Steven Blankaart
Steven Blankaart was a Dutch physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

, Iatrochemist, and entomologist, who worked on the same field as Jan Swammerdam
Jan Swammerdam
Jan Swammerdam was a Dutch biologist and microscopist. His work on insects demonstrated that the various phases during the life of an insect—egg, larva, pupa, and adult—are different forms of the same animal. As part of his anatomical research, he carried out experiments on muscle contraction...

. Blankaart proved the existence of a capillary system, as had been suggested by Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance...

, by spouting up bloodvessels, though he failed to realize the true significance of his findings. He is known for his development of injection techniques for this study and for writing the first Dutch book on child medicine. Blankaart translated works of John Mayow
John Mayow
John Mayow FRS was a chemist, physician, and physiologist who is remembered today for conducting early research into respiration and the nature of air...


Steven was the son of Nicolaas Blankaart, a professor in Greek and History in Steinfurt
Steinfurt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Steinfurt.-Geography:Steinfurt is situated north-west of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia. Its name came into being in 1975 when the two – up to then independent – parts of the city – Borghorst and...

 (1645–1650) and Middelburg
Middelburg is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland. It is situated in the Midden-Zeeland region. It has a population of about 48,000.- History of Middelburg :...

 (1650–1666), who moved to Heerenveen
Heerenveen is a town in the Heerenveen municipality of the province of Friesland , in the north of the Netherlands.- History :The town was established in 1551 by three lords as a location for the purpose of digging peat which was used for fuel, hence the name...

 to become the physician of Albertine Agnes
Albertine Agnes of Nassau
Albertine Agnes , was a regent of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe. She was the fifth daughter of stadtholder Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels.-Family:...

; he was appointed in Franeker
Franeker is one of the eleven historical cities of Friesland and capital of the municipality of Franekeradeel. It is located about 20 km west of Leeuwarden on the Van Harinxma Canal. As of 1 January 2006, it had 12,996 inhabitants. The city is famous for the Eisinga Planetarium from around...

 in 1669. His son started as an apprentice of an apothecary. In 1674 he moved to Amsterdam after becaming a doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

 and Medicine at the University of Franeker
University of Franeker
The University of Franeker was a university in Franeker, Friesland, presently part of the Netherlands. It was the second oldest university of the Netherlands, founded shortly after Leiden University....


Blankaart followed the principles established by René Descartes
René Descartes
René Descartes ; was a French philosopher and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day...

 and was one the first physicians to be a scientist or empiricist. In order to disprove the theory that insects originated spontaneously from filth and to demonstrate that they developed from eggs, Blankaart repeated the experiments carried out by Francesco Redi
Francesco Redi
Francesco Redi was an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet.-Biography:The son of Gregorio Redi and Cecilia de Ghinci was born in Arezzo on February 18, 1626. After schooling with the Jesuits, he attended the University of Pisa...

. Blankaart used oil made from terpentine to save the insects from mite
Mites, along with ticks, are small arthropods belonging to the subclass Acari and the class Arachnida. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology.-Diversity and systematics:...

s, and mentioned it in his book "Schou-burg" from 1688. Blankaart contacted Antoinette Bourignon
Antoinette Bourignon
Antoinette Bourignon de la Porte was a Flemish mystic. From an early age she was under the influence of religion, which took in course of time a mystical turn.-Biography:...

  and stated paradise
Paradise is a place in which existence is positive, harmonious and timeless. It is conceptually a counter-image of the miseries of human civilization, and in paradise there is only peace, prosperity, and happiness. Paradise is a place of contentment, but it is not necessarily a land of luxury and...

 would appear with a prohibition
Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, is the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, sale, and consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The term can also apply to the periods in the histories of the countries during which the...

 of alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

. He collaborated with Maria Sibylla Merian
Maria Sibylla Merian
Maria Sibylla Merian was a naturalist and scientific illustrator who studied plants and insects and made detailed paintings about them...

 on the publication of her work.

In 1682 he had married Isabella de Carpentier, the daughter of a referent from Amersfoort and in 1683 they had one child. At that time he lived on Warmoesstraat
Warmoesstraat is one of the oldest streets in Amsterdam, running parallel to the river Amstel from Amsterdam Centraal railway station to Dam Square. Its origins are in the 13th century. In the 16th and 17th century it was the shopping street...

. Blankaart was one of the first to do research on children's education and incontinence
Incontinence or Incontinent may refer to:*Fecal incontinence, the inability to control one's bowels*Incontinence *Incontinent , a 1981 album by Fad Gadget*Urinary incontinence, the involuntary excretion of urine...

. Blankaart was a follower of Franciscus Sylvius
Franciscus Sylvius
Franciscus Sylvius , born Franz de le Boë, was a Dutch physician and scientist who was an early champion of Descartes', Van Helmont's and William Harvey's work and theories...

, who recommended copious quantities of tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

 and coffee
Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark,init brooo acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant, colloquially called coffee beans. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia,...

. and worked on syphilis
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; however, it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis...

. Blankaart was living in the Leidsestraat when he died; he was buried in the Westerkerk
The Westerkerk is a church of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands denomination in Amsterdam, built in 1620-1631 after a design by Hendrick de Keyser. It is next to Amsterdam's Jordaan district, on the bank of the Prinsengracht canal....


Some works

  • Lexicon medicum graeco-latinum (1679)
  • Collectanea medico-physico oft Hollands Jaer-Register der geneesen natuurkunde aanmerkingen (1680, 1683, 1686).

  • Traité de la verole, gonorrhee, chancres, bubes venéreens, & de leurs accidens, avec une guerison véritable et solide (1688), published by Cornelis Blankaart, bookseller in the Warmoesstraat
    Warmoesstraat is one of the oldest streets in Amsterdam, running parallel to the river Amstel from Amsterdam Centraal railway station to Dam Square. Its origins are in the 13th century. In the 16th and 17th century it was the shopping street...

  • Lexicon Medicum Graco Latinum and many other medical treatises and books on anatomy and surgery, also a herbal
    AThe use of a or an depends on whether or not herbal is pronounced with a silent h. herbal is "a collection of descriptions of plants put together for medicinal purposes." Expressed more elaborately — it is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants, usually with information on their...

  • Schou-Burg der Rupsen, Wormen, Maden en Vliegende Dierkens daar uit voortkomende. Door eigen ondervindinge by een gebragt. Amsterdam, J. ten Hoorn. A work on insects titled Showplace of caterpillars, worms, maggots and flying things (1688). A number of the plates in this work show exotic butterflies. The frontispiece shows two scientists at a table studying butterflies and a number of caterpillars.

  • Accurate Abhandlung von dem Podagra und der lauffenden Gicht / Worinnen deren wahre Ursachen und gewisse Cur gründlich vorgestellet, auch die herrlichen Kräfften der Milch / . beschrieben werden durch Steph. Blancard. Anietzo aber wegen seiner Nutzbarkeit / nebst des Herrn Wilhelm ten Rhyne curieuser Beschreibung, wie die Chinesen und Japaner vermittelst des Moxa-Brennens und guldenen Nadel-Stechens alle Kranckheiten, insonderheit aber das Podagra gewiß curiren. Aus der Niederteutschen in die hochteutsche Sprache übersetzet. Leipzig, Fr. Gelditsch, 1692.

  • Den Nederlandschen herbarius, Amsterdam, 1698.
  • The physical dictionary : Wherein the terms of anatomy, the names and causes of diseases, chyrurgical instruments and their use; are accurately describ’d. : Also the names and virtues of medicinal plants, minerals, stones, gums, salts, earths, &c. and the method of choosing the best drugs : the terms of chymistry, and of the apothecaries art ; and the various forms of medicines, and the ways of compounding them. First published in 1684, reprints in 1693, 1697, 1702, 1708, 1715, 1726
  • Opera Medica, theoretica, practica et clinica. Leiden (1701)
  • Stephan Blancard's Arzneiwissenschaftliches Wörterbuch : worin nicht nur die Kunstwörter, sondern auch die in der Zergliederungskunst, Wundarzneikunst, Apothekerkunst, Schneidekunst, Gewächskunde u.s.w. gebräuchlichsten Ausdrücken deutlich, bestimt und kurz erklärt werden. Wucherer, Wien 1788 digital

External links

  • University of Wisconsin
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