Storm Shadow
Storm Shadow is a British, French and Italian air-launched cruise missile
Cruise missile
A cruise missile is a guided missile that carries an explosive payload and is propelled, usually by a jet engine, towards a land-based or sea-based target. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high accuracy...

, manufactured by MBDA
MBDA is a missile developer and manufacturer with operations in France, Britain, Germany, Italy, and the United States. It was formed by a merger of Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles , Finmeccanica and Matra BAe Dynamics in December 2001. In 2003 the company had 10,000 employees...

. Storm Shadow is the British name for the weapon; in French service it is called SCALP EG (Emploi Général, meaning General Purpose). The missile is based on the earlier MBDA Apache
MBDA Apache
The MBDA Apache is a French-developed air-launched anti-runway missile, manufactured by European arms company MBDA. The Apache system is at the base of the SCALP EG concept, notably for the aerodynamics and the stealth feature. The SCALP EG also has a different propulsion system as well as a...

 anti-runway missile, and differs in that it carries a warhead, rather than submunitions.


The stealthy missile has a range in excess of 250 kilometres (155 mi), is powered by a turbojet at Mach 0.8 and can be carried by the RAF Tornado GR4, Saab Gripen, Italian Tornado IDS, Dassault Mirage 2000 and Dassault Rafale
Dassault Rafale
The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine delta-wing multi-role jet fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Introduced in 2000, the Rafale is being produced both for land-based use with the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations with the French Navy...

 aircraft. Storm Shadow will be integrated with the Eurofighter Typhoon
Eurofighter Typhoon
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole combat aircraft, designed and built by a consortium of three companies: EADS, Alenia Aeronautica and BAE Systems; working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, which was formed in 1986...

 as part of the Phase 2 Enhancement (P2E) in 2014, and it will be fitted to the F-35 Lightning II
F-35 Lightning II
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fifth generation multirole fighters under development to perform ground attack, reconnaissance, and air defense missions with stealth capability...

 once that aircraft comes into service. The BROACH warhead
BROACH warhead
The BROACH warhead is a multi-stage warhead developed by Team BROACH; BAE Systems Global Combat Systems Munitions, Thales Missile Electronics and QinetiQ. BROACH stands for Bomb Royal Ordnance Augmented CHarge....

 features an initial penetrating charge to clear soil or enter a bunker, then a variable delay fuze
Fuze Beverage, commercially referred to as just Fuze , is a manufacturer of teas and non-carbonated fruit drinks enriched with vitamins. Currently the brand consists of five vitamin-infused lines: Slenderize, Refresh, Tea, Defensify, and Vitalize...

 to control detonation
Detonation involves a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations are observed in both conventional solid and liquid explosives, as well as in reactive gases...

 of the main warhead. The missile weighs about 1300 kilograms (2,866 lb), has a maximum body diameter of 48 centimetres (1.6 ft) and a wingspan of 3 metres (9.8 ft). Intended targets are command, control and communications; airfields; ports and power stations; AMS/ammunition storage; ships/submarines in port; bridges and other high-value strategic targets.

It is a fire and forget missile, programmed before launch. Once launched, the missile cannot be controlled, its target information changed or be self-destructed. Mission planners programme the missile with the target air defences and target. The missile follows a path semi-autonomously, on a low flight path guided by GPS
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites...

 and terrain matching to the area of the target.

Close to the target, the missile climbs and then bunts
Aerobatic maneuver
Aerobatic maneuvers are flight paths putting aircraft in unusual attitudes, in air shows, dog fights or competition aerobatics. Aerobatics can be performed by a single aircraft or in formation with several others...

 into a dive. Climbing to altitude is intended to achieve the best probability of target identification and penetration. During the bunt, the nose cone is jettisoned to allow a high resolution infrared camera to observe the target area. The missile then tries to locate its target based upon its targeting information. If it can not, and there is a high risk of collateral damage, it will fly to a crash point instead of risking inaccuracy.


British Aerospace and Matra were competing with McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

, Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

/Short Brothers
Short Brothers
Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company, usually referred to simply as Shorts, that is now based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Founded in 1908, Shorts was the first company in the world to make production aircraft and was a manufacturer of flying boats during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s...

, Hughes
Hughes Aircraft
Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Culver City, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company...

/Smiths Industries, Daimler-Benz Aerospace/Bofors
The name Bofors has been associated with the iron industry for more than 350 years.Located in Karlskoga, Sweden, the company originates from the hammer mill "Boofors" founded 1646. The modern corporate structure was created in 1873 with the foundation of Aktiebolaget Bofors-Gullspång...

, GEC-Marconi and Rafael. The BAe/Matra Storm Shadow was selected on 25 June 1996. A development and production contract was signed on 11 February 1997, by which time Matra and BAe had completed the merger of their missile businesses to form Matra BAe Dynamics
Matra BAe Dynamics
Matra BAe Dynamics was formed in August 1996 by merger of half the missile business of Matra Defense of France and BAe Dynamics of the UK and was Europe's largest manufacturer of missiles and UAVs....

. France ordered 500 SCALP missiles in January 1998.

The first successful fully guided firing of the Storm Shadow/SCALP EG took place at the CEL Biscarosse range in France at the end of December 2000 from a Mirage 2000N. The first British firing occurred on 25 May 2001 from a Tornado flying from BAE Warton.

Storm Shadow entered service with the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 in late 2001. It was first used during the 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
The 2003 invasion of Iraq , was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations...

 by No. 617 Squadron
No. 617 Squadron RAF
No. 617 Squadron is a Royal Air Force aircraft squadron based at RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland. It currently operates the Tornado GR4 in the ground attack and reconnaissance role...

On 12 September 2006 three Italian Tornado IDS
Panavia Tornado
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by the United Kingdom, West Germany and Italy...

 left for South Africa to complete the integration of the Storm Shadow.

In March 2011 Storm Shadows were fired at Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

n air defence installations by Tornado GR4s during Operation Ellamy
Operation Ellamy
Operation Ellamy was the codename for the United Kingdom participation in the 2011 military intervention in Libya. The operation was part of an international coalition aimed at enforcing a Libyan no-fly zone in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 which stipulated...

, Britain's response to the 2011 Libyan civil war
2011 Libyan civil war
The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

Storm Shadows were also fired by French Rafales against the Libyan Al Jufra Air Base.

On 26 August 2011 it was reported that Storm Shadows had been deployed against a military bunker in Sirte
Sirte is a city in LibyaSirte may also refer to:* Sirte Declaration, a 1999 resolution to create the African Union* Sirte Oil Company, a Libyan oil companyIn geography:* Gulf of Sirte, alias for Gulf of Sidra on Libya's coast...

, the home town of Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...


Missile de Croisière Naval

MBDA has developed a longer-range sea-launched variant for the French Navy
French Navy
The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale and often called La Royale is the maritime arm of the French military. It includes a full range of fighting vessels, from patrol boats to a nuclear powered aircraft carrier and 10 nuclear-powered submarines, four of which are capable of launching...

, called Missile de Croisière Naval (MdCN meaning Naval Cruise Missile). It will launched by FREMM multipurpose frigate
FREMM multipurpose frigate
The FREMM Multipurpose Frigate is a ship designed by DCNS/Armaris and Fincantieri to operate in anti-air, anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, and be capable of carrying out deep strikes against land targets.The French Navy plans to operate eleven FREMM frigates, and the Marina...

s and Barracuda class submarines using the A70 version of the Sylver launcher
SYLVER launcher
The Sylver is a vertical missile launcher designed by DCNS. The launcher comes in several variants, each distinguished by their height...

 on the former and 533 mm torpedo tubes on the latter. To provide a comparable thousand kilometers class range to the BGM-109 Tomahawk
BGM-109 Tomahawk
The Tomahawk is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was designed as a medium- to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. It has been improved several times and, by way of corporate divestitures...

, the range of the MdCN (well over 1000 km) is significantly larger than the Storm Shadow. Its first in-flight test from a vertical launcher took place on 28 May 2010. and its first submarine test took place on 8 June 2011.

The Storm Shadow was suggested as part of the RAF's Future Offensive Air System
Future Offensive Air System
The Future Offensive Air System was a study which sought to replace the Royal Air Force's strike capability currently provided by the Tornado GR4. Initial operation capability was expected around 2017. The FOAS was cancelled in June 2005.-Cancellation:...

, possibly using a non-penetrating aircraft (e.g. C-130J or A400M) deploying large numbers of the missile. The FOAS study was cancelled in 2005, although the Storm Shadow may still be included in future studies for future weapons.


The following countries have ordered Storm Shadow / SCALP / MdCN, in these quantities:
: 500 ordered in January 1998 for the French Air Force
French Air Force
The French Air Force , literally Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1933...

; 50 MdCNs ordered in 2006 and 100 more in 2009 for the French Navy
French Navy
The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale and often called La Royale is the maritime arm of the French military. It includes a full range of fighting vessels, from patrol boats to a nuclear powered aircraft carrier and 10 nuclear-powered submarines, four of which are capable of launching...

: 90 for the Hellenic Air Force
Hellenic Air Force
The Hellenic Air Force, abbreviated to HAF is the air force of Greece. The mission of the Hellenic Air Force is to guard and protect Greek airspace, provide air assistance and support to the Hellenic Army and the Hellenic Navy, as well as the provision of humanitarian aid in Greece and around the...

: 200 for the Aeronautica Militare
Aeronautica Militare
The Italian Air Force is the air force of the Italian Republic. It has held a prominent role in modern Italian military history...

: US $1.8 billion deal to supply the Royal Saudi Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
The Royal Saudi Air Force , is the aviation branch of the Saudi Arabian armed forces. The RSAF has developed from a largely defensive military force into one with an advanced offensive capability...

: Undisclosed number of the variant called Black Shaheen
: 900 for the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...


See also

  • AGM-158 JASSM
    AGM-158 JASSM
    The AGM-158 JASSM is a low observable standoff cruise missile developed in the United States. It is a large, semi-stealthy long-range weapon of the class. The missile's development began in 1995, but a number of problems during testing delayed its introduction into service until 2009...

  • HN-1 (China)
  • KD-88 (China)
  • YJ-12
    YJ-12 is a little known supersonic Chinese anti-ship missile developed in the 1990s. Partially due to the limited information available on YJ-12, it is often mistaken for another little known Chinese supersonic anti-ship cruise missile YJ-22, the Chinese equivalent of SS-N-22...

    HOPE and HOSBO are a new family of precision-guided munitions, currently under development by Diehl BGT Defence for the German Luftwaffe...

  • Delilah missile
    Delilah missile
    The Delilah missile is a cruise missile developed in Israel by Israel Military Industries , built to target moving and re-locatable targets with a CEP of - Overview :...

  • Popeye missile (Israel)
  • Ra'ad
    The Ra'ad is an air-launched cruise missile developed by Pakistan and operational with the Pakistan Air Force . Though initially launched from a PAF Dassault Mirage III ROSE combat aircraft during testing, the missile is planned to be integrated with and launched from other PAF platforms such as...

  • X-55 (Russia)
  • X-101 (Russia)
    Taurus missile
    TAURUS KEPD 350 is a German/Swedish air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by TAURUS Systems and used by Germany and Spain. TAURUS Systems GmbH is a partnership between LFK and Saab Bofors Dynamics.-Overview:...

  • AGM-129 ACM
    AGM-129 ACM
    * Missile of the same class** Ra'ad ** TAURUS KEPD 350 ** Storm Shadow -Notes:# Alleged violations of the Antideficiency Act in the Air Force’s procurement of advanced cruise missiles.FILE B-255831, Office of the General Counsel, United States General Accounting Office.# Union Calls for Strike by...

  • SOM (missile)
    SOM (missile)
    SOM Cruise Missile is an air-launched high precision cruise missile, developed by TÜBİTAK-SAGE, Defence Research and Development Institute of Turkey. It was first revealed during the 100th year celebrations of Turkish Air Force at the Cigli Airbase in İzmir, on 4 June 2011...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.