Tangier
Overview
Tangier, also Tangiers (Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Tifinagh is a series of abjad and alphabetic scripts used by some Berber peoples, notably the Tuareg, to write their language.A modern derivate of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century...

: ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ Tanja, archaic Berber name: Tingi, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

: طنجة Ṭanja) is a city in northern Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 with a population of about 700,000 (2008 census). It lies on the North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

n coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. The name comes from Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jebel Tariq , albeit the Arab name for the Strait is Bab el-Zakat or...

 where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel is a promontory in Morocco about above sea level at the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, 12 km West of Tangier. It is frequently but incorrectly referred as the northernmost point of Africa, which is instead Ras ben Sakka, Tunisia....

. It is the capital of the Tangier-Tetouan
Tangier-Tetouan
Tangier-Tetouan is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. It is situated in north-western Morocco. It covers an area of 11,570 km² and has a population of 2,470,372...

 Region and of the Tangier-Asilah prefecture of Morocco.

The history of Tangier is very rich due to the historical presence of many civilizations and cultures starting from the 5th century BC.
Encyclopedia
Tangier, also Tangiers (Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Tifinagh is a series of abjad and alphabetic scripts used by some Berber peoples, notably the Tuareg, to write their language.A modern derivate of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century...

: ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ Tanja, archaic Berber name: Tingi, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

: طنجة Ṭanja) is a city in northern Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 with a population of about 700,000 (2008 census). It lies on the North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

n coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. The name comes from Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jebel Tariq , albeit the Arab name for the Strait is Bab el-Zakat or...

 where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel is a promontory in Morocco about above sea level at the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, 12 km West of Tangier. It is frequently but incorrectly referred as the northernmost point of Africa, which is instead Ras ben Sakka, Tunisia....

. It is the capital of the Tangier-Tetouan
Tangier-Tetouan
Tangier-Tetouan is one of the sixteen regions of Morocco. It is situated in north-western Morocco. It covers an area of 11,570 km² and has a population of 2,470,372...

 Region and of the Tangier-Asilah prefecture of Morocco.

The history of Tangier is very rich due to the historical presence of many civilizations and cultures starting from the 5th century BC. Between the period of being a Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

n town to the independence era around the 1950s, Tangier was a place—and, sometimes a refuge—for many cultures. However, it was not until 1923 that Tangier was attributed an international status
International city
An international city is an autonomous or semi-autonomous city-state that is separate from the direct supervision of a single nation-state.-Rationale for establishment:International cities had either had one or both of the following characteristics:...

 by foreign colonial powers, thus becoming a destination for many Europeans, Americans and others.

The city is currently undergoing rapid development and modernization. Projects include new 5-star hotels along the bay, a modern business district called Tangier City Centre, a new airport terminal and a new soccer stadium. Tangier's economy is also set to benefit greatly from the new Tanger-Med
Tanger-med
Tanger-Med is a cargo and passenger port located about 40 km east of Tangier, Morocco. It is one of the largest ports on the Mediterranean and in Africa by capacity and went into service in July 2007. Its initial capacity was 3.5 million shipment containers....

 port.

Tangier's sport team I.R.T.
IR Tanger
IR Tanger is a Moroccan football club based in Tangier.The club was founded in 1983. They play their home games at Stade Ibn Batouta after been in Stade de Marchan.-Achievements:*Moroccan Championship: 0*Moroccan League Second Division: 1...

 (or Ittihad Riadi de Tanger) is the main football club and has the most followers. Tangier will be one of the host cities for the 2015 African Nations Cup soccer championship, played at the new Ibn Batouta Stadium and in other cities in Morocco.

History

The modern Tanjah (Anglicised as Tangier) is an ancient Berber
Berber mythology
The traditional Berber mythology is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities developed by the Berber people in their historical land of North Africa...

 and Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

n town, founded by Carthaginian
Carthage
Carthage , implying it was a 'new Tyre') is a major urban centre that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC...

 colonists in the early 5th century BC. Its name is possibly derived from the Berber goddess Tinjis
Tinjis
Tinjis was in Berber and Greek Mythology the wife of Antaeus, son of Poseidon and Gaia....

 (or Tinga), and it remains an important city for the Berbers
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

. Ancient coins call it Tenga, Tinga, and Titga with Greek and Latin authors giving numerous variations of the name.

According to Berber mythology
Berber mythology
The traditional Berber mythology is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities developed by the Berber people in their historical land of North Africa...

, the town was built by Sufax
Sufax
Sufax was a hero from the Berber and Greek mythologies....

, son of Tinjis, the wife of the Berber hero Änti (Greek Antaios, Latin Antaeus). The Greeks ascribed its foundation to the giant Antaios, whose tomb and skeleton are pointed out in the vicinity, calling Sufax the son of Hercules
Hercules
Hercules is the Roman name for Greek demigod Heracles, son of Zeus , and the mortal Alcmene...

 by the widow of Antaeus. The cave of Hercules, a few miles from the city, is a major tourist attraction. It is believed that Hercules slept there before attempting one of his twelve labours.

The commercial town of Tingis came under Roman rule
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 in the course of the 1st century BC, first as a free city and then, under Augustus, a colony (Colonia Julia, under Claudius), capital of Mauritania Tingitana of Hispania
Hispania
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis....

. It was the scene of the martyrdoms of Saint Marcellus of Tangier
Marcellus of Tangier
Saint Marcellus of Tangier or Saint Marcellus the Centurion is venerated as a Martyr Saint by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church...

. In the 5th century AD, Vandals
Vandals
The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Vandals under king Genseric entered Africa in 429 and by 439 established a kingdom which included the Roman Africa province, besides the islands of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearics....

 conquered and occupied "Tingi" and from here swept across North Africa.

A century later (between 534 and 682), Tangier fell back to the (Eastern) Roman empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, before coming under Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 (Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

) control in 702. Due to its Christian past, it is still a titular see
Titular see
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular bishop", "titular metropolitan", or "titular archbishop"....

 of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

.
When the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 started their expansion in Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, by taking Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 in 1415, Tangier was always a primary goal. They failed to capture the city in 1437 but finally occupied it in 1471 (see List of colonial heads of Tangier).
The Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 rule (including Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 rule during the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchies of Portugal and Spain after the War of the Portuguese Succession...

, 1580–1640) lasted until 1661, when it was given to Charles II of England
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 as part of the dowry from the Portuguese Infanta Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...

, becoming English Tangier. The English gave the city a garrison
Tangier Garrison
English Tangier was a colony of the Kingdom of England and a military and naval base in Tangier, held by the English from 1661 to 6 February 1684, when it returned to being part of Morocco.-English take possession:...

 and a charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 which made it equal to English towns. The English planned to improve the harbour by building a mole
Mole (architecture)
A mole is a massive structure, usually of stone, used as a pier, breakwater, or a causeway between places separated by water. The word comes from Middle French mole and ultimately Latin mōlēs meaning a large mass, especially of rock and has the same root as molecule.Historically, the term "mole"...

. With an improved harbour the town would have played the same role that Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

 later played in British naval strategy. The mole cost £340,000 and reached 1,436 feet long, before being blown up during the evacuation.

An attempt of Sultan Moulay Ismail
Ismail Ibn Sharif
Moulay Ismaïl Ibn Sharif was the second ruler of the Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. Like others of the dynasty, Ismaïl claimed to be a descendant of Muhammad through his roots to Hassan ibn Ali...

 of Morocco to seize the town in 1679 was unsuccessful; but a crippling blockade imposed by him ultimately forced the English to withdraw. The English destroyed the town and its port facilities prior to their departure in 1684. Under Moulay Ismail
Ismail Ibn Sharif
Moulay Ismaïl Ibn Sharif was the second ruler of the Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. Like others of the dynasty, Ismaïl claimed to be a descendant of Muhammad through his roots to Hassan ibn Ali...

 the city was reconstructed to some extent, but it gradually declined until, by 1810, the population was no more than 5,000.

The United States dedicated its first consulate in Tangier during the George Washington administration
Presidency of George Washington
With inauguration on April 30, 1789, the presidency of George Washington initiated a significant leadership role over the United States. President Washington entered office with the full support of the national and state leadership, and established the executive and judicial branches of the federal...

. In 1821, the Legation Building in Tangier became the first piece of property acquired abroad by the U.S. government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

—a gift to the U.S. from Sultan Moulay Suliman
Slimane of Morocco
Mulay Slimane or Suleiman was the Sultan of Morocco from 1792 to 1822. Slimane was one of five sons of Mohammed III who fought a civil war for control of the kingdom. Slimane emerged victorious in 1795, and the country remained largely passive for the subsequent decades of his rule...

. It was bombarded by the French Prince de Joinville in 1844.

Garibaldi lived in exile at Tangier in late 1849 and the first half of 1850, following the fall of the revolutionary Roman Republic
Roman Republic (19th century)
The Roman Republic was a state declared on February 9, 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily substituted by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX's flight to Gaeta. The republic was led by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi...

.
Tangier's geographic location made it a centre for Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an diplomatic and commercial rivalry in Morocco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. By the opening of the 20th century, it had a population of about 40,000, including 20,000 Muslims, 10,000 Jews, and 9,000 Europeans (of whom 7,500 were Spanish). The city was increasingly coming under French influence, and it was here in 1905 that Kaiser Wilhelm II triggered an international crisis that almost led to war between his country and France by pronouncing himself in favour of Morocco's continued independence.

In 1912, Morocco was effectively partitioned between France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, the latter occupying the country's far north (called Spanish Morocco
Spanish Morocco
The Spanish protectorate of Morocco was the area of Morocco under colonial rule by the Spanish Empire, established by the Treaty of Fez in 1912 and ending in 1956, when both France and Spain recognized Moroccan independence.-Territorial borders:...

) and a part of Moroccan territory in the south
Río de Oro
Río de Oro , is, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it was originally taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century...

, while France declared a protectorate over the remainder. The last Sultan of independent Morocco, Moulay Hafid
Abdelhafid of Morocco
Abdelhafid of Morocco was the Sultan of Morocco from 1908 to 1912 and a member of the Alaouite Dynasty. His younger brother, Abdelaziz of Morocco, preceded him...

, was exiled to the Sultanate Palace
Dar el Makzhen (Tangier)
The Dar-el-Makhzen is a historical building in Tangier, Morocco, which was the seat of residence for the Sultans of Morocco when staying in the city....

 in the Tangier Kasbah after his forced abdication in favour of his brother Moulay Yusef
Yusef of Morocco
Sultan Yusef ben Hassan ruled Morocco from 1912 until his death in 1927. Born in the city of Meknes to Sultan Hassan I, he inherited the throne from his brother, Sultan Abdelhafid, who abdicated after the Treaty of Fez , which made Morocco a French protectorate. He was a member of the Alaouite...

. Tangier was made an international zone in 1923 under the joint administration of France, Spain, and Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 under an international convention signed in Paris on December 18, 1923. Ratifications were exchanged in Paris on May 14, 1924. The convention was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on September 13, 1924. The convention was amended in 1928. The governments of Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 and Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 adhered to the convention in 1928, and the government of the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 in 1929.

The International zone of Tangier had a 373 square kilometer area and, by 1939, a population of about 60,000 inhabitants.

Spanish troops occupied Tangier on June 14, 1940, the same day Paris fell to the Germans
Battle of France
In the Second World War, the Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, which ended the Phoney War. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb , German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes, to cut off and...

. Despite calls by the writer Rafael Sánchez Mazas
Rafael Sánchez Mazas
Rafael Sánchez Mazas was a Spanish nationalist writer and a leader of the Falange, a right-wing political movement created in Spain before the Spanish Civil War....

 and other Spanish nationalists to annex "Tánger español", the Franco regime publicly considered the occupation a temporary wartime measure
Spain in World War II
The Spanish State under General Franco was officially non-belligerent during World War II. This status, although not recognised by international law, was intended to express the regime's sympathy and material support for the Axis Powers, to which Spain offered considerable material, economic, and...

. A diplomatic dispute between Britain and Spain over the latter's abolition of the city's international institutions in November 1940 led to a further guarantee of British rights and a Spanish promise not to fortify the area. The territory was restored to its pre-war status on August 31, 1945. Tangier joined with the rest of Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 following the restoration of full sovereignty in 1956.

Ecclesiastical history

Originally, the city was part of the larger province of Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis
Mauretania Caesariensis was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa. It was the easternmost of the North African Roman provinces, mainly in present Algeria, with its capital at Caesarea , now Cherchell.-Historical background:In the first century AD, Roman...

, which included much of Northern Africa. Later the area was subdivided, with the eastern part keeping the former name and the newer part receiving the name of Mauretania Tingitana. It is not known exactly at what period there may have been an episcopal see at Tangier in ancient times, but in the Middle Ages Tangier was used as a titular see
Titular see
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular bishop", "titular metropolitan", or "titular archbishop"....

 (i.e., an honorific fiction for the appointment of curial and auxiliary bishops), placing it in Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The province extended from the northern peninsula, opposite Gibraltar, to Chellah and Volubilis to the south, and as far east as the Oued Laou river. Its...

. For the historical reasons given above, one official list of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Catholic Church, together with the Pope...

 places the see in Mauretania Caesarea.

Towards the end of the 3rd century, Tangier was the scene of the martyrdom of Saint Marcellus of Tangier
Marcellus of Tangier
Saint Marcellus of Tangier or Saint Marcellus the Centurion is venerated as a Martyr Saint by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church...

, mentioned in the Roman Martyrology
Roman Martyrology
The Roman Martyrology is the official martyrology of the Roman Rite of the Roman Catholic Church. It provides an extensive but not exhaustive list of the saints recognized by the Church.-History:...

 on 30 October, and of St. Cassian
Cassian of Tangier
Saint Cassian of Tangier was a Christian saint of the 3rd century. He is traditionally said to have been beheaded on 3 December, AD 298, during the reign of Diocletian. The Passion of Saint Cassian is appended to that of Saint Marcellus of Tangier. It is, however, not considered reliable...

, mentioned on 3 December.

Under the Portuguese domination, there was a Bishop of Tangier who was a suffragan of Lisbon but in 1570 the diocese was united to the diocese of Ceuta. Six Bishops of Tangier from this period are known, the first, who did not reside in his see, in 1468. During the era of the protectorate over Morocco, Tangier was the residence of the Prefect Apostolic of Morocco, the mission having being founded on November 28, 1630, and entrusted to the Friars Minor. At the time it had a Catholic church, several chapels, schools, and a hospital. The Prefecture Apostolic was raised to the status of a Vicariate Apostolic of Marocco April 14, 1908, and on November 14, 1956, became the Archdiocese of Tangier.

The city also has the Anglican church of Saint Andrew
Church of Saint Andrew, Tangier
The Church of Saint Andrew is an Anglican church in Tangier, Morocco, consecrated in 1905.-History:In 1880, Hassan I of Morocco donated land to the British community in order to build a small Anglican church in Tangier...

.

Espionage history

Tangier has been reputed as a safe house
Safe house
In the jargon of law enforcement and intelligence agencies, a safe house is a secure location, suitable for hiding witnesses, agents or other persons perceived as being in danger...

 for international spying activities. Its position during the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 and other spying periods of the 19th and 20th centuries is legendary.

Tangier acquired the reputation of a spying and smuggling centre and attracted foreign capital due to political neutrality and commercial liberty at that time. It was via a British bank in Tangier that the Bank of England
Bank of England
The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in the world...

 in 1943 for the first time obtained samples of the high-quality forged British currency produced by the Nazis in "Operation Bernhard
Operation Bernhard
Operation Bernhard was the codename of a secret Nazi plan devised during the Second World War by the RSHA and the SS to destabilise the British economy by flooding the country with forged Bank of England £5, £10, £20, and £50 notes...

".

The city has also been a subject for many spy fiction
Spy fiction
Spy fiction, literature concerning the forms of espionage, was a sub-genre derived from the novel during the nineteenth century, which then evolved into a discrete genre before the First World War , when governments established modern intelligence agencies in the early twentieth century...

 books and films. (See Tangier in popular culture below.)

Climate

Tangier has a mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Csa) with heavier rainfall than most parts of North Africa owing to its exposed location. The summers are hot and sunny - ideal for the city’s beaches - and the winters are occasionally wet but very mild: frost is unknown.

Culture

The multicultural placement of Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

, Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

, and Jewish communities and the foreign immigrants attracted writers like Paul Bowles
Paul Bowles
Paul Frederic Bowles was an American expatriate composer, author, and translator.Following a cultured middle-class upbringing in New York City, during which he displayed a talent for music and writing, Bowles pursued his education at the University of Virginia before making various trips to Paris...

, William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American novelist, poet, essayist and spoken word performer. A primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author, he is considered to be "one of the most politically trenchant, culturally influential, and innovative artists of the 20th...

, Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
Irwin Allen Ginsberg was an American poet and one of the leading figures of the Beat Generation in the 1950s. He vigorously opposed militarism, materialism and sexual repression...

, Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac
Jean-Louis "Jack" Lebris de Kerouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing, covering topics such as Catholic...

, Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III was an American writer who worked principally as a playwright in the American theater. He also wrote short stories, novels, poetry, essays, screenplays and a volume of memoirs...

, Brion Gysin
Brion Gysin
Brion Gysin was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born in Taplow, Buckinghamshire.He is best known for his discovery of the cut-up technique, used by his friend, the novelist William S. Burroughs...

 and the music group the Rolling Stones, who all lived in or visited Tangier during different periods of the 20th century.

It was after Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school...

 that Tangier became an obligatory stop for artists seeking to experience the colors and light he spoke of for themselves—with varying results. Matisse made several sojourns in Tangier, always staying at the Grand Hotel Villa de France. "I have found landscapes in Morocco," he claimed, "exactly as they are described in Delacroix's paintings." The Californian artist Richard Diebenkorn
Richard Diebenkorn
Richard Diebenkorn was a well-known 20th century American painter. His early work is associated with Abstract expressionism and the Bay Area Figurative Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. His later work were instrumental to his achievement of worldwide acclaim.-Biography:Richard Clifford Diebenkorn Jr...

 was directly influenced by the haunting colors and rhythmic patterns of Matisse's Morocco paintings.

Antonio Fuentes was born in Tangier in 1905 from a Spanish family. An article in La Gazette du Maroc described Antonio Fuentes as the Picasso of Tangier, and he died in the city 90 years later.

In the 1940s and until 1956 when the city was an International Zone
International zone
An international zone is a type of extraterritoriality governed by international law, or similar treaty between two or more nations. They can be found within international airports and can contain duty free shopping. In areas of conflict there may be international zones called green zones that form...

, the city served as a playground for eccentric millionaires, a meeting place for secret agents and all kinds of crooks, and a mecca for speculators and gamblers, an Eldorado for the fun-loving "Haute Volée". During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency, and it was a predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency...

 operated out of Tangier for various operations in North Africa.

Around the same time, a circle of writers emerged which was to have a profound and lasting literary influence. This included Paul Bowles
Paul Bowles
Paul Frederic Bowles was an American expatriate composer, author, and translator.Following a cultured middle-class upbringing in New York City, during which he displayed a talent for music and writing, Bowles pursued his education at the University of Virginia before making various trips to Paris...

, who lived and wrote for over half a century in the city, Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III was an American writer who worked principally as a playwright in the American theater. He also wrote short stories, novels, poetry, essays, screenplays and a volume of memoirs...

 and Jean Genet
Jean Genet
Jean Genet was a prominent and controversial French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist. Early in his life he was a vagabond and petty criminal, but later took to writing...

 as well as Mohamed Choukri
Mohamed Choukri
Mohamed Choukri , born on July 15, 1935 and died on November 15, 2003, was a Moroccan author and novelist who is best known for his internationally acclaimed autobiography For Bread Alone , which was described by the American playwright Tennessee Williams as 'A true document of human desperation,...

 (one of North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

's most controversial and widely read authors), Abdeslam Boulaich
Abdeslam Boulaich
Abdeslam Boulaich is a Moroccan story-teller, some of whose stories have been translated by Paul Bowles from Moroccan Arabic to English. Boulaich's stories have been studied in college courses.- References :...

, Larbi Layachi, Mohammed Mrabet and Ahmed Yacoubi
Ahmed Yacoubi
Ahmed Yacoubi was a Moroccan painter and story-teller. He was born in Fes, Morocco in 1931.Paul Bowles translated Ahmed Yacoubi's stories from Maghrebi into English: "The Man and The Woman" , "The Man Who Dreamed of Fish Eating Fish" and "The Game" , and a play "The Night Before Thinking" which...

. Among the best known works from this period is Choukri's For Bread Alone. Originally written in Classical Arabic, the English edition was the result of close collaboration with Bowles (who worked with Choukri to provide the translation and supplied the introduction). Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III was an American writer who worked principally as a playwright in the American theater. He also wrote short stories, novels, poetry, essays, screenplays and a volume of memoirs...

 described it as "a true document of human desperation, shattering in its impact." Independently, William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American novelist, poet, essayist and spoken word performer. A primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author, he is considered to be "one of the most politically trenchant, culturally influential, and innovative artists of the 20th...

 lived in Tangier for four years and wrote Naked Lunch
Naked Lunch
Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs originally published in 1959. The book is structured as a series of loosely-connected vignettes. Burroughs stated that the chapters are intended to be read in any order...

, whose locale of Interzone
Interzone (book)
Interzone is a collection of short stories and other early works by William S. Burroughs. The collection was first published by Viking Penguin in 1989, although several of the stories had already been printed elsewhere, including an earlier publication entitled Early Routines...

 is an allusion to the city.

After several years of gradual disentanglement from Spanish and French colonial control, Morocco reintegrated the city of Tangier at the signing of the Tangier Protocol
Tangier Protocol
Tangier Protocol was an agreement signed between France, Spain and the United Kingdom by which Tangier, Morocco became an international zone.-History:The protocol was signed in 1925. Starting from 1929, Spain assumed the policing of the city...

 on October 29, 1956. Tangier remains a very popular tourist destination for cruise ships and day visitors from Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

.

Economy

Tangier is Morocco's second most important industrial centre after Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

. The industrial sectors are diversified: textile
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

, chemical, mechanical, metallurgical and naval. Currently, the city has four industrial park
Industrial park
An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development...

s of which two have the status of free economic zone
Free economic zone
Many countries have, or have had at some time, designated areas where companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage development or for some other reason...

 (see Tangier Free Zone).

Tangier's economy relies heavily on tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

. Seaside resort
Seaside resort
A seaside resort is a resort, or resort town, located on the coast. Where a beach is the primary focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort.- Overview :...

s have been increasing with projects funded by foreign investments. Real estate
Real estate
In general use, esp. North American, 'real estate' is taken to mean "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; an item of real property; buildings or...

 and construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

 companies have been investing heavily in tourist infrastructures. A bay delimiting the city centre extends for more than seven kilometres. The years 2007 and 2008 will be particularly important for the city because of the completion of large construction projects currently being built. These include the Tangier-Mediterranean port ("Tanger-Med
Tanger-med
Tanger-Med is a cargo and passenger port located about 40 km east of Tangier, Morocco. It is one of the largest ports on the Mediterranean and in Africa by capacity and went into service in July 2007. Its initial capacity was 3.5 million shipment containers....

") and its industrial parks, a 45,000-seat sports stadium, an expanded business district, and a renovated tourist infrastructure.

Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 in the area of Tangier is tertiary and mainly cereal.

The infrastructure of this city of the strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. The name comes from Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jebel Tariq , albeit the Arab name for the Strait is Bab el-Zakat or...

 consists of a port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 that manages flows of goods and travellers (more than one million travellers per annum) and integrates a marina
Marina
A marina is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats.A marina differs from a port in that a marina does not handle large passenger ships or cargo from freighters....

 with a fishing
Fishing
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch wild fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping....

 port.

Artisanal trade in the old medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 (old city) specializes mainly in leather working, handicrafts made from wood and silver, traditional clothing, and shoes of Moroccan origin.

The city has seen a fast pace of rural exodus
Rural exodus
Rural flight is a term used to describe the migratory patterns of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.In modern times, it often occurs in a region following the industrialization of agriculture when fewer people are needed to bring the same amount of agricultural output to market and related...

 from other small cities and villages. The population has quadrupled during the last 25 years (1 million inhabitants in 2007 vs. 250,000 in 1982). This phenomenon has resulted in the appearance of peripheral suburban districts, mainly inhabited by poor people, that often lack sufficient infrastructure.

The city's postcode is 90 000.

Notable landmarks

  • Dar el Makhzen
    Dar el Makzhen (Tangier)
    The Dar-el-Makhzen is a historical building in Tangier, Morocco, which was the seat of residence for the Sultans of Morocco when staying in the city....

     (Sultan's palace)
  • Tangier American Legation Museum
  • Museum of Moroccan Arts and Antiquities
  • Museum of Contemporary Art (Tangier)
    Museum of Contemporary Art (Tangier)
    The Museum of Contemporary Art or Musée d' Art Contemporain is a museum in Tangier, Morocco, housed in the building of the former British consulate near the Church of St...

  • Fondation Lorin
    Fondation Lorin
    Fondation Lorin is an arts centre on the Rue Es-Siaghine in Tangier, Morocco. It is housed in an old synagogue and displays items such as newspapers, photographs, posters and plans related to the political, sporting, musical and social history of Tangier since the 1930s...

  • Musée de Carmen-Macein
    Musée de Carmen-Macein
    The Musée de Carmen-Macein is a private museum in the Kasbah area of Tangier, Morocco.The museum contains sculptures, paintings and lithographs by artists such as Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst and Georges Braque.-References:...

  • Tangier Grand Mosque
    Tangier Grand Mosque
    Tangier Grand Mosque is a large mosque in the Grand Socco area of central Tangier, Morocco. It was built on the site of a former Portuguese cathedral which in turn stood on a Roman temple dedicated to Hercules. The mosque dates back to the Moulay Ismail period and was expanded in 1815 by Moulay...

  • Kasbah Mosque
    Kasbah Mosque
    Kasbah Mosque is a mosque in Tunis, Tunisia, located in the Medina area of the city. It is a listed Historical Monument. The mosque was built in 1230....

  • Petit Socco
    Petit Socco
    Petit Socco , also known as the "Souk Dakhli" is a square in the Medina area of central Tangier, Morocco. It was once home to many notable writers and affluent people in the city and is connected by the Rue Es-Siaghine The square lies in the area of Tangier on which the forum of the Roman Tingis...

     souk
  • Grand Socco
    Grand Socco
    Grand Socco is a square in the medina area of central Tangier, Morocco and the larger of the Petit Socco which make up the medina of the city. The Grand Socco divides the medina from the Ville Nouvelle area of Tangier...

  • Hotel Continental (Tangier)
    Hotel Continental (Tangier)
    The Hotel Continental is one of the oldest hotels in Tangier, Morocco. It is located in the Medina area of the city centre and some of the rooms overlook the harbor.-External links:*...

  • Church of the Immaculate Conception
  • Anglican Church of St. Andrew
  • Rue Es-Siaghine
    Rue Es-Siaghine
    Rue Es-Siaghine is a street in Tangier, Morocco. It was once the "decumanus maximus", the main thoroughfare of the city under Roman Empire rule. Today the street is lined with cafes and bars and souvenir shops. The street led from the harbor through the south gate...

  • Rue de la Liberté
  • Avenue Pasteur
  • Ancien Palace du Mendoub
  • Gran Teatro Cervantes
    Gran Teatro Cervantes
    Gran Teatro Cervantes is a theatre, dedicated to Miguel Cervantes, in Tangier, Morocco. The theatre was built in 1913 by the Spanish and has undergone little renovation in the exterior, noted for its dilapidated Art Deco facade. The theatre is accessible via the Avenue Pasteur and Rue du Prince...

  • Quartier du Marshan
  • Colline du Charf
    Colline du Charf
    The Colline du Charf is a hill of approximately 100 metres overlooking Tangier on the Mediterranean in northern Morocco. The hill offers a panoramic view of Tangier and the coastline from Cap Malabata in the east to La Montagne in the west...

  • Parc de la Mendoubia
  • Café Hafa
    Café Hafa
    Café Hafa is a cafe in Tangier, Morocco, located along the cliff top overlooking the Bay of Tangier. Opened in 1921, the cafe has retained its 1920s style of decor and through the years has been visited by numerous writers and singers, from Paul Bowles and William S. Burroughs, to The Beatles and...


Transport

A railroad line connects the city with Rabat
Rabat
Rabat , is the capital and third largest city of the Kingdom of Morocco with a population of approximately 650,000...

, Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

 and Marrakech
Marrakech
Marrakech or Marrakesh , known as the "Ochre city", is the most important former imperial city in Morocco's history...

 in the south and Fès
FES
FES or Fes may refer to:* Fes or Fez, a city in Morocco* FES , a human gene that encodes the feline sarcoma oncogene enzyme* FES , a fictional singer from Chaos;Head anime series and alias of Yui Sakakibara for her songs from Chaos;Head and Steins;Gate anime series* Flywheel energy storage, an...

 and Oujda
Oujda
Oujda is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of 1 million. The city is located about 15 kilometers west of Algeria and about 60 kilometers south of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the Oriental Region of Morocco and the birthplace of the current Algerian president,...

 in the east. The service is operated by ONCF
ONCF
ONCF or ONCFM is Morocco's national railway operator. The Office employs around 9,767 employees and has a network of 1,907 km, all standard gauge...

. The Rabat-Tanger expressway
Rabat-Tanger expressway
The Rabat-Tangier expressway is an expressway in Morocco. It begins in Morocco's capital of Rabat, and connects to the northern port city of Tanger. The expressway's identity marker is "A1"....

 connects Tangier to Fès via Rabat (250 km), Settat
Settat
Settat is a city in Morocco between the national capital Rabat and Marrakech. Settat is located at the heart of the country, south of Casablanca. Settat is the capital of the prefecture of Chaouia-Ouardigha and Settat Province, the oldest and largest city in the province, in both size and population...

 via Casablanca (330 km) and Tanger-Med
Tanger-med
Tanger-Med is a cargo and passenger port located about 40 km east of Tangier, Morocco. It is one of the largest ports on the Mediterranean and in Africa by capacity and went into service in July 2007. Its initial capacity was 3.5 million shipment containers....

 port. The Ibn Batouta International Airport
Ibn Batouta International Airport
Tangier Ibn Battouta Airport is an airport serving Tangier , the capital city of the Tangier-Tétouan region in Morocco. The airport is named for Ibn Battouta , a Moroccan scholar and traveler who was born in Tangier...

 (formerly known as Tangier-Boukhalef) is located 15 km south-west of the city centre.

The new Tanger-Med Port is managed by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group and will free up the old port for tourist and recreational development.

Tangier's Ibn Batouta International Airport and the rail tunnel will serve as the gateway to the "Moroccan Riviera" the coast between Tangier and Oujda. Traditionally the north coast was an impoverished and underdeveloped region of Morocco but it has some of the best beaches on the Mediterranean and is likely to see rapid development.

The Ibn Batouta International Airport
Ibn Batouta International Airport
Tangier Ibn Battouta Airport is an airport serving Tangier , the capital city of the Tangier-Tétouan region in Morocco. The airport is named for Ibn Battouta , a Moroccan scholar and traveler who was born in Tangier...

 has been being expanded and modernized to accommodate more flights. The biggest airline at the airport is Royal Air Maroc
Royal Air Maroc
Royal Air Maroc is the flag carrier airline of Morocco, headquartered on the grounds of Casablanca-Anfa Airport in Casablanca...

. In addition, a TGV high-speed train system
Kenitra-Tangier high-speed rail line
The Kenitra-Tangier high-speed rail line is a high-speed rail line under construction in Morocco. It is the first part of a planned line from Tangier to Casablanca. It was announced in November 2007 by the national government. Initially the project was announced as being between Tangier and...

 is being built. It will take a few years to complete, and will become the fastest train system in North Africa.

Language

The majority of the inhabitants of Tangier speak Moroccan Darija
Darija
Darija is the group of Arabic dialects spoken by Maghrebi Arabic speakers. It is only used for oral communication, with Modern Standard Arabic used for written communication...

; a minority of people speak Tarifit Berber
Berber languages
The Berber languages are a family of languages indigenous to North Africa, spoken from Siwa Oasis in Egypt to Morocco , and south to the countries of the Sahara Desert...

 in their daily lives. Written Arabic is used in government documentation and on road signs together with French. French is used in universities and large businesses. English and Spanish are generally understood in all hotels and tourist areas.

Education

Tangier offers five different types of educational systems: Arabic, American, French, Spanish and English. Each of these systems offer classes starting from Pre-Kindergarten up to the 12th grade, Baccalaureat
Baccalauréat
The baccalauréat , often known in France colloquially as le bac, is an academic qualification which French and international students take at the end of the lycée . It was introduced by Napoleon I in 1808. It is the main diploma required to pursue university studies...

, or High school diploma
High school diploma
A high school diploma is a diploma awarded for the completion of high school. In the United States and Canada, it is considered the minimum education required for government jobs and higher education. An equivalent is the GED.-Past diploma styles:...

.

Many universities are located both inside and outside the city. Universities like the "Institut Superieur International de Tourisme" (ISIT), which is a school that offers diplomas in various departments, offer courses ranging from business administration to hotel
Hotel
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms...

 management
Management
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively...

. The institute is among one of the most prestigious tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 schools in the country. Other colleges such as the "Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion" (ENCG-T) is among the biggest business school
Business school
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. It teaches topics such as accounting, administration, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, information systems, marketing, organizational behavior, public relations, strategy, human resource...

s in the country as well as "Ecole Nationale des Sciences appliquées" (ENSA-T), a rising engineering school for applied sciences.

Primary education

There are more than a hundred Moroccan primary schools, dispersed across the city.

International primary institutions

  • The American School of Tangier
    The American School of Tangier
    -Introduction:Welcome to The American School of Tangier. For sixty years, our school has been an anchor of learning and culture in northern Morocco...

  • Ecole Adrien Berchet
  • Colegio Ramon y Cajal (Spanish primary school)
  • English College of Tangier
  • Tangier Anglo Moroccan School

International high schools

  • The American School of Tangier
    The American School of Tangier
    -Introduction:Welcome to The American School of Tangier. For sixty years, our school has been an anchor of learning and culture in northern Morocco...

  • Lycée Regnault de Tanger (French High School)
  • Instituto Severo Ochoa (Spanish High School)
  • English College of Tangier
  • Mohammed Fatih Turkish School of Tangier
  • Tangier Anglo Moroccan School

Tangier in popular culture

Tangier was the subject of many artistic works, including novels, films and music.

Literature

  • Le dernier ami by Tahar Ben Jelloun
    Tahar Ben Jelloun
    Tahar Ben Jelloun is a Moroccan poet and writer. The entirety of his work is written in French, although his first language is Arabic.-Life:...

    . The two protagonists were born in Tangier and the city is revisited many times in the book.
  • Jour de silence à Tanger by Tahar Ben Jelloun
    Tahar Ben Jelloun
    Tahar Ben Jelloun is a Moroccan poet and writer. The entirety of his work is written in French, although his first language is Arabic.-Life:...

    .
  • "Streetwise" by Mohamed Choukri
    Mohamed Choukri
    Mohamed Choukri , born on July 15, 1935 and died on November 15, 2003, was a Moroccan author and novelist who is best known for his internationally acclaimed autobiography For Bread Alone , which was described by the American playwright Tennessee Williams as 'A true document of human desperation,...

  • Naked Lunch
    Naked Lunch
    Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs originally published in 1959. The book is structured as a series of loosely-connected vignettes. Burroughs stated that the chapters are intended to be read in any order...

    by William S. Burroughs
    William S. Burroughs
    William Seward Burroughs II was an American novelist, poet, essayist and spoken word performer. A primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author, he is considered to be "one of the most politically trenchant, culturally influential, and innovative artists of the 20th...

     – relates some of the author's experiences in Tangier. (See also Naked Lunch (film)
    Naked Lunch (film)
    Naked Lunch is the 1991 Canadian/British/Japanese film adaptation, directed by David Cronenberg, of William S. Burroughs' novel of the same name...

    )
  • The poem "America" by Allen Ginsberg
    Allen Ginsberg
    Irwin Allen Ginsberg was an American poet and one of the leading figures of the Beat Generation in the 1950s. He vigorously opposed militarism, materialism and sexual repression...

  • Desolation Angels
    Desolation Angels (novel)
    Desolation Angels, published in 1965, yet written years earlier around the time On the Road was in the process of publication, is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Beat Generation author Jack Kerouac, which makes up part of his Duluoz Legend...

    by Jack Kerouac
    Jack Kerouac
    Jean-Louis "Jack" Lebris de Kerouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing, covering topics such as Catholic...

     relates him living with William Burroughs and other Beat writers in Tangier.
  • Interzone
    Interzone (book)
    Interzone is a collection of short stories and other early works by William S. Burroughs. The collection was first published by Viking Penguin in 1989, although several of the stories had already been printed elsewhere, including an earlier publication entitled Early Routines...

    by Burroughs – It talks about a fictionalized version of Tangier called Interzone.
  • Let It Come Down
    Let It Come Down (novel)
    -Plot introduction:A dark, even bleak, novel, Let It Come Down follows American Nelson Dyar as he arrives in the International Zone of Tangier, Morocco to begin a new job and a new life...

    is Paul Bowles's second novel, first published in 1952
  • The Loom of Youth by Alec Waugh
    Alec Waugh
    Alexander Raban Waugh , was a British novelist, the elder brother of the better-known Evelyn Waugh and son of Arthur Waugh, author, literary critic, and publisher...

     – a controversial semi-autobiographical
    Autobiography
    An autobiography is a book about the life of a person, written by that person.-Origin of the term:...

     novel relating homosexual experiences of Waugh in the city of Tangier.
  • Two Tickets to Tangier by Francis Van Wyck Mason
    F. Van Wyck Mason
    Francis Van Wyck Mason was an American historian and novelist. He had a long and prolific career as a writer spanning 50 years and including 78 published novels, many of which were best sellers and well received.- Life :Van Wyck Mason was born to a patrician Boston family which traced its roots...

    , an American novelist and historian
  • Modesty Blaise
    Modesty Blaise
    Modesty Blaise is a British comic strip featuring a fictional character of the same name, created by Peter O'Donnell and Jim Holdaway in 1963. The strip follows the adventures of Modesty Blaise, an exceptional young woman with many talents and a criminal past, and her trusty sidekick Willie Garvin...

    ; a fictional character in a comic strip
    Comic strip
    A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions....

     of the same name and a series of books created by Peter O'Donnell
    Peter O'Donnell
    Peter O'Donnell was a British writer of mysteries and of comic strips, best known as the creator of Modesty Blaise, a female action hero/undercover trouble-shooter/enforcer...

     – In 1945 a nameless girl escaped from a displaced person (DP) camp in Karylos, Greece
    Greece
    Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

    . She took control of a criminal gang in Tangier and expanded it to international status as "The Network". After dissolving The Network and moving to England she maintained a house on a hillside above Tangier and many scenes in the books and comic strips are located here.
  • Carpenter's World Travels: From Tangier to Tripoli – a Frank G. Carpenter
    Frank G. Carpenter
    Frank G. Carpenter was an author, photographer, lecturer, collector of photographs. Carpenter was a writer of standard geography textbooks and lecturer on geography, and wrote a series of books called Carpenter's World Travels which were very popular between 1915 and 1930.With his daughter...

     travel guide (1927)
  • The Thief's Journal
    The Thief's Journal
    The Thief's Journal is perhaps Jean Genet's most famous work. It is a part- fact, part-fiction autobiography that charts the author's progress through Europe in a curiously depoliticized 1930s, wearing nothing but rags and enduring hunger, contempt, fatigue and vice. Spain, Italy, Austria,...

    by Jean Genet
    Jean Genet
    Jean Genet was a prominent and controversial French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist. Early in his life he was a vagabond and petty criminal, but later took to writing...

     – Includes the protagonist's experiments in negative morality in Tangier (1949)
  • The Alchemist
    The Alchemist (novel)
    The Alchemist is an allegorical novel by Paulo Coelho first published in 1988. The Alchemist was originally written in Portuguese. It has sold more than 65 million copies in more than 150 countries, becoming one of the best-selling books in history....

    by Paulo Coelho
    Paulo Coelho
    Paulo Coelho is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist.-Biography:Paulo Coelho was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He attended a Jesuit school. As a teenager, Coelho wanted to become a writer. Upon telling his mother this, she responded with "My dear, your father is an engineer. He's a logical,...

  • The Crossroads of the Medterranean by Henrik de Leeuw- chronicles the author's journey through Morocco and Tunisia in the early 1950s and includes many pages describing Tangier, notably the Petit Socco as a food market with mountain dwellers (the jebli) selling their produce and 'the street of male harlots', where they ply 'their shameful trade'.
  • The Gold Bug Variations
    The Gold Bug Variations
    The Gold Bug Variations is a novel by American writer Richard Powers, first released in 1991.-Plot introduction:The novel intertwines the discovery of the chemical structure of DNA with the musicality of Johann Sebastian Bach's harpsichord composition, the Goldberg Variations...

    by Richard Powers
    Richard Powers
    Richard Powers is an American novelist whose works explore the effects of modern science and technology.- Life and work :...

  • The Innocents Abroad by Mark Twain
    Mark Twain
    Samuel Langhorne Clemens , better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist...

     includes a mixed bag of comments on his visit to Tangier, ending with: "I would seriously recommend to the Government of the United States that when a man commits a crime so heinous that the law provides no adequate punishment for it, they make him Consul-General
    Consul (representative)
    The political title Consul is used for the official representatives of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the peoples of the two countries...

     to Tangier."
  • Seed
    Seed
    A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

    by Mustafa Mutabaruka – An African-American dancer struggling with the death of his father meets an enigmatic young woman and her companion in Tangier.
  • Au grand socco by Joseph Kessel
    Joseph Kessel
    Joseph Kessel was a French journalist and novelist.He was born in Villa Clara, Entre Ríos, Argentina, because of the constant journeys of his father, a Lithuanian doctor of Jewish origin. Joseph Kessel lived the first years of his childhood in Orenburg, Russia, before the family moved to France...

     – A Moroccan Tangerine boy shares his adventures in the great socco.

Magazines

  • Antaeus (magazine)
    Antaeus (magazine)
    Antaeus was a literary quarterly founded by Daniel Halpern and Paul Bowles and edited by Daniel Halpern. It was originally published in Tangier, Morocco, but operations were later shifted to New York City. The first number appeared in the summer of 1970, the final issue in 1994...

     was first published in Tangier by Daniel Halpern and Paul Bowles before being shifted to New York
    New York
    New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

  • Tangier Gazette was founded by William Augustus Bird (aka Bill Bird
    Bill Bird
    William Augustus Bird was an American journalist, now remembered for his Three Mountains Press, a small press he ran while in Paris in the 1920s for the Consolidated Press Association...

    ) in Tangier

Films

  • Inception
    Inception
    Inception: The Subconscious Jams 1994-1995 is a compilation of unreleased tracks by the band Download.-Track listing:# "Primitive Tekno Jam" – 3:23# "Bee Sting Sickness" – 8:04# "Weed Acid Techno" – 8:19...

    featuring Leonardo DiCaprio
    Leonardo DiCaprio
    Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio is an American actor and film producer. He has received many awards, including a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Aviator , and has been nominated by the Academy Awards, Screen Actors Guild and the British Academy of Film and Television...

     – 2010
  • The Living Daylights
    The Living Daylights
    The Living Daylights is the fifteenth entry in the James Bond series and the first to star Timothy Dalton as the fictional MI6 agent 007. The film's title is taken from Ian Fleming's short story, "The Living Daylights"...

    – a James Bond
    James Bond
    James Bond, code name 007, is a fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short story collections. There have been a six other authors who wrote authorised Bond novels or novelizations after Fleming's death in 1964: Kingsley Amis,...

     movie where he hunts Brad Whitaker
    Brad Whitaker
    Brad Whitaker is a fictional character and a major antagonist in the James Bond film The Living Daylights. He was portrayed by American actor Joe Don Baker. Baker also played Jack Wade, Bond's CIA contact in GoldenEye and Tomorrow Never Dies....

     down at his Tangier headquarters
  • From Russia with Love
    From Russia with Love (film)
    From Russia with Love is the second in the James Bond spy film series, and the second to star Sean Connery as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. Released in 1963, the film was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman, and directed by Terence Young. It is based on the 1957 novel of the...

    – the fictional character in "James Bond", Red Grant was recruited by "SPECTRE" in Tangier in 1962, whilst on the run from the law
  • Tangier Incident – an American agent posing as a black market operator, is in Tangier on a mission to stop the plans of three atomic scientists who are there to pool their secrets and sell them in a package to the Communists.
  • Man from Tangier (a.k.a. Thunder Over Tangier) – 1957
  • Tangiers, 1908 was one of the unaired Young Indiana Jones Chronicles episodes
    The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
    The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993. The series explores the childhood and youth of the fictional character Indiana Jones and primarily stars Sean Patrick Flanery and Corey Carrier as the title character, with...

  • Flight to Tangier (Charles Marquis Warren) – 1953
  • Tangier an episode of the television series Passport to Danger starring Cesar Romero
    Cesar Romero
    Cesar Julio Romero, Jr. was an American film and television actor who was active in film, radio, and television for almost sixty years...

     – 1955
  • The Nautch of Tangier (aka The Witchmaker) – 1969
  • Tangier (film)
    Tangier (film)
    Tangier is a 1946 black-and-white thriller film set in the city of Tangier, Morocco that was directed by George Waggner and filmed on Universal's backlot...

    featuring María Montez
    María Montez
    María Montez was a Dominican-born motion picture actress who gained fame and popularity in the 1940s as an exotic beauty starring in a series of filmed-in-Technicolor costume adventure films. Her screen image was that of a hot-blooded Latin seductress, dressed in fanciful costumes and sparkling...

    , Robert Paige
    Robert Paige
    Robert Paige was a TV star and Universal Pictures leading man who made 65 films in his lifetime and was the only actor ever allowed to sing on film with Deanna Durbin...

    , and Sabu Dastagir
    Sabu Dastagir
    Sabu Dastagir was a film actor of Indian origin—although he later took American citizenship. He was normally credited only by his first name, Sabu, and is primarily known for his work in film during the 1930s-40s in Britain and America.-Early life:Born in 1924 in Karapur, Mysore, Kingdom of...

     – 1946
  • Espionage in Tangiers. A thriller of a secret agent out to snag a dangerous molecular ray-gun – 1966
  • That Man from Tangier (in Spanish Aquel Hombre de Tanger) featuring Sara Montiel
    Sara Montiel
    Sara Montiel is a Spanish singer, and actress. She is still a much-loved and internationally known name in the Spanish-speaking movie and music industries....

  • The Bourne Ultimatum
    The Bourne Ultimatum (film)
    The Bourne Ultimatum is a 2007 American spy film directed by Paul Greengrass and loosely based on the Robert Ludlum novel of the same title. This film is the third in the Bourne film series, being preceded by The Bourne Identity and The Bourne Supremacy...

    , an espionage movie featuring Matt Damon
    Matt Damon
    Matthew Paige "Matt" Damon is an American actor, screenwriter, and philanthropist whose career was launched following the success of the film Good Will Hunting , from a screenplay he co-wrote with friend Ben Affleck...

     – Jason Bourne tracks a man through the city who has information on his (Bourne's) past. – 2007
  • The Wind and the Lion
    The Wind and the Lion
    The Wind and the Lion is a 1975 adventure film. It was written and directed by John Milius and starred Sean Connery, Candice Bergen, Brian Keith and John Huston...

    – Based on the Perdicaris incident of 1904, this film, starring Sean Connery
    Sean Connery
    Sir Thomas Sean Connery , better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards and three Golden Globes Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930), better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy...

    , Candice Bergen
    Candice Bergen
    Candice Patricia Bergen is an American actress and former fashion model.She is known for starring in two TV series, as the title character on the situation comedy Murphy Brown , for which she won five Emmy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards; and as Shirley Schmidt on the comedy-drama Boston Legal...

    , and Brian Keith
    Brian Keith
    Brian Keith was an American film, television, and stage actor who in his four decade-long career gained recognition for his work in movies such as the 1961 Disney family film The Parent Trap, the 1966 comedy The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming, and the 1975 adventure saga The Wind and...

    , takes place largely in Tangier. The film's Tangier, however, was actually created in the Spanish cities of Seville
    Seville
    Seville is the artistic, historic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain. It is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of above sea level...

     and Almeria
    Almería
    Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the province of the same name.-Toponym:Tradition says that the name Almería stems from the Arabic المرية Al-Mariyya: "The Mirror", comparing it to "The Mirror of the Sea"...

    .
  • Prick Up Your Ears
    Prick Up Your Ears
    Prick Up Your Ears is a 1987 film, directed by Stephen Frears, about the playwright Joe Orton and his lover Kenneth Halliwell. The screenplay was written by Alan Bennett, based on the book by John Lahr...

    , Joe Orton
    Joe Orton
    John Kingsley Orton was an English playwright.In a short but prolific career lasting from 1964 until his death, he shocked, outraged and amused audiences with his scandalous black comedies...

     (Gary Oldman) and Kenneth Halliwell
    Kenneth Halliwell
    Kenneth Halliwell was a British actor and writer. He was the mentor, boyfriend and eventual murderer of playwright Joe Orton.- Childhood :...

     (Alfred Molina) visit Tangier, the scene represents the 88 day holiday that Joe Orton took after the failure of his play Loot
    Loot (play)
    Loot is a two-act play by the English playwright Joe Orton. The play is a dark farce that satirises the Roman Catholic Church, social attitudes to death, and the integrity of the police force....

    .
  • The Sheltering Sky
    The Sheltering Sky (film)
    The Sheltering Sky is a 1990 British-Italian drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci starring Debra Winger and John Malkovich. The film is based on the 1949 novel by Paul Bowles about a couple who journey to northern Africa in the hopes of rekindling their marriage but soon fall prey to the...

    , starring John Malkovich
    John Malkovich
    John Gavin Malkovich is an American actor, producer, director and fashion designer with his label Technobohemian. Over the last 25 years of his career, Malkovich has appeared in more than 70 motion pictures. For his roles in Places in the Heart and In the Line of Fire, he received Academy Award...

     and Debra Winger
    Debra Winger
    Mary Debra Winger is an American actress. Three-times an Oscar nominee, she received awards for acting in Terms of Endearment, for which she won the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actress in 1983, and in A Dangerous Woman, for which she won the Tokyo International Film Festival...

    . Bernardo Bertolucci
    Bernardo Bertolucci
    Bernardo Bertolucci is an Italian film director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor and The Dreamers...

    's adaptation of the novel by Paul Bowles
    Paul Bowles
    Paul Frederic Bowles was an American expatriate composer, author, and translator.Following a cultured middle-class upbringing in New York City, during which he displayed a talent for music and writing, Bowles pursued his education at the University of Virginia before making various trips to Paris...

    . Married American artists Port and Kit Moresby travel aimlessly through North Africa, searching for new experiences that could give sense to their relationship. But the flight to distant regions only leads both deeper into despair. – 1990

Music

  • Tangiers (band)
    Tangiers (band)
    Tangiers are a Toronto-based indie rock band.Josh Reichmann and James Sayce resuscitated Tangiers after two band members left the band in 2003, adding ex-Guided by Voices drummer Jon McCann and keyboardist Shelton Deverell to the lineup.-Discography:*Hot New Spirits *Never Bring You Pleasure...

     – a Canadian rock music
    Rock music
    Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music...

     band.
  • "If You See Her, Say Hello" by Bob Dylan
    Bob Dylan
    Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter, musician, poet, film director and painter. He has been a major and profoundly influential figure in popular music and culture for five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when he was an informal chronicler and a seemingly...

     – one of song's lines says, "If you see her say 'hello', she might be in Tangier."
  • Sartori in Tangier by King Crimson
    King Crimson
    King Crimson are a rock band founded in London, England in 1969. Often categorised as a foundational progressive rock group, the band have incorporated diverse influences and instrumentation during their history...

     – derives its title from Beat generation
    Beat generation
    The Beat Generation refers to a group of American post-WWII writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they both documented and inspired...

     influences including the Jack Kerouac
    Jack Kerouac
    Jean-Louis "Jack" Lebris de Kerouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing, covering topics such as Catholic...

     novel Satori in Paris
    Satori in Paris
    Satori in Paris is a 1966 novella by American novelist and poet Jack Kerouac. It is a short, semi-autobiographical tale of a man who travels to Paris, then Brittany, to research his genealogy. Kerouac relates his trip in a tumbledown fashion as a lonesome traveler. Little is said about the research...

    , and the city of Tangier, where a number of Beat writers resided and which they often used as a setting for their writing.
  • "Waiting in Tangier" – a track in the album Woman to Woman of Fem2fem
    Fem2fem
    Fem2Fem was a 1990s techno group who released two albums. With actress Lezlie Deane of Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare as a member, Fem2Fem were the first and openly lesbian pop group to chart...

     band.
  • "Tangier" by the Scottish musician Donovan
    Donovan
    Donovan Donovan Donovan (born Donovan Philips Leitch (born 10 May 1946) is a Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist. Emerging from the British folk scene, he developed an eclectic and distinctive style that blended folk, jazz, pop, psychedelia, and world music...

     on his album The Hurdy Gurdy Man
    The Hurdy Gurdy Man
    The Hurdy Gurdy Man is the sixth studio album and seventh album overall from Scottish singer-songwriter Donovan. It was released in the United States in October 1968 , but was not released in the UK because of a continuing contractual dispute that also prevented Sunshine Superman and Mellow Yellow...

    .
  • Live At Tangiers – a solo
    Solo (music)
    In music, a solo is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer...

     by Michael Stanley
    Michael Stanley
    Michael Stanley is an American singer-songwriter, musician, and disc jockey. Both as a solo artist and with the Michael Stanley Band, his brand of heartland rock was popular in Cleveland and around the American Midwest in the 1970s and 1980s.-Biography:Michael Stanley Gee graduated from Rocky...

  • "Tangiers" – an instrumental piece by John Powell
    John Powell
    John Powell is a British composer, best known for his scores to motion pictures. He has been based in the United States since 1997 and has composed the scores to over fifty feature films. He rose to fame in the late 1990s and 2000s, scoring numerous animated films, and collaborating with...

     featured in The Bourne Ultimatum
    The Bourne Ultimatum (film)
    The Bourne Ultimatum is a 2007 American spy film directed by Paul Greengrass and loosely based on the Robert Ludlum novel of the same title. This film is the third in the Bourne film series, being preceded by The Bourne Identity and The Bourne Supremacy...

  • My Tangier – Dave Crockett (circa 1980s)
  • Intrigue in Tangiers – a track from the album What Does Anything Mean? Basically
    What Does Anything Mean? Basically
    What Does Anything Mean? Basically, released in 1985 , is the second album released by The Chameleons.-Track listing:All songs written, arranged and performed by The Chameleons...

     by The Chameleons
    The Chameleons
    The Chameleons were an English post-punk band that formed in Middleton, Greater Manchester, England in 1981. They consisted of singer and bassist Mark Burgess, guitarist Reg Smithies, guitarist Dave Fielding, and drummer John Lever...

    .
  • Idaho by Josh Ritter
    Josh Ritter
    Josh Ritter is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist and author who performs and records with The Royal City Band. Ritter is known for his distinctive Americana style and narrative lyrics. In 2006 he was named one of the "100 Greatest Living Songwriters" by Paste magazine.- Early life :Josh...

     – "I got your letter in Tangier".
  • Guantanamo by Outlandish
    Outlandish
    Outlandish is a multi-award–winning hip-hop group based in Denmark. Formed in 1997, it consists of Isam Bachiri , Waqas Ali Qadri , and Lenny Martinez . All three members are religious, with Isam and Waqas being Muslims and Lenny being Catholic...

     Or we can lounge in Tangier – Not the one in Vegas, naah the one in Maroc
  • Tangiers by Billy Thorpe
    Billy Thorpe
    William Richard "Billy" Thorpe, AM was a renowned English-born Australian pop / rock singer-songwriter and musician...

     – a concept album about Tangier, inspired by the late Billy Thorpe's several visits there.
  • Night Train by Looptroop
    Looptroop
    Looptroop Rockers is a hip hop group from Västerås, Sweden. The members are rappers Promoe , Supreme , DJ/Producer Embee and CosM.I.C...

     – a song about travelling by night train and noticing diffidences caused by time, place and circumstances; Promoe's singing about his trip around Morocco "I'm on the night train from Tangier to Marrakesh"

Paintings

  • Window at Tangier by the French artist Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

     (1912 – The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

    ).
  • Virtual Tangier: Visions of the City by Matisse (c. 1911–1916)
  • Harvest of a journey to Spain and Tangiers, The Great Mosque, and Serpent Charmers of Sokko – a painting by Emile Wauters
    Emile Wauters
    Emile Wauters was a Belgian painter. He was born in Brussels. Successively the pupil of Portaels and Jean-Léon Gérôme, he produced in 1868 The Battle of Hastings: the Finding of the body of Harold by Edith, a work of striking, precocious talent....

  • Market Day Outside the Walls of Tangiers by Louis Comfort Tiffany
    Louis Comfort Tiffany
    Louis Comfort Tiffany was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau  and Aesthetic movements...

     (1873 – Smithsonian American Art Museum
    Smithsonian American Art Museum
    The Smithsonian American Art Museum is a museum in Washington, D.C. with an extensive collection of American art.Part of the Smithsonian Institution, the museum has a broad variety of American art that covers all regions and art movements found in the United States...

    )
  • HMS Mary Rose and pirates by Willem van de Velde (a painting ascribed to Willem van de Velde, taken from the book: William Laird Clowes (ed.): The Royal Navy. A History From the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol. 2, London 1898)

People born in Tangier

  • Ibn Battuta
    Ibn Battuta
    Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

     – Berber scholar and traveller
  • Ralph Benmergui
    Ralph Benmergui
    Raphael Benmergui is a Canadian television and radio personality and political advisor. Most recently a morning host on JAZZ.FM91, he left the station on November 26, 2010, and currently holds the position of director of communications for Glen Murray, Minister of Research and Innovation.Born in...

     – Canadian TV and radio host at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
    Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
    The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster...

  • Alexandre Rey Colaço
    Alexandre Rey Colaço
    Alexandre Jorge Maria Idalécio Raimundo Rey Colaço was a Portuguese pianist of a French father and Spanish-Portuguese mother.-Life:...

     – Portuguese pianist
  • Karim Debbagh
    Karim Debbagh
    Karim Debbagh is a Moroccan film producer.- Life and work :In 1997 Karim Debbagh went to Germany to study Film Production at the Film Academy Baden-Württemberg. In 2002 he finished his studies and received his diploma. Afterward. Debbagh worked for a few years as line producer and unit production...

     – Moroccan Film producer
  • Roger Elliott
    Roger Elliott
    Major General Roger Elliott was one of the earliest British Governors of Gibraltar. His nephew George Augustus Eliott also became a noted Governor and defender of Gibraltar....

     – first British Governor of Gibraltar
    Governor of Gibraltar
    The Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. The Governor is appointed by the British Monarch on the advice of the British Government...

  • Bibiana Fernández
    Bibiana Fernández
    Bibiana Fernández, also known as Bibí Andersen is a Spanish actress and model.- Biography :She was born as a boy called Manuel and spent her childhood in Malaga. She later went to Barcelona to fulfill her dream of being an artist...

     – Spanish actress and model
  • Antonio Fuentes – Painter described as the 'Picasso of Tangier'
  • Sanaa Hamri
    Sanaa Hamri
    Sanaa Hamri is a Moroccan American music video and film director. She is one of the few prominent female film and music video directors of color.-Early life and breakthrough:...

     – Moroccan music video director
  • Emmanuel Hocquard
    Emmanuel Hocquard
    Emmanuel Hocquard is a French poet who grew up in Tangier, Morocco. He served as the editor of the small press Orange Export Ltd., and, with Claude Royet-Journoud, edited two anthologies of new American poets, 21+1: Poètes américains ď aujourďhui and 49+1...

     – French poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

  • Jean-Luc Mélenchon
    Jean-Luc Mélenchon
    Jean-Luc Mélenchon is a French politician who served in the government of France as Minister of Vocational Education from 2000 to 2002. He was also a member of the Senate of France, representing the Essonne department...

     – French politician, currently MEP
    Member of the European Parliament
    A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

  • Alexander Spotswood
    Alexander Spotswood
    Alexander Spotswood was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army and a noted Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. He is noted in Virginia and American history for a number of his projects as Governor, including his exploring beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains, his establishing what was perhaps the first...

     – American Lieutenant-Colonel and Lieutenant Governor of Virginia
  • Heinz Tietjen
    Heinz Tietjen
    Heinz Tietjen was a German conductor and music producer born in Tangier, Morocco.- Biography :At age twenty-three, he held the position of producer at the Opera House in Trier and was appointed its director in 1907, holding the dual roles until 1922...

     – German music composer
  • Abderrahmane Youssoufi
    Abderrahmane Youssoufi
    Abderrahmane Youssoufi is a Moroccan politician who served as the Prime Minister of Morocco from 1998 to 2002.-Early life:...

     – former Prime Minister of Morocco
  • Sol Labos Brien – Porcelain artist who paints Disney characters on porcelain for Walt Disney Co.

People who settled or sojourned in Tangier

  • Lancelot Addison
    Lancelot Addison
    Reverend Lancelot Addison was born at Crosby Ravensworth in Westmorland. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford.Rev...

     – an English chaplain
    Chaplain
    Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam or lay representative of a religion attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel...

     and the author of West Barbary, or a Short Narrative of the Revolutions of the Kingdoms of Fex and Morocco (1671)
  • José Luis Alcaine
    José Luis Alcaine
    José Luis Alcaine is a Spanish born cinematographer. He was educated in Tangier's French Lycee Regnault and in the Spanish Institute. He was the first cinematographer to use fluorescent tube as key lighting in the 1970s. He has worked on films such as Belle Époque Blast from the Past, and Two Much...

     – a Spanish-born cinematographer
    Cinematographer
    A cinematographer is one photographing with a motion picture camera . The title is generally equivalent to director of photography , used to designate a chief over the camera and lighting crews working on a film, responsible for achieving artistic and technical decisions related to the image...

  • Bill Bird
    Bill Bird
    William Augustus Bird was an American journalist, now remembered for his Three Mountains Press, a small press he ran while in Paris in the 1920s for the Consolidated Press Association...

     – an American journalist and the founder of Tangier Gazette
  • Paul Bowles
    Paul Bowles
    Paul Frederic Bowles was an American expatriate composer, author, and translator.Following a cultured middle-class upbringing in New York City, during which he displayed a talent for music and writing, Bowles pursued his education at the University of Virginia before making various trips to Paris...

     – an American writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

     and composer
    Composer
    A composer is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material through electronic media...

    . Died in Tangier
  • Joseph McPhillips III – an American theater director and the headmaster of The American School of Tangier
    The American School of Tangier
    -Introduction:Welcome to The American School of Tangier. For sixty years, our school has been an anchor of learning and culture in northern Morocco...

    . Died in Tangier
  • Jane Bowles
    Jane Bowles
    Jane Bowles, born Jane Sydney Auer , was an American writer and playwright.-Early life:Born into a Jewish family in New York, Jane Bowles spent her childhood in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island. She developed tuberculous arthritis of the knee as a teenager and her mother took her to Switzerland...

     – an American writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    . Wife of Paul Bowles
  • William S. Burroughs
    William S. Burroughs
    William Seward Burroughs II was an American novelist, poet, essayist and spoken word performer. A primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author, he is considered to be "one of the most politically trenchant, culturally influential, and innovative artists of the 20th...

     – an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

     and spoken word
    Spoken word
    Spoken word is a form of poetry that often uses alliterated prose or verse and occasionally uses metered verse to express social commentary. Traditionally it is in the first person, is from the poet’s point of view and is themed in current events....

     performer
  • Truman Capote
    Truman Capote
    Truman Streckfus Persons , known as Truman Capote , was an American author, many of whose short stories, novels, plays, and nonfiction are recognized literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's and the true crime novel In Cold Blood , which he labeled a "nonfiction novel." At...

     – an American novelist and writer
  • João de Castro
    João de Castro
    Dom João de Castro was a Portuguese naval officer and fourth viceroy of Portuguese India. He was called Castro Forte by poet Luís de Camões. Castro was the son of Álvaro de Castro, civil governor of Lisbon...

     – a Portuguese naval officer and fourth viceroy
    Viceroy
    A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

     of the Portuguese Indies
  • Ira Cohen
    Ira Cohen
    Ira Cohen was an American poet, publisher, photographer and filmmaker.Cohen lived in Morocco and in New York City in the 1960s, he was in Kathmandu in the 1970s and traveled the world in the 1980s, before returning to New York, where he spent the rest of his life...

     – an American poet, publisher, photographer and filmmaker; he published the magazine Gnaoua in Tangier
  • Eugène Delacroix
    Eugène Delacroix
    Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school...

     – a French Romantic
    Romanticism
    Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution...

     painter
  • Jim Ede
    Jim Ede
    Harold Stanley Ede also known as Jim' Ede, was an English collector of art and friend to artists.Ede studied painting at Newlyn Art School between 1912 and 1914 when he was called up in World War I...

     – a notable English art collector
  • Malcolm Forbes
    Malcolm Forbes
    Malcolm Stevenson Forbes was publisher of Forbes magazine, founded by his father B. C. Forbes and today run by his son Steve Forbes.-Life and career:...

     – the publisher of Forbes magazine
  • Allen Ginsberg
    Allen Ginsberg
    Irwin Allen Ginsberg was an American poet and one of the leading figures of the Beat Generation in the 1950s. He vigorously opposed militarism, materialism and sexual repression...

    , Bob Guccione
    Bob Guccione
    Bob Guccione was the founder and publisher of the adult magazine Penthouse. He resigned from his publisher position in November 2003.-Early life:...

    , and Jack Kerouac
    Jack Kerouac
    Jean-Louis "Jack" Lebris de Kerouac was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his spontaneous method of writing, covering topics such as Catholic...

     visited Burroughs, their fellow Beat
    Beat generation
    The Beat Generation refers to a group of American post-WWII writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they both documented and inspired...

     in Tangier
  • Sean Gullette
    Sean Gullette
    Sean Gullette is a writer, actor, and filmmaker.-Biography:He was born in Boston and attended public schools and Harvard, where he acted in theater and films and directed plays....

     – American actor
    Actor
    An actor is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity...

     and writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

  • Dustin Tarver – American Adventurer and writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

  • Brion Gysin
    Brion Gysin
    Brion Gysin was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born in Taplow, Buckinghamshire.He is best known for his discovery of the cut-up technique, used by his friend, the novelist William S. Burroughs...

     – an English writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

     and painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

  • Mohamed Hamri
    Mohamed Hamri
    Mohamed Hamri , commonly known as Hamri, was a self-described Painter of Morocco. He was a Moroccan painter and author and one of the few Moroccans to participate in the Tangier Beat scene....

     – a Moroccan painter, described as the 'Picasso of Morocco'
  • Friedrich von Holstein
    Friedrich von Holstein
    Friedrich August von Holstein was a statesman of the German Empire and served as the head of the political department of the German Foreign Office for more than thirty years.-Biography:...

     – a German statesman
  • Barbara Hutton
    Barbara Hutton
    Barbara Woolworth Hutton was an American socialite dubbed by the media as the "Poor Little Rich Girl" because of her troubled life...

     – a wealthy American socialite
    Socialite
    A socialite is a person who participates in social activities and spends a significant amount of time entertaining and being entertained at fashionable upper-class events....

     dubbed by the media as the "Poor Little Rich Girl" because of her troubled life
  • Bernard-Henri Lévy
    Bernard-Henri Lévy
    Bernard-Henri Lévy is a French public intellectual, philosopher and journalist. Often referred to today, in France, simply as BHL, he was one of the leaders of the "Nouveaux Philosophes" movement in 1976.-Early life:...

     – a French journalist and intellectual
  • Gavin Lambert
    Gavin Lambert
    Gavin Lambert was a British-born screenwriter, novelist and biographer who lived for part of his life in Hollywood...

     – an English novelist and friend of Paul Bowles
  • Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

     – a notable French painter
  • Mohamed Mrabet
    Mohamed Mrabet
    Mohammed Mrabet is a Moroccan author artist and storyteller of Berber heritage from the Ait Ouriaghel tribe in the Rif region. Mrabet is mostly known in the West through his association with Paul Bowles, William Burroughs and Tennessee Williams...

     – a Moroccan storyteller
    Storytelling
    Storytelling is the conveying of events in words, images and sounds, often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation and in order to instill moral values...

  • Joe Orton
    Joe Orton
    John Kingsley Orton was an English playwright.In a short but prolific career lasting from 1964 until his death, he shocked, outraged and amused audiences with his scandalous black comedies...

     – British playwright
  • Ion Perdicaris
    Ion Perdicaris
    Ion Hanford Perdicaris was a Greek-American playboy who was the centre of a notable kidnapping known as the Perdicaris incident, which aroused international conflict in 1904.-Family life:...

     – a U.S.-Greek
    Kingdom of Greece
    The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 in the Convention of London by the Great Powers...

     playboy who was the centre of the infamous Perdicaris incident, a kidnapping
    Kidnapping
    In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or transportation of a person against that person's will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a confinement without legal authority...

     that aroused international conflict in 1904
  • George John Pinwell
    George John Pinwell
    George John Pinwell , was a British watercolour painter.He was born at Wycombe and received his art education at educated at St. Martin's Lane Academy and Heatherley's Academy...

     – an English painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

  • Reichmann family
    Reichmann family
    The Reichmann family is a family best known for controlling the Olympia and York business empire.The Reichmann's were originally from the small shtetl of Beled, Hungary but the ambitious Samuel Reichmann moved them to Vienna in 1928 where he became a successful merchant. He and his wife Renée had...

     (including Edward below) – a rich immigrant Jewish family from Austro-Hungary and Canada
  • Edward Reichmann
    Edward Reichmann
    Edward Reichmann was the oldest of the five Reichmann brothers, famed for their global business empire.Edward was born to Samuel Reichmann a wealthy Vienna merchant of Hungarian origin. The family was lucky to escape Austria before the Nazi invasion leaving the country on the morning of Anschluss...

     – an Austro-Hungarian and Canadian businessman
  • David Roberts
    David Roberts (painter)
    David Roberts RA was a Scottish painter. He is especially known for a prolific series of detailed lithograph prints of Egypt and the Near East that he produced during the 1840s from sketches he made during long tours of the region . These, and his large oil paintings of similar subjects, made him...

     – a Scottish painter
  • Yves Saint-Laurent (designer) – a French fashion designer
  • J. Slauerhoff
    J. Slauerhoff
    Jan Jacob Slauerhoff, who published as J. Slauerhoff, was a Dutch poet and novelist. He is considered one of the most important Dutch language writers.-Youth:...

     – a Dutch poet and novelist
  • Kenneth Williams
    Kenneth Williams
    Kenneth Charles Williams was an English comic actor and comedian. He was one of the main ensemble in 26 of the Carry On films, and appeared in numerous British television shows, and radio comedies with Tony Hancock and Kenneth Horne.-Life and career:Kenneth Charles Williams was born on 22 February...

     – a British humourist
  • George Owen Wynne Apperley RA RI (1884-1960) A British artist – built his house "Villa Apperley" in the Marshan district in 1932.

People who died in Tangier

  • George Owen Wynne Apperley RA RI (1884-1960) – A British artist.
  • Ibn Battuta
    Ibn Battuta
    Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

     – 14th century traveller and diarist – was born in Tangier in 1304 and is said to have been buried there in 1368.
  • Paul Bowles
    Paul Bowles
    Paul Frederic Bowles was an American expatriate composer, author, and translator.Following a cultured middle-class upbringing in New York City, during which he displayed a talent for music and writing, Bowles pursued his education at the University of Virginia before making various trips to Paris...

     – Expatriate American writer and composer.
  • Mohamed Choukri
    Mohamed Choukri
    Mohamed Choukri , born on July 15, 1935 and died on November 15, 2003, was a Moroccan author and novelist who is best known for his internationally acclaimed autobiography For Bread Alone , which was described by the American playwright Tennessee Williams as 'A true document of human desperation,...

     – a Moroccan novelist. (Died in Rabat
    Rabat
    Rabat , is the capital and third largest city of the Kingdom of Morocco with a population of approximately 650,000...

    , buried in the Marshan, Tangier)
  • George Elliott
    George Elliott (surgeon)
    George Elliott was the English surgeon to the Earl of Teviot's Regiment.Elliott was the illegitimate son of Richard Eliot , the wayward second son of Sir John Eliot and of Catherine Killigrew . George Eliott's grandson Granville Elliott spent much effort in seeking to prove that Richard had...

     – probably the illegitimate son of Richard Eliot
    Richard Eliot
    Richard Eliot was the wayward second son of Sir John Eliot and Rhadigund Geddy .Richard went to the University of Oxford at his father's suggestion, but did not fare well with academic life. He became embroiled at Oxford in various difficulties, which are mentioned without further detail in his...

    . He was the "Chirurgeon to the Earl of Teviot's Regiment at Tangier"
  • George Fleetwood
    George Fleetwood (regicide)
    George Fleetwood was an English Major-General and one of the Regicides of King Charles I of England.Fleetwood was one of the commissioners for trial of Charles I, 1648–9; member of last Commonwealth Council of State and M.P...

     – One of the regicides of Charles I. Brought to trial and sentenced to imprisonment in the Tower of London
    Tower of London
    Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London, England. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the City of London by the open space...

    . He may have been transported to Tangier.
  • Paul Lukas
    Paul Lukas
    Paul Lukas was an Austrian-Hungarian-born actor.-Biography:Born Pál Lukács in Budapest, he arrived in Hollywood in 1927 after a successful stage and film career in Hungary, Germany and Austria where he worked with Max Reinhardt. He made his stage debut in Budapest in 1916 and his film debut in 1917...

     – a Hungarian
    Hungary
    Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

     actor.
  • Joseph McPhillips III – an American theater director and headmaster of The American School of Tangier.
  • John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton
    John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton
    John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton was a Scottish army officer, who belonged to a Kincardineshire family which had held lands at Middleton since the 12th century....

     – a commander-in-chief of the troops in Scotland under the reign of Charles II
    Charles II of England
    Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

    .

Events

  • Tanjazz
    Tanjazz
    Tanjazz is an international jazz festival held annually in Tangier, Morocco since the year 2000.-External links:*...

     – An annual international Jazz
    Jazz
    Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

     festival.
  • Festival National du Film – An annual Moroccan film festival (8th edition in 2006).
  • Le Festival International de Théâtre Amateur – An international amateur theater festival.

Landmarks

  • American Legation
    American Legation, Tangier
    The Tangier American Legation is a building in the medina of Tangier, Morocco. The first American public property outside of the United States, it commemorates the historic cultural and diplomatic relations between the United States and the Kingdom of Morocco...

  • Church of Saint Andrew
    Church of Saint Andrew, Tangier
    The Church of Saint Andrew is an Anglican church in Tangier, Morocco, consecrated in 1905.-History:In 1880, Hassan I of Morocco donated land to the British community in order to build a small Anglican church in Tangier...

  • Dar El oued Makhazen
  • Rmilat's Moroccan King's Palace a 2600sqm castle with a seaview.

Sister cities

Faro
Faro, Portugal
Faro is the southernmost city in Portugal. It is located in the Faro Municipality in southern Portugal. The city proper has 41,934 inhabitants and the entire municipality has 58,305. It is the seat of the Faro District and capital of the Algarve region...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 (since 1954) Algeciras
Algeciras
Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar . Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and in the world in three categories: container,...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 Cádiz
Cádiz
Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia....

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 Bizerta, Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

 Liège
Liège
Liège is a major city and municipality of Belgium located in the province of Liège, of which it is the economic capital, in Wallonia, the French-speaking region of Belgium....

, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 (since 2006) Metz
Metz
Metz is a city in the northeast of France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.Metz is the capital of the Lorraine region and prefecture of the Moselle department. Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg, Metz forms a central place...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Moulins
Moulins, Allier
Moulins is a commune in central France, capital of the Allier department.Among its many tourist attractions are the Maison Mantin the Anne de Beaujeu Museum.-History:...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Pasadena
Pasadena, California
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although famous for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game and Tournament of Roses Parade, Pasadena is the home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including the California Institute of Technology , the Jet...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, United States of America Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...


See also

  • List of Colonial Heads of Tangier
  • Mauretania Tingitana
    Mauretania Tingitana
    Mauretania Tingitana was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The province extended from the northern peninsula, opposite Gibraltar, to Chellah and Volubilis to the south, and as far east as the Oued Laou river. Its...

  • List of cities in Morocco
  • History of Morocco
    History of Morocco
    The History of Morocco spans over 12 centuries, without considering the Classical antiquity. The country was first unified by the Idrisid dynasty in 780, representing the first Islamic state in Africa autonomous from the Arab Empire. Under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad dynasty, Morocco...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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