auto rickshaws that calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time...

 cabriolet
Cabriolet (carriage)
A cabriolet is a light horse-drawn vehicle, with two wheels and a single horse. The carriage has a folding hood that can cover its two occupants, one of whom is the driver. It has a large rigid apron, gracefully upward-curving shafts, and usually a rear platform between the C springs for a groom...

". "Taximeter" is an adaptation of the French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 word taximètre, which is a derivation of the German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 word taxameter, coined from Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors,...

 taxa, which means tax/charge, together with meter from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 metron (μέτρον) meaning measure. A "cabriolet" is a type of horse-drawn carriage.

History

Horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage
Hackney carriage
A hackney or hackney carriage is a carriage or automobile for hire...

 services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century. The first documented service was started by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1640. His vehicles were known as fiacres, as the main vehicle depot apparently was opposite a shrine to Saint Fiacre. (The term fiacre is still used in French to describe a horse-drawn vehicle for hire, while the German term Fiaker is used, especially in Austria, to refer to the same thing). In London the Hackney Carriage Act (1635) became the first legislated control in English on vehicles for hire. In the 19th century, Hansom cab
Hansom cab
The hansom cab is a kind of horse-drawn cart designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York. The vehicle was developed and tested by Hansom in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England. Originally called the Hansom safety cab, it was designed to combine speed with safety, with a low...

s largely replaced the older designs because of their improved speed and safety.
The first taxi service in Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, "The City", was established in 1837 by Thornton Blackburn
Thornton Blackburn
Thornton Blackburn and his wife Lucie were escaped slaves from Louisville, Kentucky. They had been settled in Detroit, Michigan, for two years when, in 1833, Kentucky slave hunters located, re-captured, and arrested the couple...

, an ex-slave whose escape when captured in Detroit was the impetus for the Blackburn Riot.

Gasoline-powered taxicabs began operating in Paris in 1899, in London in 1903, and in New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 in 1907. The New York taxicabs were imported from France by Harry N. Allen. Allen was the first person to paint his taxicabs yellow, after learning that yellow is the colour most easily seen from a distance.

Taxicabs proliferated around the world in the early 20th century. The first major innovation after the invention of the taximeter occurred in the late 1940s, when two-way radios
Radiotelephone
A radiotelephone is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio. Radiotelephone systems are not necessarily interconnected with the public "land line" telephone network. "Radiotelephone" is often used to describe the usage of radio spectrum where it is important to distinguish the...

 first appeared in taxicabs. Radio
Radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

s enabled taxicabs and dispatch
Dispatch (logistics)
Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees or vehicles to customers. Industries that dispatch include taxicabs, couriers, emergency services, as well as home and commercial services such as maid services, plumbing, HVAC, pest control and electricians.With vehicle dispatching, clients are...

 offices to communicate and serve customers more efficiently than previous methods, such as using callbox
Callbox
A call box or callbox is a box containing a special-purpose direct line telephone or other telecommunications device, which has been used by various industries and institutions as a way for employees or clients at a remote location to contact a central dispatch office.- Police and taxicab...

es. The next major innovation occurred in the 1980s, when computer assisted dispatching was first introduced.

There has generally been a legal struggle concerning the certification of motor vehicles to be taxicabs, which take much more wear than a private car does. In London, they were additionally required to meet stringent specifications (Metropolitan Conditions of Fitness - MCF), adopted in entirety by a number of other large UK cities (including Glasgow and Edinburgh), for example, as concerns turn radius, which resulted for a time in having only one make legally usable.

In the US, in the 1930s, the cabs were often DeSoto
DeSoto (automobile)
The DeSoto was a brand of automobile based in the United States, manufactured and marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 1961. The DeSoto logo featured a stylized image of Hernando de Soto...

s or Packard
Packard
Packard was an American luxury-type automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana...

s. General Motors offered a specialized vehicle for a time, named the General. The firm Checker
Checker Motors Corporation
Checker Motors Corporation was a Kalamazoo, Michigan based vehicle manufacturer and tier-one subcontractor that manufactured taxicabs used by Checker Taxi...

 came into existence then, and stopped manufacturing cabs in the early 1980s. Its cars were specially built to carry "double dates." But now New York City requires that all taxicabs be ordinary cars. They are mainly long-wheelbase versions of the Ford Crown Victoria
Ford Crown Victoria
-1992–1994:Released in March 1991 as an early 1992 model, the Crown Victoria sedan was completely redesigned with a rounder, eight-window roofline . The redesign reduced the coefficient of drag from 0.42 to 0.34; the suspension setup was also heavily revised...

. Toyota Sienna
Toyota Sienna
The Toyota Sienna is a family minivan currently manufactured by Toyota at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indiana in Princeton, Indiana, United States for the North American market. It replaced the first-generation Previa van in 1997 with a more conventional front wheel drive layout and shares a heavily...

 minivan
Minivan
Minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon....

s are the alternate vehicle of choice in New York's cab fleet. In the 1960s in Europe, Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 and Peugeot
Peugeot
Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën, the second largest carmaker based in Europe.The family business that precedes the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, and manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Emile Peugeot applied for the lion...

 offered diesel taxicabs. This form of engine is now the norm in Europe due to its superior fuel economy, torque and reliability.

As emergency transport

Taxis played a key part in the First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of the Marne
The Battle of the Marne was a First World War battle fought between 5 and 12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army under Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke the Younger. The battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had...

. Of the 10,000 French reserve infantry troops ferried from Paris, 6,000 were transported by the 600-strong taxi fleet (7 September 1914).

The Birmingham pub bombings
Birmingham pub bombings
The Birmingham pub bombings occurred on 21 November 1974 in Birmingham, England. The explosions killed 21 people and injured 182. The devices were placed in two central Birmingham pubs – the Mulberry Bush and the Tavern in the Town . Although warnings were sent, the pubs were not evacuated in time...

 (21 November 1974), which killed 21 people and injured 182, presented emergency services with unprecedented peace time demands. According to eye witness accounts, the fire officer in charge, knowing the 40 ambulances he requested were unlikely to be available, requested the Taxi Owners Association to transport the injured to the nearby Birmingham Accident Hospital
Birmingham Accident Hospital
Birmingham Accident Hospital formerly known as Birmingham Accident Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre was established in April 1941 as Birmingham's response to two reports, the British Medical Association's Committee on Fractures and the Interdepartmental Committee on the Rehabilitation of...

 and Birmingham General Hospital.

Vehicles

Taxi service is typically provided by automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

s, but various human-powered vehicles, (such as the rickshaw or pedicab
Cycle rickshaw
The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, becak, trisikad, or trishaw or, simply, rickshaw which also refers to auto rickshaws, and the, now uncommon, rickshaws pulled by a person on foot...

 and animal-powered vehicles
Animal-powered transport
Animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human working animals for the movement of people and goods....

 (such as the Hansom cab
Hansom cab
The hansom cab is a kind of horse-drawn cart designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York. The vehicle was developed and tested by Hansom in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England. Originally called the Hansom safety cab, it was designed to combine speed with safety, with a low...

) or even boats (such as water taxi
Water taxi
A water taxi or water bus, also known as a commuter boat, is a watercraft used to provide public transport, usually but not always in an urban environment. Service may be scheduled with multiple stops, operating in a similar manner to a bus, or on demand to many locations, operating in a similar...

es or gondola
Gondola
The gondola is a traditional, flat-bottomed Venetian rowing boat, well suited to the conditions of the Venetian Lagoon. For centuries gondolas were the chief means of transportation and most common watercraft within Venice. In modern times the iconic boats still have a role in public transport in...

s) are also used or have been used historically. In Western Europe, Bissau
Bissau
Bissau is the capital city of Guinea-Bissau. The city's borders are conterminous with the Bissau Autonomous Sector. In 2007, the city had an estimated population of 407,424 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística e Censos...

, and to an extent, Australia, it is not uncommon for expensive cars such as Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

 to be the taxicab of choice. Often this decision is based upon the perceived reliability of, and warranty offered with these vehicles. These taxi-service vehicles are almost always equipped with four-cylinder turbodiesel
Turbodiesel
Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is the norm rather than the exception in modern car and truck diesel engines...

 engines and relatively low levels of equipment, and are not considered luxury cars. This has changed though in countries, such as Denmark, where tax regulation make it profitable to sell the vehicles after a few years of service, which requires the cars to be well equipped and kept in good condition.

Afganistan

There is old style soviet taxi cars in the Afganistan, used as a regular taxi till the present days.

Australia and New Zealand

Traditionally in Australia, taxicabs are mainly Ford Falcon
Ford Falcon (Australia)
The Ford Falcon is a full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960. Each model from the XA series of 1972 onward has been designed, developed and built in Australia and/or New Zealand, following the phasing out of the American Falcon of 1960–71 which had been re-engineered...

s. There are premium operators who mainly operate on Ford Fairlanes
Ford Fairlane (Australian)
The Ford Fairlane and LTD are full-size luxury vehicles that were produced in a series of models by Ford Australia between 1959 and 2007....

 and Holden Statesman/Caprices. Almost all Australian taxicabs run on liquefied petroleum gas. More recently, the Chrysler 300C Turbo Diesel and BMW 5-series
BMW E60
The BMW E60 is the BMW 5 Series automobile, replacing the BMW E39 in 2003. It was replaced by the BMW F10 from March 2010. The E60 was available in both sedan and station wagon platforms....

 diesel have been introduced to replace the phased out Fairlane. The Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

 is also used in metropolitan areas. There are also "Maxi Taxis" which mostly are for-hire minibuses. Toyota Hiace
Toyota Hiace
The Toyota HiAce is a motor vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota. First launched in 1967, the HiAce has since been available in a wide range of configurations, including minivan and minibus, van, pick-up, taxi, and ambulance....

s, Volkswagen Multivans and Mercedes-Benz Vito
Mercedes-Benz Vito
The Mercedes-Benz Vito is a light van produced by Mercedes-Benz in the Basque town of Vitoria, Spain. From the name of the city Vitoria came the name Vito. The name was also derived from an exemplary, long-standing employee, Vito Rosenstein...

s are typically used.

In New Zealand, as in Australia, Holden Commodore
Holden Commodore
The Holden Commodore is an automobile manufactured since 1978 by the Holden subsidiary of General Motors in Australia, and, formerly, in New Zealand. In the mid-1970s, Holden established proposals to replace the long-serving Kingswood nameplate with a smaller, Opel-based model...

s and Ford Falcon
Ford Falcon (Australia)
The Ford Falcon is a full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960. Each model from the XA series of 1972 onward has been designed, developed and built in Australia and/or New Zealand, following the phasing out of the American Falcon of 1960–71 which had been re-engineered...

s were the traditional taxicab of choice. However, in the last decade large front wheel drive V6 models such as Toyota Avalon
Toyota Avalon
The Toyota Avalon is a full-size car produced by Toyota in the United States, and is the flagship sedan of Toyota in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and the Middle East. It was also produced in Australia from 2000 until July 2005 when it was replaced in November 2006 by the Toyota Aurion...

s, Nissan Maxima
Nissan Maxima
The first car to wear the Maxima name was introduced in 1981. It was essentially a Japanese-market Bluebird 910 with a longer nose. The car was offered as the 810 Deluxe or 810 Maxima that first year, and all 810s became Maximas for 1982...

s and Toyota Camry
Toyota Camry
The Toyota Camry is a series of mid-size automobiles manufactured by Toyota since 1982, and sold in the majority of automotive markets throughout the world...

s predominated. In the main centres these are now being replaced by lower carbon-emission vehicles, primarily the Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

.

At the other end of the scale, the traditional "Corporate cabs" such as Ford Fairlane
Ford Fairlane
- Automobiles :* Ford Fairlane , a car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company between 1955 and 1970* Ford Fairlane , a car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company of Australia between 1959 and 2007- See also :...

s and Holden Statesman/Caprices are now becoming obsolete. As in other countries, suitable replacements for these traditional livery service vehicles are unclear.

India

In India, the most common taxis are Premier Automobiles (Fiat), Maruti Omni, Tata Indica
Tata Indica
The Tata Indica is a hatchback automobile range manufactured by Tata Motors of India. It is the first passenger car from Tata Motors and is also considered India's first indigenously developed passenger car. , more than 910,000 Indicas were produced. The annual sales of Indica has been as high as ...

 and Hindustan Ambassador
Hindustan Ambassador
The Hindustan Ambassador is a car manufactured by Hindustan Motors of India. It has been in production since 1958 with few modifications or changes and is based on the Morris Oxford III model, first made by the Morris Motor Company at Cowley, Oxford in the United Kingdom from 1956 to 1959.Despite...

. Small LPG auto-rickshaws are more commonly used in the suburbs. Recently Toyota Innova
Toyota Innova
The Toyota Innova is a Toyota-designed Compact MPV i.e. being less than in length as per the European system of size classification, produced in Indonesia under supervision by Toyota Astra Motor since 2003. As with Toyota Kijang, which it replaced, the Toyota Innova is produced and first marketed...

 are becoming more common and Toyota Corolla
Toyota Corolla
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota, which has become very popular throughout the world since the nameplate was first introduced in 1966. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, with over 35 million...

 for more of a luxurious ride.

In Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, most hailable taxis can be easily identified by their black and yellow color scheme. Newer air conditioned taxis (Cool Cabs) are blue, and are typically only available on a pre-booked basis.

Indonesia

Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

n taxicabs operate Toyota Limo
Toyota Limo
The Toyota Limo is a lower spec of the Toyota Vios and Toyota Corolla Altis. Basically it features less equipment and has lower trim levels. It is used as a taxicab by the Bluebird Group in Indonesia, specially rebadged as the Toyota Limo. This is not to be confused with Toyota Corolla Altis...

s and Hyundai Accent
Hyundai Accent
The Hyundai Accent , or Hyundai Verna in South Korea, is a subcompact car produced by Hyundai. In Australia, the first generation models carried over the Hyundai Excel name used by the Accent's predecessor. The Accent was replaced in 2000 by the Hyundai Verna in South Korea, although most...

s. Silver Bird VIP taxicabs operate Toyota Crowns and provide Mercedes-Benz S-Class
Mercedes-Benz S-Class
The Mercedes-Benz S-Class is a series of luxury sedans produced by Mercedes-Benz, a division of Daimler AG. The classification was officially introduced in 1972 with the W116 S-Class, which succeeded previous Mercedes-Benz models dating to the mid-1950s...

es and E-classes that are sometimes for rent. Traditional Indonesian taxis are special hooded rickshaws driven from the back called becaks which are often used in smaller cities such as Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million , and the capital of the province of East Java...

 and Yogyakarta. "Auto rickshaws", called bajai
Auto rickshaw
An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

s
, provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of Jakarta and other cities.

Ireland

The Toyota Avensis
Toyota Avensis
The Toyota Avensis is a large family car built in Derbyshire, United Kingdom by Japanese carmaker Toyota since 1997. It is the direct successor to the Carina E and is available as a four-door saloon, five-door liftback and estate...

, Mercedes-Benz E-Class
Mercedes-Benz E-Class
The Mercedes-Benz E-Class is a range of executive-size cars manufactured by Mercedes-Benz in various engine and body configurations. The E initially stood for Einspritzmotor, ; a new feature in volume production vehicles at the time that the E-Class first appeared, with the E as a suffix to the...

 and S-Class are popular models for use as taxis in Ireland. Also Nissan Leaf
Nissan Leaf
Nissan introduced its first battery electric vehicle, the Nissan Altra at the Los Angeles International Auto Show on 29 December 1997. The Altra EV was produced between 1998 and 2002, only about 200 vehicles were ever produced, and it was mainly used as a fleet vehicle for companies such as...

s are being used as "green taxis".

Italy

The main taxicabs in use for Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 are only for the big cities: Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

 and Turin
Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

. Italy has the lowest amount of taxicabs per population, (21 per 10000 poulation) but they are mainly Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910, in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars...

, Lancia
Lancia
Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia and which became part of the Fiat Group in 1969. The company has a long history of producing distinctive cars and also has a strong rally heritage. Some modern Lancias are seen as presenting a more...

 and Fiat
Fiat
FIAT, an acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino , is an Italian automobile manufacturer, engine manufacturer, financial, and industrial group based in Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli...

 saloons/sedans. Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 however uses the traditional gondola
Gondola
The gondola is a traditional, flat-bottomed Venetian rowing boat, well suited to the conditions of the Venetian Lagoon. For centuries gondolas were the chief means of transportation and most common watercraft within Venice. In modern times the iconic boats still have a role in public transport in...

 or new taxiboats.

Mexico

In Mexico, Mexico City's ubiquitous VW Type 1 (Beetle) cabs were green and white (being firstly yellow) by law until early 2003. No VWs are coloured this way anymore. Matchbox released a scale model of the VW taxi in 2004, numbered 31, also known as a bocho. However, the two-door Volkswagens have largely been displaced by more suitable four-door sedans, the Nissan Tsuru, a Sentra MkIII (B13) based saloon. Other taxis can range from Fords to Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

es, with the most common being Taurus
Ford Taurus
The Ford Taurus is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in the United States. Originally introduced in the 1986 model year, it has remained in near-continuous production for more than two decades, making it the fourth oldest nameplate that is currently sold in the North American...

, Chevy hatchbacks (a re-badged Opel Corsa
Opel Corsa
The front-wheel drive Opel Corsa was first launched in September 1982 to replace the Opel Kadett C City, and to fill the gap vacated as the Kadett grew in size and price. Built in Zaragoza, Spain, the first Corsas were three-door hatchback and two-door saloon models, with four-door and five-door...

), and Volkswagen Pointer
Volkswagen Pointer
The Volkswagen Pointer was a small family car sold by Volkswagen do Brasil in South America from 1994 to 1997. The Pointer was available as a five-door hatchback, and the two-door coupé version, called the Volkswagen Logus, was sold from 1993 till 1996....

s. With this reform came a new color scheme (Maroon and Gold, with images of the Angel de la Independencia) and more stringent requirements for documentation. Official taxis now must present a large green-colored license in the back left window, which contains the driver's name, photo and permission to operate a taxi. There are also many taxicab bus models known as peseros as the original taxi service began in Mexico City charged only one peso
Peso
The word peso was the name of a coin that originated in Spain and became of immense importance internationally...

.

Norway

In Norway, the end of year 2009 roster showed that 41.9% of the 8961 taxicabs were from Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

, and several manufacturers that can offer a diesel-engined executive car are represented. 91.6% of Norwegian taxis are equipped with diesel engines. Among "maxitaxis" (minibuses operating as taxis), Mercedes-Benz vehicles such as the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter
Mercedes-Benz Sprinter
The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter is a light and heavy commercial vehicle, built by Daimler AG of Stuttgart, Germany as a van, chassis cab and minibus, and sold as a Mercedes model, except in the U.S. where it is built from complete knock down kits and was sold by Freightliner until 2010 when Mercedes...

 constitute 70% of the fleet. The Mercedes-Benz E-class
Mercedes-Benz E-Class
The Mercedes-Benz E-Class is a range of executive-size cars manufactured by Mercedes-Benz in various engine and body configurations. The E initially stood for Einspritzmotor, ; a new feature in volume production vehicles at the time that the E-Class first appeared, with the E as a suffix to the...

es is the most common new cab, with the hybrid Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

 in second place, the latter having increased its sales due to the tax regime favoring low carbon dioxide emissions.

Romania

In Romania the car most used as a taxi is the Dacia Logan
Dacia Logan
The Dacia Logan is a small family car car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its subsidiary Dacia of Romania. It is manufactured at Dacia's automobile plant in Mioveni, Romania, and in Colombia, Brazil, Russia, Morocco, Iran, India and South Africa...

, more comfortable than other cars but charging a higher rate. Taxi drivers are well paid. The Dacia Logan was modified inside and has a computer that calculate miles. Also used as taxis are the Chevrolet Spark (rarely), Dacia Sandero and others.

Singapore

In Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Toyota Comfort
Toyota Comfort
The Toyota Comfort, released in 1995, was designed for use as a taxicab in Japan. Its primary competitor was the Nissan Crew and its secondary competitor was the Cedric Y31...

s (rebadged as Crowns
Toyota Crown
The Toyota Crown is a line of full-size luxury sedans by Toyota. The range was primarily available in Japan and some other Asian countries, originally designed to serve as a taxi...

) and Hyundai Sonata
Hyundai Sonata
The Hyundai Sonata is a mid-size car/full-size car manufactured and marketed globally by Hyundai Motor Company. From the sixth generation onwards, it is known as the i45 in the Australian, Singaporean and New Zealand markets...

s are most common, while there are also Nissan Cedric
Nissan Cedric
The Nissan Cedric is a large automobile produced by Nissan since 1960. It was developed to provide upscale transportation, competing with the Prince Skyline and Gloria which were later merged into the Nissan family...

s, Toyota Corona
Toyota Corona
The Toyota Corona is an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2002. Traditionally, the competitor from Nissan was the Nissan Bluebird. The word Corona is Latin for "crown"...

s (now phased out), Volkswagen Touran
Volkswagen Touran
The Volkswagen Touran is a compact MPV based on a vertically-stretched fifth generation Volkswagen Golf Mk5, and sold in Europe and other select markets. It was launched in 2003 to fill a gap in Volkswagen's model lineup, below the Sharan large MPV...

s, Mercedes-Benz E-Class
Mercedes-Benz E-Class
The Mercedes-Benz E-Class is a range of executive-size cars manufactured by Mercedes-Benz in various engine and body configurations. The E initially stood for Einspritzmotor, ; a new feature in volume production vehicles at the time that the E-Class first appeared, with the E as a suffix to the...

es, Honda Airwave
Honda Airwave
The Honda Airwave is a subcompact car produced by the Japanese automaker Honda since 2005. It is a five-door station wagon version of the City / Fit Aria and Fit/Jazz, which are a sedan and a hatchback respectively. The Airwave is built on the Global Small Car platform; however, unlike the City and...

s, Toyota Wish
Toyota WISH
The Toyota WISH is a Compact MPV produced by Japanese automaker Toyota since 2003. It is available as a six and seven-seater, equipped with either a 1.8 or 2.0-litre gasoline engine...

es, Škoda Superb
Škoda Superb
The Škoda Superb is a large family car primarily built by the Czech car manufacturer Škoda Auto as its flagship car. The versions produced from 2001 to 2008 are based on the platform of the Volkswagen Passat, but are elongated by , and shares its major mechanicals and powertrain with the Passat,...

s, Kia Magentis and brand new Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

es to conserve fuel. Several Taxi companies also operate CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) Taxis. There are also other cabs which charge higher booking rates, for example the Chrysler 300C
Chrysler 300C
The Chrysler Corporation has used the designation Chrysler 300C to refer to two different vehicles, which are described in separate articles.* The 1957 Chrysler 300C, that year's version of the Chrysler 300 "letter series"; a large, high-performance luxury coupe sold in very limited numbers.* The...

 and the Maxicab and Space taxi, which are Mercedes-Benz Vito
Mercedes-Benz Vito
The Mercedes-Benz Vito is a light van produced by Mercedes-Benz in the Basque town of Vitoria, Spain. From the name of the city Vitoria came the name Vito. The name was also derived from an exemplary, long-standing employee, Vito Rosenstein...

s and Ssangyong Stavic/Rodiuses respectively. The Nissan Cedric will be phased out and Chevrolets will replace them.

Spain

In Spain, the most common taxi cars in Spain are SEAT Toledo
SEAT Toledo
The second generation Toledo was introduced in 1998 and made its debut at the 1998 Paris Motor Show as a four-door notchback sedan. It was more rounded than the previous first generation shape and had a much more fluid design, although both were products of Giorgetto Giugiaro's Italdesign studio...

s, Opel Vectra
Opel Vectra
The Opel Vectra is a large family car that was engineered and produced by Opel. In the United Kingdom, the car was sold under the Vauxhall marque as the Vauxhall Cavalier and later as the Vauxhall Vectra, from 1995 onwards...

s, Škoda Octavia
Škoda Octavia
The Škoda Octavia is a small family car produced by Czech automaker Škoda Auto since 1996, its name revived from a model originally produced between 1959 and 1971. The current Octavia is available in five-door liftback and station wagon....

s, Peugeot 406
Peugeot 406
The Peugeot 406 was a large family car made by the French automaker Peugeot from 1995 to 2004. Available in saloon, estate and coupé bodystyles with a choice of petrol or turbodiesel engines, the 406 replaced the Peugeot 405 in Peugeot's lineup, and was itself replaced by the Peugeot 407...

es and Volkswagen Jetta
Volkswagen Jetta
Although the Golf had reached considerable success, in the North American markets, Volkswagen observed that the hatchback body style lacked some of the appeal to those who preferred the traditional three-box configuration...

s. You may also find MPV
Minivan
Minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon....

 models such as Fiat Ulysses, SEAT Alhambra
SEAT Alhambra
The SEAT Alhambra is a large 7-seat MPV by the Volkswagen Group, sold under the SEAT brand.The Alhambra already spans two generations since 1996, and both of them are built at the AutoEuropa plant in Palmela, Portugal...

s, SEAT Altea XL
SEAT Altea
The SEAT Altea is a compact MPV produced by Spanish automaker SEAT, S.A. and named after Altea, Spain. The vehicle was designed by the Italian Walter de'Silva and launched in 2004 as the first example of SEAT's new corporate look...

s or Kia Carnival
Kia Carnival
The Kia Carnival is a minivan manufactured by Kia Motors, introduced in September 1998, now in its second generation and marketed globally under various nameplates – prominently as the Kia Sedona....

s, which are sometimes also adapted to carry wheelchair passengers. Hybrid taxi vehicles are now common in many Spanish cities, especially the Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

 hybrid, but other models are used as well, such as the new Toyota Auris
Toyota Auris
The Toyota Auris is a compact 3 door and 5 door hatchback which shares the same E150 platform with the Toyota Corolla.In Europe, Toyota positioned the Auris as the replacement of Corolla hatchback, while the notchback Sedan continued with the Corolla nameplate...

 hybrid.

Trinidad and Tobago

In Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

 the vehicles most commonly used as taxis are fifth-generation Nissan Cedric
Nissan Cedric
The Nissan Cedric is a large automobile produced by Nissan since 1960. It was developed to provide upscale transportation, competing with the Prince Skyline and Gloria which were later merged into the Nissan family...

s, fifth and sixth-generation Nissan Laurel
Nissan Laurel
In April 1968 Nissan presented its new Laurel in four-door deLuxe and Super deLuxe versions, both equipped with a 1.8 L inline-four cylinder engine and independent rear suspension. In summer 1970 a hardtop coupé joined the line-up, one year later a 2000 cc engine became available...

s, 6th to 8th generation Toyota Crown
Toyota Crown
The Toyota Crown is a line of full-size luxury sedans by Toyota. The range was primarily available in Japan and some other Asian countries, originally designed to serve as a taxi...

s and any other vehicles registered with an "H". However in Trinidad, many cars still operate as taxicabs even without being registered. These "illegal" taxicabs are called "PH" or "P/H" taxis due to the fact that private cars are registered with a "P" for example, "PAU 6767". Private taxi companies are scarce and expensive, hence all taxis in Trinidad are both driver managed and driver operated. These privately owned taxis vary in colour and model, therefore one would almost never see a "Yellow cab
Yellow Cab
There are many Yellow Cabs taxicab operators around the world . The original Yellow Cab Company, based in Chicago, Illinois is one of the largest taxicab companies in the United States.- History :...

" in Trinidad and Tobago. Unlike Maxi taxi
Maxi taxi
Maxi taxis are private, owner-operated minibuses in Trinidad and Tobago that are used in public transport. They operate along fixed routes, having fixed fares and meeting points. However they do not operate under a timetable...

s that are colour coded to a specific area, taxicabs are not colour coded.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom a current debate exists as to the most appropriate vehicles to be licensed as taxis. Local authorities split between those that adopt the Metropolitan Conditions of Fitness, which are widely interpreted to require London style Black taxis (Austin FX4
Austin FX4
The FX4 is the classic Black Cab. While the majority are black, there is in fact no requirement for them, or indeed any other make of London taxi to be black. Over the years, the FX4 has been sold under a number of different makers' names.-Design and launch:...

, TX1
TX1
This is about the taxi in London. For the camera see Canon PowerShot TX-1. For the video game, see TX-1 .TX1 is a Hackney carriage introduced by London Taxis International in 1997 and designed to replace the aging Austin FX4...

, TXII
TXII
The TXII is a hackney carriage manufactured by LTI. It is the second model following the modernisation and re-design of the London taxi which began with the TX1...

, TX4
TX4
The TX4 is a purpose built taxicab manufactured by Manganese Bronze Holdings / LTC The London Taxi Company, formerly LTI London Taxis International. It is the latest in a long line of purpose-built taxis manufactured by LTC...

), and those that allow a wider range of vehicles. The debate is informed, but not solved, by a desire to implement accessible taxis, defined and required under the Disability Discrimination Act (1985), but not enforced in all authority areas. UK devolved administrations (Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales) have devolved responsibilities for taxi licensing law (but not for application, which is enforced at a local authority level). Scotland can, but chooses not to, determine a national vehicle standard. Northern Ireland, which operates as a single authority under the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland, operates a four vehicle structure.

United States and Canada

The most common taxi car in the United States and Canada is the Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 Crown Victoria
Ford Crown Victoria
-1992–1994:Released in March 1991 as an early 1992 model, the Crown Victoria sedan was completely redesigned with a rounder, eight-window roofline . The redesign reduced the coefficient of drag from 0.42 to 0.34; the suspension setup was also heavily revised...

, as well as the Lincoln
Lincoln (automobile)
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are sold mostly in North America.-History:The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac . During World War I, he left Cadillac which was sold to General Motors...

 Town Car
Lincoln Town Car
The Lincoln Town Car is a full-size luxury sedan that was sold by the upscale Lincoln division of Ford Motor Company; it was produced from 1981 to the 2011 model years...

. They both offer a spacious interior and V8 engine
V8 engine
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft....

s. The Crown Victoria is slowly being phased out by both taxi companies and The Ford Motor Company. Toyota Camry
Toyota Camry
The Toyota Camry is a series of mid-size automobiles manufactured by Toyota since 1982, and sold in the majority of automotive markets throughout the world...

 is becoming popular in Canada, especially in Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

. More fuel efficient and Hybrid taxi
Hybrid taxi
Hybrid taxi or hybrid electric taxi is a taxicab service provided with a hybrid electric car , which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system....

s are beginning to become more common in North America, such as the Toyota Camry
Toyota Camry
The Toyota Camry is a series of mid-size automobiles manufactured by Toyota since 1982, and sold in the majority of automotive markets throughout the world...

 hybrid, Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

 hybrid, Ford Escape
Ford Escape
The Ford Escape is a compact SUV sold by the automaker Ford Motor Company introduced in 2000 as a 2001 model year and priced below the Ford Explorer. Although technically it's a crossover vehicle, it is marketed by Ford as part of its traditional SUV lineup rather than its separate crossover lineup...

 hybrid and Honda Civic
Honda Civic
The Honda Civic is a line of subcompact and subsequently compact cars made and manufactured by Honda. The Civic, along with the Accord and Prelude, comprised Honda's vehicles sold in North America until the 1990s, when the model lineup was expanded...

 hybrid. Historically, the purpose-built cars made by the Checker Motors Corporation
Checker Motors Corporation
Checker Motors Corporation was a Kalamazoo, Michigan based vehicle manufacturer and tier-one subcontractor that manufactured taxicabs used by Checker Taxi...

 were the iconic U.S. cab.

USSR

In the last years of USSR, the cars most used as a taxi was the GAZ
GAZ
GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod , translated as Gorky Automobile Plant , started in 1932 as NAZ, a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union. It is one of the largest companies in the Russian automotive industry....

 series vehicles. There are two modifications: the GAZ-24
GAZ-24
The Volga GAZ-24 is an automobile manufactured by the Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod from 1968 to 1985 as a generation of its Volga marque. A largely redesigned version - GAZ-24-10 - was produced from 1985 to 1992...

 "taxi" and old series GAZ-21
GAZ-21
The GAZ M21 Volga, the first car to carry the Volga name, was developed in the early 1950s. Volgas were built to last in the harsh climate and rough roads of the Soviet Union, with high ground clearance , rugged suspension, strong and forgiving engine, and rustproofing on a...

 "taxi".

Guyana

In Guyana
Guyana
Guyana , officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, previously the colony of British Guiana, is a sovereign state on the northern coast of South America that is culturally part of the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana was a former colony of the Dutch and of the British...

 taxis are most commonly Toyota Carina
Toyota Carina
Released in Japan August 1977, the next-generation Carina was available in Germany in December 1977 and in other European countries during 1978. In most markets it was fitted with the same 1,588 cc 2T engine as its predecessor. In the Carina, an output of was claimed...

s, Toyota Corolla
Toyota Corolla
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota, which has become very popular throughout the world since the nameplate was first introduced in 1966. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, with over 35 million...

s, and Nissan Laurel
Nissan Laurel
In April 1968 Nissan presented its new Laurel in four-door deLuxe and Super deLuxe versions, both equipped with a 1.8 L inline-four cylinder engine and independent rear suspension. In summer 1970 a hardtop coupé joined the line-up, one year later a 2000 cc engine became available...

s. Any vehicle registered with the first letter as "H" is a taxi. There are over 20000 registered taxis in the country. Some cars are not registered to be taxis but still operate as them. They are called Private Hire cars and operate illegally in the country. They have "P" plates and are not authorised to operate as a taxi, they are private cars eg"PNN 1515". As of 2010 taxis are required to be painted yellow. They also have a sticker on the rear bumper that reads Hackney Carriage
Hackney carriage
A hackney or hackney carriage is a carriage or automobile for hire...

.

Wheelchair-accessible taxicabs

In recent years, some companies have been adding specially modified vehicles capable of transporting wheelchair
Wheelchair
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, designed to be a replacement for walking. The device comes in variations where it is propelled by motors or by the seated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand. Often there are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing...

-using passengers to their fleets. Such taxicabs are variously called accessible taxis, wheelchair- or wheelchair-accessible taxicabs, modified taxicabs, and so on.

Wheelchair taxicabs are most often specially modified van
Van
A van is a kind of vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people.In British English usage, it can be either specially designed or based on a saloon or sedan car, the latter type often including derivatives with open backs...

s or minivan
Minivan
Minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon....

s. Wheelchair-using passengers are loaded, with the help of the driver, via a lift or, more commonly, a ramp, at the rear of the vehicle.This feature is however a subject for concern amongst Licensing Authorities who feel that the wheelchair passenger could not easily exit the vehicle in the event of accident damage to the rear door.The latest generation of accessible taxis features side loading with emergency egress possible from either of the 2 side doors as well as the rear. The wheelchair is secured using various systems, commonly including some type of belt and clip combination, or wheel locks. Some wheelchair taxicabs are capable of transporting only one wheelchair-using passenger at a time, and can usually accommodate 4 to 6 additional able-bodied
Able-bodied
Able-bodied refers, in law, to an individual's physical or mental capacity for gainful employment or military service, and it is in this sense that the term is also used regarding eligibility for payment of child support or alimony....

 passengers.

Wheelchair taxicabs are part of the regular fleet in most cases, and so are not reserved exclusively for the use of wheelchair users. They are often used by able-bodied people who need to transport luggage, small items of furniture, animals, and other items. Because of this, and since only a small percentage of the average fleet is modified, wheelchair users must often wait for significantly longer periods when calling for a cab, and flagging a modified taxicab on the street is much more difficult.

These particular taxicabs have developed their own special names such as, 'Maxicabs'.

Other

Taxicabs in less developed places can be a completely different experience, such as the antique French cars typically found in Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

. However, starting March 2006, newer modern taxicabs entered the service operated by various private companies. Taxicabs differ in other ways as well: London's black cabs have a large compartment beside the driver for storing bags, while many fleets of regular taxis also include wheelchair accessible taxicabs among their numbers (see below). Although taxicabs have traditionally been sedans, minivan
Minivan
Minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon....

s, hatchback
Hatchback
A Hatchback is a car body style incorporating a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate—and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box...

s and even SUV
Sport utility vehicle
A sport utility vehicle is a generic marketing term for a vehicle similar to a station wagon, but built on a light-truck chassis. It is usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability, and with some pretension or ability to be used as an off-road vehicle. Not all four-wheel...

 taxicabs are becoming increasingly common. In many cities, limousine
Limousine
A limousine is a luxury sedan or saloon car, especially one with a lengthened wheelbase or driven by a chauffeur. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coachbuilder. These are called "stretch" limousines and are traditionally black or white....

s operate as well, usually in competition with taxicabs and at higher fares.

Recently, with growing concern for the environment, there have been solar powered taxicabs. On April 20, 2008, a "solar taxi tour" was launched that aimed to tour 15 countries in 18 months in a solar taxi that can reach speeds of 90 km/h with zero emission. The aim of the tour was to spread knowledge about environmental protection.

Hiring

Most places allow a Taxi to be "hailed" or "flagged" on the side of the street as it is approaching. Another option is a taxi stand
Taxi stand
A taxicab stand is a queue area on a street or on private property where taxicabs line up to wait for passengers.-How stands work:...

 (sometimes also called a "cab stand", "hack stand", "taxi rank" or "cab rank
Cab rank
A cab rank or taxi rank is a primarily British English term for a queueing area where taxicabs queue to await passengers. In United States English they are known as "taxi stands".The phrase also has three other uses:...

"). Taxi stands are usually located at airports, railway stations, major retail areas (malls), hotels and other places where a large number of passengers are likely to be found. In some places—Japan, for example—taxi stands are arranged according to the size of the taxis, so that large- and small-capacity cabs line up separately. The taxi at the front of the line is due (barring unusual circumstances) for the next fare.

In the United States, a nut is industry slang for the amount of money a driver has to pay upfront to lease
Lease
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee to pay the lessor for use of an asset. A rental agreement is a lease in which the asset is tangible property...

 a taxi for a specific period of time. Once that amount is collected in fare, the driver then begins to make a profit. A driver "on the nut" is trying to earn back the initial cost. This varies from city to city though, in Las Vegas, Nevada
Las Vegas, Nevada
Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and is also the county seat of Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous...

, all taxicabs are owned and operated by the companies and all drivers are employees (hence no initial cost and earn a percentage of each fare). So "on the nut" simply means to be next in a taxi stand to receive a passenger.

Passengers also commonly call a central dispatch office for taxis. In some jurisdictions private hire vehicles can only be hired from the dispatch office, and must be assigned each fare by the office by radio or phone. Picking up passengers off the street in these areas can lead to suspension or revocation of the driver's taxi license, or even prosecution.

Other areas may have a mix of the two systems, where drivers may respond to radio calls and also pick up street fares.

Dispatching

The activity of taxi fleets is usually monitored and controlled by a central office, which provides dispatch
Dispatch (logistics)
Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees or vehicles to customers. Industries that dispatch include taxicabs, couriers, emergency services, as well as home and commercial services such as maid services, plumbing, HVAC, pest control and electricians.With vehicle dispatching, clients are...

ing, accounting, and human resources services to one or more taxi companies. Taxi owners and drivers usually communicate with the dispatch office through either a 2-way radio
Radiotelephone
A radiotelephone is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio. Radiotelephone systems are not necessarily interconnected with the public "land line" telephone network. "Radiotelephone" is often used to describe the usage of radio spectrum where it is important to distinguish the...

 or a computer terminal (called a mobile data terminal
Mobile data terminal
A mobile data terminal is a computerized device used in public transit vehicles, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office...

). Before the innovation of radio dispatch in the 1950s, taxi drivers would use a callbox
Callbox
A call box or callbox is a box containing a special-purpose direct line telephone or other telecommunications device, which has been used by various industries and institutions as a way for employees or clients at a remote location to contact a central dispatch office.- Police and taxicab...

—a special telephone at a taxi stand—to contact the dispatch office.

When a customer calls for a taxi, a trip is dispatched by either radio or computer, via an in-vehicle mobile data terminal
Mobile data terminal
A mobile data terminal is a computerized device used in public transit vehicles, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office...

, to the most suitable cab. The most suitable cab may either be the one closest to the pick-up address (often determined by GPS coordinates nowadays) or the one that was the first to book in to the "zone" surrounding the pickup address. Cabs are sometimes dispatched from their taxi stands; a call to "Top of the 2" means that the first cab in line at stand #2 is supposed to pick someone up.

In offices using radio dispatch, taxi locations are often tracked using magnetic pegs on a "board"—a metal sheet with an engraved map of taxi zones. In computerized dispatch, the status of taxis is tracked by the computer system.

Taxi frequencies are generally licensed in duplex pairs. One frequency is used for the dispatcher to talk to the cabs, and a second frequency is used to the cabs to talk back. This means that the drivers generally cannot talk to each other. Some cabs have a CB radio in addition to the company radio so they can speak to each other.

In the United States, there is a Taxicab Radio Service with pairs assigned for this purpose. A taxi company can also be licensed in the Business Radio Service. Business frequencies in the UHF range are also licensed in pairs to allow for repeaters, though taxi companies usually use the pair for duplex
Duplex (telecommunications)
A duplex communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions. The term multiplexing is used when describing communication between more than two parties or devices....

 communications.

Some companies don't operate their own radio system and instead subscribe to an Specialized Mobile Radio system. The conventional radios are most suited to companies that operate within the local area and have a high volume of radio traffic. The SMR is more commonly used by black car services that cover a wider area, and smaller companies who use less airtime and don't want to run their own radio systems. With the advent of public data network
Public Data Network
A public data network is a network established and operated by a telecommunications administration, or a recognized private operating agency, for the specific purpose of providing data transmission services for the public....

s in the 1990s, operators are beginning to use PDAs
Personal digital assistant
A personal digital assistant , also known as a palmtop computer, or personal data assistant, is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager. Current PDAs often have the ability to connect to the Internet...

 and advanced mobile phones for dispatching and tracking functions in lieu of the traditional radio. Some small car services don't use a dispatcher at all. Instead the customers' calls are forwarded to the cell phones of whichever drivers are on duty at the time.

Fares

For the distance travelled, the fare
Fare
A fare is the fee paid by a passenger allowing him or her to make use of a public transport system: rail, bus, taxi, etc. In the case of air transport, the term airfare is often used.-Uses:...

 for a taxi is usually higher than for other forms of public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 (bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

, tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

, metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

, minicab, train
Train
A train is a connected series of vehicles for rail transport that move along a track to transport cargo or passengers from one place to another place. The track usually consists of two rails, but might also be a monorail or maglev guideway.Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate...

, bike
Bicycle
A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

). The fare is not based on the number of people travelling together in a taxi unless it is a 'maxi-taxi' (which can carry up to 8 people). Another system is one where more than one customer shares the same taxi and fares are per person. Fares are usually calculated according to a combination of 4 elements: Tariff rate, Initial flagfall
Flagfall
Flagfall or flag fall is common Australian expression for a fixed start fee, especially in the haulage and railroad industry. From the Australia mobile phone industry, the expression has recently begun to spread to other English language countries, as business jargon for an initial fixed fee for...

 or meter drop, distance and waiting time. A taximeter
Taximeter
A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in taxicabs and auto rickshaws that calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time...

 calculates this automatically ("meter" for short and the origin of the word "taxi"). Instead of a metered fare, passengers sometimes pay a flat fare. In some areas, when demand is high—for instance, late at night—a taxi driver may pick up the customer offering the highest bid (this practice may be against the law).

Navigation

Most experienced taxi drivers who have been working in the same city or region for a while would be expected to know the most important streets and places where their customers request to go. However, to aid the process of manual navigation
Navigation
Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks...

 and the taxi driver's memory
Memory
In psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences. Traditional studies of memory began in the fields of philosophy, including techniques of artificially enhancing memory....

 (and the customer's as well at times) a cab driver is usually equipped with a detailed roadmap
Map
A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes....

 of the area in which they work. There is also an increasing use of GPS driven navigational systems in the more wealthy countries around the world.

In London, despite the complex and haphazard road layout, such aids have only recently been employed by a small number of 'black cab' taxi (as opposed to minicab) drivers. Instead, they are required to undergo a demanding process of learning and testing called The Knowledge. This typically takes around three years and equips them with a detailed command of 25,000 streets within central London, major routes outside this area, and all buildings and other destinations to which passengers may ask to be taken.

Environmental concerns

Taxicabs have been both criticized for creating pollution and also hailed as an environmentally responsible alternative to private car use.

The results, published in the journal Atmospheric Environment in January 2006, showed that the level of pollution that people are exposed to differs according to the mode of transport that they use. The most risky method of transport was the back seat of a taxicab, followed by travelling by bus, cycling, walking, with a private car exposing people to the lowest amount of pollution.

Alternative fuels and propulsion

In Australia, nearly all taxis run on LPG, as well as the growing fleet of hybrids. Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 and the main cities of Brazil have large fleets of taxis running on natural gas
Natural gas vehicle
thumb|right|200px|2009 [[Honda Civic GX]] hooked up to Phill refueling system.A natural gas vehicle or NGV is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas as a clean alternative to other fossil fuels...

. Many Brazilian taxis are flexible-fuel vehicles running on sugarcane ethanol
Ethanol fuel in Brazil
Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol fuel and the world's largest exporter. Together, Brazil and the United States lead the industrial production of ethanol fuel, accounting together for 87.8% of the world's production in 2010. In 2010 Brazil produced 26.2 billion litres Brazil...

, and some are equipped to run on either natural gas or as a flex-fuel. At least two Brazilian car markers sell these type of bi-fuel vehicle
Bi-fuel vehicle
Bi-fuel vehicles are vehicles with multifuel engines capable of running on two fuels. On internal combustion engines one fuel is gasoline or diesel, and the other is an alternate fuel such as natural gas , LPG, or hydrogen...

s.

San Francisco became in 2005 one of the first cities to introduce hybrids for taxi service, with a fleet of 15 Ford Escape Hybrids, and by 2009 the original Escape Hybrids were retired after 300,000 miles per vehicle. In 2007 the city approved the Clean Air Taxi Grant Program in order to encourage cab companies to purchase alternative fuel vehicle
Alternative fuel vehicle
An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than "traditional" petroleum fuels ; and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum...

s, by providing incentives of USD2,000 per new alternative fuel vehicle on a first-come, first-served basis. Out of a total of 1,378 eligible vehicles (wheelchair-accessible taxi-vans are excluded) 788 are alternative fuel vehicles, representing 57% of the San Francisco's taxicab fleet by March 2010. Gasoline-electric hybrids accounted for 657 green taxis and compressed natural gas vehicles
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

 for 131.

As of mid 2009 New York City had 2,019 hybrid
Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional...

 taxis and 12 clean diesel vehicles, representing 15% of New York's 13,237 taxis in service, the most in any city in North America. At this time owners began retiring its original hybrid fleet after 300,000 and 350,00 miles per vehicle. Two attempts by the Bloomberg Administration to implement policies to force the replacement of all New York's 13,000 taxis for hybrids by 2012 have been blocked by court rulings.

Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 is following New York City's lead by proposing a mandate for Chicago's entire fleet of 6,700 taxicabs to become hybrid by 1 January 2014. As of 2008 Chicago's fleet had only 50 hybrid taxicabs. In 2008 Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 mandated that its entire taxi fleet must be converted to hybrids by 2015. Arlington, Virginia also has a small fleet of 85 environmentally friendly hybrid cabs introduced in early 2008. The green taxi expansion is part of a county campaign known as Fresh AIRE, or Arlington Initiative to Reduce Emissions, and included a new all-hybrid taxi company called EnviroCAB
EnviroCAB
EnviroCAB is a taxicab service provider based in Arlington County, Virginia, which provides service exclusively with a fleet of hybrid electric vehicles...

, which became the first all-hybrid taxicab fleet in the United States, and the first carbon-negative taxicab company in the world A similar all-hybrid taxicab company, Clean Air Cab
Clean Air Cab
Clean Air Cab is an Arizona-based carbon-neutral taxi service provider, and the second taxi fleet in the U.S. to use only hybrid vehicles. Based in Mesa, Arizona, it serves the Phoenix area with environmentally friendly transportation service by using clean automotive technology.- Background :The...

, was launched in Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

 in October 2009.
In Japan, electric taxicabs are becoming increasingly popular. In 2009, battery-swap company Better Place teamed with the Japanese government to trial a fleet of electric taxis with the Better Place battery-swap system in Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

. In 2010, the taxi company Hinomaru Linousine Company launched two Mitsubishi i MiEV
Mitsubishi i MiEV
The Mitsubishi i-MiEV is a five-door hatchback electric car produced by Mitsubishi Motors, and is the electric version of the Mitsubishi i. According to the manufacturer, the i-MiEV all-electric range is on the Japanese test cycle...

 electric taxicabs in Tokyo. Both taxicabs had female drivers and were branded under ZeRO TAXI livery.

Hybrid taxis are becoming more and more common in Canada, with all new taxis in British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

 being hybrids, or other fuel efficient vehicles, such as the Toyota Prius
Toyota Prius
The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation...

 or Toyota Corolla
Toyota Corolla
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota, which has become very popular throughout the world since the nameplate was first introduced in 1966. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, with over 35 million...

. Hybrids such as the Ford Escape Hybrid are slowly being added to the taxicab fleet in Mexico City.

Other cities where taxi service is available with hybrid vehicles include Tokyo, London, Sydney, and Rome. Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 introduced the first LPI hybrid
Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid
The Hyundai Elantra is a compact car that was produced by the Hyundai Motor Company in South Korea between 2006 and 2010. The HD series represented the fourth generation of the Hyundai Elantra, which was sold under the Hyundai Avante name in its South Korean home market...

 taxi in December 2009. The internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high -pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine...

 runs on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel.

In 2010 Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, China introduced electric taxis. A trial run began in March, 2010 with taxis being cheaper than their regular gasoline counterparts.

Benefits of liberalization

According to theoretical and empirical studies, taxicab deregulation causes the following benefits:
  • lower prices, because more taxis are competing on the market;
  • lower operating costs, incentivized by the competition;
  • the competition adds quality and the pressure to enhance one's reputation;
  • new innovations such as shared-ride markets and special services for the disabled, new market niches;
  • the demand for taxi services increases, as the prices fall and the quality improves.


Usually the service level increases most in the poorest sections of the city. The effect is highest in peak hours and bad weather, when the demand is highest.

In New Zealand taxi deregulation increased the supply of taxi services and decreased the prices remarkably in big cities, whereas the effects in smaller cities were small.

In Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, taxi deregulation decreased waiting times so much that the liberalization became very popular among the public. The number of companies was increased and the quality of cars and drives did not fall. Irish experiences suggest that the regulation should be completely abolished immediately, not just cut down.

Research usually ignores other benefits of liberalization such as:
  • black market taxis become legal, possibly eliminating their problems,
  • cities save money, as they do not have to plan and enforce regulation.


In almost all deregulating cities the number of taxis increased, more people were employed as drivers, and apparently needs were better satisfied.

Minorities

Immigrants and other poor minorities suffer most from taxi regulation, because the work requires relatively little education. Regulation makes entrance to the taxi business particularly difficult for them.

The elderly, disabled, housewives and poor use taxis more often than others.

Opposition to liberalization

Rent seeking
Rent seeking
In economics, rent-seeking is an attempt to derive economic rent by manipulating the social or political environment in which economic activities occur, rather than by adding value...

 and bureaucratic self-interest currently dominate the making of taxi-market policy. Existing companies try to limit competition by potential new entrants. For example, in New York City the monopoly advantage for taxi license holders was $590 million in the early 1980s. The city has 1400 fewer licenses than in 1937. The main losers are the car-less poor and the disabled.

Taxi owners form a strong lobby network that marginalizes drivers and taxi users. It also pays to corrupt the officials to uphold regulation.

The regulators usually do not wish to rise against the taxi-owner lobby. The politicians do not want taxi drivers to have a negative opinion of them.

Speciously increased complaints

Black market taxis often have problems, but illegal customers cannot complain to the police or media. Therefore deregulation may bring more complaints to the public media. In reality, one can expect that when these taxis become legal, their behavior will improve.

The myth on harms of liberalization

Taxi companies have a strong incentive
Incentive
In economics and sociology, an incentive is any factor that enables or motivates a particular course of action, or counts as a reason for preferring one choice to the alternatives. It is an expectation that encourages people to behave in a certain way...

 to oppose liberalization. According to the study by Kitch, Isaacson and Kasper, the companies have therefore created a myth that in competition taxi companies would be irresponsible and unstable. This claim ignores the U.S. free taxi competition up to 1929.

Taxi companies claim that deregulation would cause problems, raise prices and lower service level on certain hours or in certain places.

Partial deregulation

Many U.S. cities have kept on regulating prices and services while allowing for free entrance to taxi business, and prevented market mechanisms from solving information problems. Therefore, new entrants have found it difficult to win new customers using new services or cheap prices. Also, ride-sharing has often been prohibited.

Often officials have also prohibited pricing that would have made short rides in sparsely populated areas profitable. Thus drivers have refused to take such customers. Therefore, partial deregulation is not always enough to enhance the situation. In one study the problem was that deregulation was applied to a too small area.

In the taxi regulation report by U.S. FTC it was concluded that there are not grounds for limiting the number of taxi companies and cars. These limitations cause a disproportionate burden on low income people. Moreover, it is better to increase the pay for unprofitable areas than to force the taxis to serve these areas.

According to the report, the experience on free entry and price competition are mainly positive: prices have fallen, waiting times were shortened, the market shares of the biggest companies have fallen, and city councils have saved time from licensing and fare setting. However, the airports should either set their own price ceiling
Price ceiling
A price ceiling is a government-imposed limit on the price charged for a product. Governments intend price ceilings to protect consumers from conditions that could make necessary commodities unattainable. However, a price ceiling can cause problems if imposed for a long period without controlled...

s or allow for price competition by altering the queue system.

Addressing problems

If some problem exists, according to Moore and Rose it is better to address the problem directly instead of regulating the number of taxi licences. For example, if the regulators want to increase safety, they should make safety statutes or publish a public list of safe taxi operators.

Information problems

If officials want to regulate prices, they should standardize the measures rather than command prices. For example, they may require that any distance tariffs are set for the first 1/5 miles and then for every subsequent 1/3 miles, to make it easier to compare the prices of different taxis. They should not prohibit other pricing than distance pricing.

It is questionable whether regulation can add welfare, because regulators only have a very limited information on the market.

Airport taxis

If an airport regulates prices for taxis in its taxi queues, such regulation has fewer disadvantages than city-wide regulation. An airport may determine prices or organize different queues for taxi services of different qualities and prices. It can be argued whether rules set by the owner of an airport are regulation or just a business model.

International Trade Association

Established in 1917, the Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association (TLPA) is a non-profit trade association of and for the private passenger transportation industry. The membership spans the globe to include 1,100 taxicab companies, executive sedan and limousine
Limousine
A limousine is a luxury sedan or saloon car, especially one with a lengthened wheelbase or driven by a chauffeur. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coachbuilder. These are called "stretch" limousines and are traditionally black or white....

 services, airport shuttle fleets, non-emergency medical transportation companies, and paratransit
Paratransit
Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. Typically mini-buses are used to provide paratransit service, but also share taxis and jitneys are important providers....

 services.

In April 2011, TLPA announced their nationwide "Transportation on Patrol" initiative. The TOP program gives local police departments the materials they need to train volunteer taxi drivers to be good witnesses and watch out for criminal behavior.

See also

  • Automobile
    Automobile
    An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

  • Cabriolet (carriage)
    Cabriolet (carriage)
    A cabriolet is a light horse-drawn vehicle, with two wheels and a single horse. The carriage has a folding hood that can cover its two occupants, one of whom is the driver. It has a large rigid apron, gracefully upward-curving shafts, and usually a rear platform between the C springs for a groom...

  • Carry On Cabby
    Carry On Cabby
    Carry On Cabby is the seventh Carry On film. Released in 1963, it was the first one written by series mainstay Talbot Rothwell from a story by Sid Green and Dick Hills...

  • Chauffeur
    Chauffeur
    A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine.Originally such drivers were always personal servants of the vehicle owner, but now in many cases specialist chauffeur service companies, or individual drivers provide...

  • Hybrid electric vehicle
    Hybrid electric vehicle
    A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional...

  • Illegal taxicab operation
    Illegal taxicab operation
    While most jurisdictions require taxicab operators to be licensed, many unlicensed cabs are in operation. Some of these are marked taxi vehicles , and others are personal vehicles used by an individual to offer unauthorized taxi-like services...

     
  • Limousine
    Limousine
    A limousine is a luxury sedan or saloon car, especially one with a lengthened wheelbase or driven by a chauffeur. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coachbuilder. These are called "stretch" limousines and are traditionally black or white....


  • London Cabbie
    Hackney carriage
    A hackney or hackney carriage is a carriage or automobile for hire...

  • Taxicab number
    Taxicab number
    In mathematics, the nth taxicab number, typically denoted Ta or Taxicab, is defined as the smallest number that can be expressed as a sum of two positive algebraic cubes in n distinct ways. The concept was first mentioned in 1657 by Bernard Frénicle de Bessy, and was made famous in the early 20th...

  • Taxicabs of Canada
    Taxicabs of Canada
    Taxicabs of Canada are licensed local municipalities, but they are owned and operated by private companies or individuals.Most cabs are large sedans with various colours and of domestic make...

  • Taxicabs of the United Kingdom
    Taxicabs of the United Kingdom
    Taxicabs are regulated throughout the United Kingdom, but the regulation of taxicabs in London is especially rigorous both with regard to mechanical integrity and driver knowledge. An official report observed that: "Little however is known about the regulation by anyone outside the trade...

  • Taxi wars in South Africa
    Taxi wars in South Africa
    The term taxi war is usually used to refer to the turf wars fought between taxi associations and individual minibus taxi drivers in South Africa, from the late 1980s onwards. These taxi wars are still raging to the present day....

  • Zémidjan
    Zémidjan
    A zémidjan is a type of taxi found in Benin. The highest concentration is found in the largest city, Cotonou, where there are an estimated 72,000. Zémidjans are motorcycles that carry one to two passengers for short distances within towns. The fares are entirely negotiable...

  • Pedicab
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