Hackney carriage
Overview
 
A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab, black cab, hack or London taxi) is a carriage
Carriage
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

 or automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 for hire. A livery carriage superior to the hackney was called a remise.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

 licensed by the Public Carriage Office in Greater London
Greater London
Greater London is the top-level administrative division of England covering London. It was created in 1965 and spans the City of London, including Middle Temple and Inner Temple, and the 32 London boroughs. This territory is coterminate with the London Government Office Region and the London...

 or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district
Non-metropolitan district
Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially shire districts, are a type of local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties in a so-called "two-tier" arrangement...

 councils or unitary authorities
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

) in other parts of Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

, or by the Department of the Environment
Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland)
The Department of the Environment is a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive. The minister with overall responsibility for the department is the Minister for the Environment.-Aim:...

 in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

.

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, the police department of the city of Boston has a Hackney Carriage Unit, analogous to taxicab regulators in other cities, that issues Hackney Carriage medallions to its taxi operators.
The name 'hackney' was once thought to be an anglicized derivative of French haquenée—a horse of medium size recommended for lady riders; however, current opinion is that it is derived from the village name Hackney
Hackney
-Places:* London Borough of Hackney, formed in 1965** Metropolitan Borough of Hackney, formed in 1900 and abolished in 1965** Hackney Central** Hackney Central , a political division of the Council** Hackney Central railway station** Hackney College...

 (now part of London).
Encyclopedia
A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab, black cab, hack or London taxi) is a carriage
Carriage
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

 or automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 for hire. A livery carriage superior to the hackney was called a remise.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

 licensed by the Public Carriage Office in Greater London
Greater London
Greater London is the top-level administrative division of England covering London. It was created in 1965 and spans the City of London, including Middle Temple and Inner Temple, and the 32 London boroughs. This territory is coterminate with the London Government Office Region and the London...

 or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district
Non-metropolitan district
Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially shire districts, are a type of local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties in a so-called "two-tier" arrangement...

 councils or unitary authorities
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

) in other parts of Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

, or by the Department of the Environment
Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland)
The Department of the Environment is a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive. The minister with overall responsibility for the department is the Minister for the Environment.-Aim:...

 in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

.

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, the police department of the city of Boston has a Hackney Carriage Unit, analogous to taxicab regulators in other cities, that issues Hackney Carriage medallions to its taxi operators.

Etymology

The name 'hackney' was once thought to be an anglicized derivative of French haquenée—a horse of medium size recommended for lady riders; however, current opinion is that it is derived from the village name Hackney
Hackney
-Places:* London Borough of Hackney, formed in 1965** Metropolitan Borough of Hackney, formed in 1900 and abolished in 1965** Hackney Central** Hackney Central , a political division of the Council** Hackney Central railway station** Hackney College...

 (now part of London). The place-name, through its fame for its horses and horse-drawn carriages, is also the root of the Spanish word jaca
Jaca Navarra
The Jaca Navarra , or Navarrese horse, is a breed of small horse from the Navarre region of northern Spain. It is listed in the Catálogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de España in the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction. The total population of the Jaca Navarra has been variously...

, a term used for a small breed of horse and the Sardinia
Sardinia
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[],...

n achetta horse. The first documented 'hackney coach'—the forerunner of the more generic 'hackney carriage'—operated in London in 1621.

The New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 colloquial terms "hack" (taxi or taxi-driver), "hackstand" (taxi stand), and "hack license" (taxi license) are probably derived from "hackney carriage". Such cabs are now regulated by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.

History

"An Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent" was approved by Parliament in 1654, to remedy what it described as the "many Inconveniences [that] do daily arise by reason of the late increase and great irregularity of Hackney Coaches and Hackney Coachmen in London, Westminster and the places thereabouts". The first hackney-carriage licences date from 1662, and applied literally to horse-drawn carriage
Carriage
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

s, later modernised as hansom cab
Hansom cab
The hansom cab is a kind of horse-drawn cart designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York. The vehicle was developed and tested by Hansom in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England. Originally called the Hansom safety cab, it was designed to combine speed with safety, with a low...

s (1834), that operated as vehicles for hire
Vehicle for hire
thumb|190px|[[Taxicab]]s in [[New York City]]thumb|190px|right|[[Cycle rickshaw|Velotaxi]] in [[New York City]]A vehicle for hire is a vehicle providing shared transportation, which transports one or more passengers between locations of the passengers' choice .Vehicles for hire can be distinguished...

. There was a distinction between a general hackney carriage and a hackney coach
Coach (carriage)
A coach was originally a large, usually closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with generally a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small, usually elevated seat in...

, a hireable vehicle with specifically four wheels, two horses and six seats, and driven by a Jarvey
Coachman
A coachman is a man whose business it is to drive a coach, a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements...

(also spelled jarvie).

The growler was a type of four-wheel, enclosed carriage drawn by two horses used as a hackney carriage, that is, as a vehicle for hire with a coachman. It is distinguished from a cab, hansom cab
Hansom cab
The hansom cab is a kind of horse-drawn cart designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an architect from York. The vehicle was developed and tested by Hansom in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England. Originally called the Hansom safety cab, it was designed to combine speed with safety, with a low...

 or cabriolet
Cabriolet (carriage)
A cabriolet is a light horse-drawn vehicle, with two wheels and a single horse. The carriage has a folding hood that can cover its two occupants, one of whom is the driver. It has a large rigid apron, gracefully upward-curving shafts, and usually a rear platform between the C springs for a groom...

, in that those had only two wheels. It is distinguished from most coaches by being of slightly smaller size, holding nominally four passengers, and being much less ostentatious.

Motorization

Electric hackney carriages appeared before the introduction of the internal combustion engine to vehicles for hire in 1901. During the 20th century, car
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

s generally replaced horse-drawn models, and the last horse-drawn hackney carriage ceased service in London in 1947. A small, usually two-wheeled, one-horse hackney vehicle called a noddy once plied the roads in Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 and Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

. The French had a small hackney coach called a fiacre.

UK regulations define a hackney carriage as a taxicab allowed to ply the streets looking for passengers to pick up, as opposed to private hire vehicles (sometimes called minicabs), which may pick up only passengers who have previously booked or who visit the taxi operator's office.

In 1999, the first of a series of fuel cell powered taxis were trialled in London. The "Millenium Cab" built by ZeTek gained television coverage and great interest when driven in the Sheraton Hotel Ball Room in New York by Judd Hirsch
Judd Hirsch
Judd Hirsch is an American actor most known for playing Alex Rieger on the television comedy series Taxi, John Lacey on the NBC series Dear John, and Alan Eppes on the CBS series Numb3rs.-Early life and education:...

, the star of the television series Taxi
Taxi (TV series)
Taxi was an American sitcom that originally aired from 1978 to 1982 on ABC and from 1982 to 1983 on NBC. The series, which won 18 Emmy Awards, including three for "Outstanding Comedy Series", focuses on the everyday lives of a handful of New York City taxi drivers and their abusive dispatcher...

. ZeTek built three cabs but ceased activities in 2001.

Horse-drawn cabs today

Horse-drawn hackney services continue to operate in some other parts of the UK, for example in Cockington
Cockington
Cockington is a village in Torquay in the English county of Devon. It is a picturesque village, with old cottages within its boundaries. It is about a half a mile away from Torquay.- History :...

, Torquay. The Australian city of Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

 has, in recent years, introduced horse-drawn hire carriages as an adjunct to its promotion of tourism .

Black cabs

Motorised hackney cabs in the UK, traditionally all black in London and most major cities, are traditionally known as black cabs (which they were), although they are now produced in a variety of colours, sometimes in advertising brand
Brand
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as a "Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers."...

 liveries
Livery
A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body. Often, elements of the heraldry relating to the individual or corporate body feature in...

 (see below). The 50 golden cabs produced for the Queen's
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

 Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was the international celebration marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50...

 celebrations in 2002 were notable.

Vehicle design

Historically four-door saloon cars have been highly popular as hackney carriages, but with disability regulations growing in strength and some councils offering free licensing for disabled-friendly vehicles, many operators are now opting for wheelchair-adapted taxis such as the LTI
Manganese Bronze Holdings
Manganese Bronze Holdings PLC is an engineering company based in Coventry, England. Since the sale of its components division in 2003 the company has only one operating division—LTI Limited, trading as The London Taxi Company—which manufactures and retails London Black Taxis.The London...

. Other models of specialist taxis include the Peugeot E7
Peugeot E7
The Peugeot E7 is a purpose built hackney cab. The vehicle provides full wheelchair accessibility and holds EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval. It is powered by Peugeot HDi engines....

 and rivals from Fiat, Volkswagen, Metrocab and Mercedes-Benz. These vehicles normally allow six or seven passengers, although some models can accommodate eight. Some of these 'minibus' taxis include a front passenger seat next to the driver, while others reserve this space solely for luggage.

Many black cabs have a turning circle of only 25 ft (8 m). One reason for this is the configuration of the famed Savoy Hotel
Savoy Hotel
The Savoy Hotel is a hotel located on the Strand, in the City of Westminster in central London. Built by impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte with profits from his Gilbert and Sullivan operas, the hotel opened on 6 August 1889. It was the first in the Savoy group of hotels and restaurants owned by...

: The hotel entrance's small roundabout
Roundabout
A roundabout is the name for a road junction in which traffic moves in one direction around a central island. The word dates from the early 20th century. Roundabouts are common in many countries around the world...

 meant that vehicles needed the small turning circle in order to navigate it. That requirement became the legally required turning circles for all London cabs, while the custom of a passenger's sitting on the right, behind the driver, provided a reason for the right-hand traffic in Savoy Court, allowing hotel patrons to board and alight from the driver's side.

Driver qualification

In London, hackney-carriage drivers have to pass a test called The Knowledge to demonstrate that they have an intimate knowledge of the geography of London streets, important buildings etc. There are two types of badge, a yellow one for the suburban areas and a green one for all of London. The latter is considered far more difficult. Drivers who own their cabs as opposed to renting from a garage are known as 'mushers' and those who have just passed the "knowledge" are known as 'butter boys'. There are currently around 21,000 black cabs in London, licensed by the Public Carriage Office. Until recently there was a requirement that drivers must normally convey a hiring up to six miles (10 km) from Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London, England. It is named after the now demolished Eleanor cross that stood there, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross is now occupied by an equestrian...

. This was historically the furthest distance that a horse could be expected to travel. The requirement has now been amended to twelve miles.
Elsewhere, councils have their own regulations. Some merely require a driver to pass a Criminal Records Bureau disclosure and have a reasonably clean driving licence, while others use their own local versions of London's The Knowledge test.

Private users

Oil millionaire Nubar Gulbenkian
Nubar Gulbenkian
Nubar Sarkis Gulbenkian was an Armenian petroleum magnate and socialite born in the Ottoman empire .-Early years:The son of Calouste Gulbenkian, he was born on the Bosporus but taken out of the country at an early age. Taken by his father to England, he was educated at Harrow School, Trinity...

 drove about in a custom-built gold and black car, designed to look like a vintage London taxi and powered by a Rolls-Royce engine, because he had been told "it can turn on a sixpence — whatever that is." Other celebrities are known to use hackney carriages both for their anonymity and their ruggedness/manoeuvrability in London traffic. Users include Prince Philip
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Elizabeth II. He is the United Kingdom's longest-serving consort and the oldest serving spouse of a reigning British monarch....

, whose cab has been converted to run on liquefied petroleum gas, according to the British royal
British monarchy
The monarchy of the United Kingdom is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties...

 website, and author Stephen Fry
Stephen Fry
Stephen John Fry is an English actor, screenwriter, author, playwright, journalist, poet, comedian, television presenter and film director, and a director of Norwich City Football Club. He first came to attention in the 1981 Cambridge Footlights Revue presentation "The Cellar Tapes", which also...

. Black cabs also have recently served as recording studios for indie band performances and other performances in the Black Cab Sessions
Black Cab Sessions
The Black Cab Sessions is a series of one-song performances by musicians and poets recorded in the back of a black cab and filmed for an internet audience. A black cab is a type of hackney carriage common to Britain. The sessions are recorded while the black cab that serves as the studio travels...

 internet project.

British TV Presenter, Yvette Fielding
Yvette Fielding
Yvette Fielding is a British broadcaster, producer and actress. She is best known for being the presenter of the TV shows Blue Peter, Most Haunted and Ghosthunting With....-Early life and career:...

 owns one and it is seen on her show Ghosthunting With...
Ghosthunting With...
Ghosthunting With... is based on investigating purported paranormal activity. Yvette Fielding hosts the programme, broadcast on digital channel ITV2, where she takes celebrities to haunted buildings to investigate....

.

In the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

, the Governor's official car between 1976 and 2010 was a London taxi. One of the reasons for this was that the Governor could (while wearing the ostrich feather hat and sword that form part of his civil uniform) get in and out of the cab with more diginity than another official car. Following the Argentine invasion of the islands at the beginning of the Falklands war
Falklands War
The Falklands War , also called the Falklands Conflict or Falklands Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the disputed Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands...

, then Governor Rex Hunt
Rex Hunt
Rex James Hunt is an Australian television and radio personality, and a former Australian rules football player. He is an Australian rules football commentator, currently on the 1116 SEN radio station with son in law Lee Raynor conducting a program called Off The Hook. He is better known around...

 left the islands in the taxi in full dress uniform. The cab was brought to the islands in January 1976 and was still in regular use until 2009, latterly only for parades and other official occasions. The future of the cab became increasingly uncertain because its age meant that it needed ever more maintenance (the brakes had become notoriously unreliable by the end) and parts became more difficult to obtain. It was used for one last time on 18 September 2010 at the Farewell Parade for outgoing Governor Alan Huckle
Alan Huckle
Alan Edden Huckle is a British colonial administrator. He was the commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory and the British Antarctic Territory from 2001 until 2004, when he left to become the governor of Anguilla in the Caribbean...

. It was announced after the parade that the taxi was being retired from use but would be kept at the Museum - it had been displayed there in recent years when not in use. The taxi has a special registration number F1 MNT, standing for Falkland Islands Museum and National Trust.

In other countries

Between 2003 and August 1, 2009 it was possible to purchase the London taxi model TXII in the United States. Today there are approximately 250 TXIIs in the US, operating as taxis in San Francisco, Dallas, Long Beach
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city situated in Los Angeles County in Southern California, on the Pacific coast of the United States. The city is the 36th-largest city in the nation and the seventh-largest in California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257...

, Houston, New Orleans, Las Vegas
Las Vegas, Nevada
Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and is also the county seat of Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous...

, Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

 and Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

. The largest operating fleet in North America is located in Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

 and owned by the Charleston Black Cab Company. They can also be seen in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

 and Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

, as well as in Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, where a Chinese-made version of LTI's model TX4 built by Geely Automobile
Geely Automobile
Zhejiang Geely Holding Group is a holding company and parent of Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd a private automobile manufacturer. Geely may often round out the top ten Chinese automakers....

 is available for sale. On February 2010, a number of TX4s started operating in the capital of Kosovo - Pristina. They are known as London Taxi.
From July 2009 London taxis will not be available to buy new in the United States. Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 has also used London-style cabs since 2000; they charge higher rates than most other models.
As of 2011, 1000 Chinese-made version of LTI's latest model TX4 were ordered by Baku Taxi Company and the plan is part of a program originally announced by the Transport Ministry of Azerbaijan to introduce London cabs to the capital Baku
Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

. The move was part of £16 million agreement between Manganese Bronze
Manganese Bronze
Manganese Bronze Holdings PLC is an engineering company based in Coventry, England. Since the sale of its components division in 2003 the company has only one operating division—LTI Limited, trading as The London Taxi Company—which manufactures and retails London Black Taxis.The London...

 and Baku Taxi Company.

Variety of models

There have been different makes and types of hackney cab through the years, including:
  • Beardmore Marks I to VII
    William Beardmore and Company
    William Beardmore and Company was a Scottish engineering and shipbuilding conglomerate based in Glasgow and the surrounding Clydeside area. It was active between about 1890 and 1930 and at its peak employed about 40,000 people...

  • Austin FX3
    Austin FX3
    The Austin FX3 was a taxicab designed to comply with the Metropolitan Police Conditions of Fitness for London taxicabs, but was used in other towns and cities in the United Kingdom...

  • Austin/Carbodies/LTI FX4 and Fairway
    Austin FX4
    The FX4 is the classic Black Cab. While the majority are black, there is in fact no requirement for them, or indeed any other make of London taxi to be black. Over the years, the FX4 has been sold under a number of different makers' names.-Design and launch:...

  • MCW/Reliant/Hooper Metrocab
    Metrocab
    Metrocab was a British manufacturer of taxicabs latterly based in Tamworth in operation under various owners from 1989 to 2006.-MCW:The company was created by Metro Cammell Weymann as a taxicab manufacturing enterprise producing the MCW Metrocab....

  • LTI TX1
    TX1
    This is about the taxi in London. For the camera see Canon PowerShot TX-1. For the video game, see TX-1 .TX1 is a Hackney carriage introduced by London Taxis International in 1997 and designed to replace the aging Austin FX4...

    , TXII
    TXII
    The TXII is a hackney carriage manufactured by LTI. It is the second model following the modernisation and re-design of the London taxi which began with the TX1...

     and TX4
    TX4
    The TX4 is a purpose built taxicab manufactured by Manganese Bronze Holdings / LTC The London Taxi Company, formerly LTI London Taxis International. It is the latest in a long line of purpose-built taxis manufactured by LTC...

  • Mercedes-Benz Vito
  • Peugeot E7
    Peugeot E7
    The Peugeot E7 is a purpose built hackney cab. The vehicle provides full wheelchair accessibility and holds EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval. It is powered by Peugeot HDi engines....

  • Ford Journey
    Ford Transit Connect
    The Ford Transit Connect is a compact panel van developed by Ford Europe and designed by Peter Horbury, introduced in 2002 to replace the older Ford Escort and Fiesta-based Courier van ranges, which had ceased production in the same year....

  • Volkswagen Odyssey
    Volkswagen Transporter (T5)
    The Volkswagen Transporter T5 range is the fifth generation of Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles medium-sized light commercial vehicle and people mover Caravelle/Multivan range...



Use in advertising

The London taxi has caught the eye of many advertising agencies because the body style is unique. The vehicle has therefore often been wrapped with advertising and used for marketing events both in the UK and in the US, including the Marmite Taxi, used to collect officials visiting the Marmite
Marmite
Marmite is the name given to two similar food spreads: the original British version, first produced in the United Kingdom and later South Africa, and a version produced in New Zealand...

 factory near Burton-on-Trent.

The first person to advertise on a London taxi was David Locke, who came up with the idea to uniquely advertise his London pub The Samuel Pepys.

Future

On 14 December 2010, London Mayor Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British journalist and Conservative Party politician, who has been the elected Mayor of London since 2008...

 in his air quality strategy paper, set out plans to phase out the oldest of the LT Cabs
Manganese Bronze Holdings
Manganese Bronze Holdings PLC is an engineering company based in Coventry, England. Since the sale of its components division in 2003 the company has only one operating division—LTI Limited, trading as The London Taxi Company—which manufactures and retails London Black Taxis.The London...

 in an effort to improve air quality. The plan includes a £1m fund to encourage taxi owners to upgrade to low emission vehicles such as electric taxi cabs. On the same day, transport minister Philip Hammond
Philip Hammond
Philip Hammond MP is a British Conservative Party politician. He is the current Defence Secretary in the Coalition government led by David Cameron, having succeeded Liam Fox on 14 October 2011...

 unveiled the £5,000 electric car subsidy, and Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen is a German automobile manufacturer and is the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group, which now also owns the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, and Škoda marques and the truck manufacturer Scania.Volkswagen means "people's car" in German, where it is...

 unveiled the VW Milano
VW Milano
The Volkswagen model VW Milano is a prototype of an electric taxi, which was presented at the Hanover Fair in April 2010. It is a van-type car with 3 doors, an 85 kW electric motor and a 45 kWh lithium-ion-battery. The market introduction is planned for the year 2013.-UK:The Milano was...

 electric taxi in the UK.

See also

  • Taxicabs of the United Kingdom
    Taxicabs of the United Kingdom
    Taxicabs are regulated throughout the United Kingdom, but the regulation of taxicabs in London is especially rigorous both with regard to mechanical integrity and driver knowledge. An official report observed that: "Little however is known about the regulation by anyone outside the trade...

  • Illegal taxicab operation#Terminology
  • Manganese Bronze
    Manganese Bronze Holdings
    Manganese Bronze Holdings PLC is an engineering company based in Coventry, England. Since the sale of its components division in 2003 the company has only one operating division—LTI Limited, trading as The London Taxi Company—which manufactures and retails London Black Taxis.The London...

     — the manufacturer of London black cabs.
  • Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers
    Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers
    The Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers is one of the 108 Livery Companies of the City of London. Its members are professional hackney carriage drivers, including London black taxicab drivers who have learnt the knowledge of London....

  • Carriage
    Carriage
    A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

  • Wagon
    Wagon
    A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals; it was formerly often called a wain, and if low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float....


External links

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