Special Airworthiness Certificate
A special airworthiness certificate is an airworthiness certificate
Airworthiness certificate
A Certificate of Airworthiness , or an airworthiness certificate, is issued for an aircraft by the national aviation authority in the state in which the aircraft is registered. The airworthiness certificate attests that the aircraft is airworthy insofar as the aircraft conforms to its type design...

 that is not sufficient to allow an aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 to be used in commercial passenger or cargo operations.

United States

In the USA a special airworthiness certificate is issued in one or more of the following categories:
Category Purpose(s) Title 14 CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States.The CFR is published by the Office of the Federal Register, an agency...

Primary Aircraft flown for pleasure and personal use 21.24, 21.184
Restricted Aircraft with a "restricted" category type certificate, including:
  • Agricultural
    Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

  • Forest and wildlife conservation
    Conservation movement
    The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental and a social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal, fungus and plant species as well as their habitat for the future....

  • Aerial surveying
    See Also: Public Land Survey SystemSurveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them...

  • Patrolling (pipelines, power lines)
  • Weather control
    Weather control
    Weather control is the act of manipulating or altering certain aspects of the environment to produce desirable changes in weather. Weather control can have the goal of preventing damaging weather, such as hurricanes or tornadoes, from occurring; of causing beneficial weather, such as rainfall in...

  • Aerial advertising
    Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

  • Other operations specified by the Administrator
21.25, 21.185
Multiple Multiple airworthiness certificates 21.187
Limited Aircraft with a "limited" category type certificate 21.189
Light-Sport Operate a light-sport aircraft, other than a gyroplane
An autogyro , also known as gyroplane, gyrocopter, or rotaplane, is a type of rotorcraft which uses an unpowered rotor in autorotation to develop lift, and an engine-powered propeller, similar to that of a fixed-wing aircraft, to provide thrust...

, kit-built, or transitioning ultralight
Ultralight aviation
The term "ultralight aviation" refers to light-weight, 1- or 2-person airplanes., also called microlight aircraft in the UK, India and New Zealand...

 like vehicle
  • Research and development
    Research and development
    The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

     - an aircraft whose purpose is to test new design concepts, equipment, or operating techniques
  • Showing compliance with regulations - a prototype aircraft that is built for the purposes of demonstrating the airworthiness of a design
  • Crew training - an aircraft used solely for training that, for some reason, does not have a standard certificate (e.g. the NASA Shuttle Training Aircraft
    Shuttle Training Aircraft
    The Shuttle Training Aircraft is a NASA training vehicle that duplicates the Space Shuttle's approach profile and handling qualities, allowing Space Shuttle pilots to simulate Shuttle landings under controlled conditions before attempting the task on board the orbiter.-Development:The aircraft's...

  • Exhibition
  • Air racing
  • Market surveys - a sales demonstration aircraft
  • Operating amateur-built aircraft
    Homebuilt aircraft
    Also known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, homebuilt aircraft are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. These aircraft may be constructed from "scratch," from plans, or from assembly kits.-Overview:...

  • Operating kit-built aircraft
  • Operating light-sport aircraft
  • Unmanned Aircraft Systems
  • 21.191, 21.193, 21.195
    Special Flight Permit Special-purpose flight of an aircraft that is capable of safe flight 21.197
    Provisional Aircraft with a "provisional" category type certificate for special operations and operating limitations Part 21 Subpart C,
    Part 21 Subpart I, Section 91.317
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