Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture
Overview
 
The Spanish Colonial Revival Style was a United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 architectural stylistic movement
Architectural style
Architectural styles classify architecture in terms of the use of form, techniques, materials, time period, region and other stylistic influences. It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and history of architecture...

 that came about in the early 20th century, starting in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 and Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 as a regional expression related to history, environment, and nostalgia. The Spanish Colonial Revival Style was also influenced by the opening of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

 and the overwhelming success of the novel Ramona
Ramona
Ramona is a 1884 United States historical novel written by Helen Hunt Jackson. It is the story of a Scots-Native American orphan girl in Southern California, who suffers racial discrimination and hardship. Originally serialized in the Christian Union on a weekly basis, the novel became immensely...

set in Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

. Based on the Spanish Colonial architecture from the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

, the Spanish Colonial Revival style updated these forms and detailing for a new century and culture.

The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, with lead architect Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was a American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. He also designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press.-Early career:...

, is credited with creating national attention for the aesthetic popularity of this style.

The Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931 and was most often exhibited in single-level detached houses and small commercial buildings.
]
The antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style.
Encyclopedia
The Spanish Colonial Revival Style was a United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 architectural stylistic movement
Architectural style
Architectural styles classify architecture in terms of the use of form, techniques, materials, time period, region and other stylistic influences. It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and history of architecture...

 that came about in the early 20th century, starting in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 and Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 as a regional expression related to history, environment, and nostalgia. The Spanish Colonial Revival Style was also influenced by the opening of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

 and the overwhelming success of the novel Ramona
Ramona
Ramona is a 1884 United States historical novel written by Helen Hunt Jackson. It is the story of a Scots-Native American orphan girl in Southern California, who suffers racial discrimination and hardship. Originally serialized in the Christian Union on a weekly basis, the novel became immensely...

set in Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

. Based on the Spanish Colonial architecture from the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

, the Spanish Colonial Revival style updated these forms and detailing for a new century and culture.

The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, with lead architect Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was a American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. He also designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press.-Early career:...

, is credited with creating national attention for the aesthetic popularity of this style.

The Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931 and was most often exhibited in single-level detached houses and small commercial buildings.

Mediterranean Revival

]
The antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. For St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United...

, three northeastern architects, New Yorkers
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 John Carrère and Thomas Hastings
Thomas Hastings (architect)
Thomas Hastings was an American architect.- Biography :He was born in New York City to Thomas Samuel Hastings, a Presbyterian minister, and Fanny de Groot. Hastings came from a colonial Yankee background, his ancestor Thomas Hastings having come from the East Anglia region of England to the...

 of Carrère and Hastings
Carrère and Hastings
Carrère and Hastings, the firm of John Merven Carrère and Thomas Hastings , located in New York City, was one of the outstanding Beaux-Arts architecture firms in the United States. The partnership operated from 1885 until 1911, when Carrère was killed in an automobile accident...

 and Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

ian Franklin W. Smith, designed grand, elaborately detailed hotels in the Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Revival styles in the 1880s. With the advent of the Ponce de León Hotel
Ponce de León Hotel
The Ponce de León Hotel was an exclusive hotel in St. Augustine, Florida, built by millionaire developer and Standard Oil co-founder Henry M. Flagler and completed in 1888. The Hotel Ponce de Leon was designed in the Spanish Renaissance style by the New York architects John Carrere and Thomas...

 (Carrère and Hastings, 1882), the Alcazar Hotel
Lightner Museum
The Lightner Museum is a museum of antiquities, mostly American Victorian, housed within a historic hotel building in downtown St. Augustine, Florida, USA. The building, in a Spanish Renaissance Revival style, is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.The museum occupies three...

 (Carrère and Hastings, 1887) and the Casa Monica Hotel
Casa Monica Hotel
hThe Casa Monica Hotel is a historic hotel located in St. Augustine, Florida, in the United States. The Casa Monica Hotel is one of the oldest hotels in the United States and is a member of the "" National Trust.-History:...

 (later Hotel Cordova) (Franklin W. Smith, 1888) thousands of winter visitors to 'the Sunshine State' began to experience the charm and romance of Spanish influenced architecture. These three hotels were influenced not only by the centuries old buildings remaining from the Spanish rule in St. Augustine but also by The Old City House, constructed in 1873 and still standing, an excellent example of early Spanish Colonial Revival architecture.

Mission Revival

The possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries international expositions. For example, California's Mission Revival style
Mission Revival Style architecture
The Mission Revival Style was an architectural movement that began in the late 19th century for a colonial style's revivalism and reinterpretation, which drew inspiration from the late 18th and early 19th century Spanish missions in California....

 Pavilion in white stucco
Stucco
Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

 at the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. Chicago bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St...

 of 1893 in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, and the Mission Inn
Mission Inn
The Mission Inn, now known as The Mission Inn Hotel & Spa, is a historic landmark hotel in downtown Riverside, California. Although a composite of many architectural styles, it is generally considered the largest Mission Revival Style building in the United States.-History:The property began as a...

, along with the Electric Tower
Electric Tower
Electric Tower, or General Electric Tower, is a historic office building and skyscraper located at Buffalo in Erie County, New York. It is the seventh tallest building in Buffalo. It stands and 13 stories tall and is in the Beaux-Arts Classical Revival style. It was designed by James A. Johnson...

 of the Pan-American Exposition
Pan-American Exposition
The Pan-American Exposition was a World's Fair held in Buffalo, New York, United States, from May 1 through November 2, 1901. The fair occupied of land on the western edge of what is present day Delaware Park, extending from Delaware Ave. to Elmwood Ave and northward to Great Arrow...

 in Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

 in 1900 introduced the potential of Spanish Colonial Revival. They also integrated portico
Portico
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls...

es, pediment
Pediment
A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section found above the horizontal structure , typically supported by columns. The gable end of the pediment is surrounded by the cornice moulding...

s and colonnade
Colonnade
In classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building....

s influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well.

By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 had began to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style. Frederick H. Trimble
Frederick H. Trimble
Frederick H. Trimble was an American architect practicing in Central Florida from the early 1900s through the 1920s, working in the Colonial Revival, Spanish Colonial Revival and Prairie Style....

’s Farmer’s Bank in Vero Beach
Vero Beach, Florida
Vero Beach is a city in Indian River County, Florida, USA. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the city had a population of 16,939. It is the county seat of Indian River County...

, completed in 1914, is a fully mature early example of the style. The city of St. Cloud, Florida
St. Cloud, Florida
St. Cloud is a city in Osceola County, Florida, United States. The population was 35,183 at the 2010 census. St. Cloud is closely associated with the adjacent city of Kissimmee and its proximity to Orlando area theme parks, including Walt Disney World, Universal Orlando Resort, and Seaworld.St...

, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a fine collection of subtle stucco
Stucco
Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

 buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico. Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Ryan
Ida Annah Ryan
Ida Annah Ryan was a pioneering United States woman architect. She was born on November 4, 1873 at Waltham, MA, one of five children of Albert Morse Ryan and Carrie S. Jameson. Albert Morse Ryan was a Waltham city employee and historian who also ran a milk business. She graduated from the Waltham...

 and Isabel Roberts
Isabel Roberts
Isabel Roberts was a Prairie School figure, member of the architectural design team in the Oak Park Studio of Frank Lloyd Wright and partner with Ida Annah Ryan in the Orlando, Florida architecture firm, “Ryan and Roberts”. It is fair to say that Roberts is an under-appreciated member of Wright’s...

.

California

The major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, especially in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was a American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. He also designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press.-Early career:...

, Carleton Winslow Sr., and Irving Gill
Irving Gill
Irving John Gill , American architect, is considered a pioneer of the modern movement in architecture. He designed several buildings considered examples of San Diego's best architecture.-Biography:...

, popularized the style in the state and nation. After its destruction from the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake, the city adopted and mandated the style for a unified Spanish character. A major example from the rebuilding is the Santa Barbara County Courthouse
Santa Barbara County Courthouse
The Santa Barbara County Courthouse is located at 1100 Anacapa Street, Santa Barbara, California. Designed by William Mooser III and completed in 1929, the Spanish Colonial Revival style building replaced the smaller Greek Revival courthouse of the same location...

. The Pasadena City Hall
Pasadena City Hall
Pasadena City Hall, completed in 1927, serves as the central location for city government in the City of Pasadena and it is a significant example of the City Beautiful movement of the 1920s.-History:...

 and Beverly Hills City Hall are other civic examples in California.

Design elements

Spanish Colonial Revival architecture shares some elements with the earlier Mission Revival style
Mission Revival Style architecture
The Mission Revival Style was an architectural movement that began in the late 19th century for a colonial style's revivalism and reinterpretation, which drew inspiration from the late 18th and early 19th century Spanish missions in California....

 derived from the architecture of the California missions
Architecture of the California missions
The architecture of the California missions was influenced by several factors, those being the limitations in the construction materials that were on hand, an overall lack of skilled labor, and a desire on the part of the founding priests to emulate notable structures in their Spanish homeland...

, and Pueblo Revival style
Pueblo Revival Style architecture
The Pueblo Revival style is a regional architectural style of the Southwestern United States which draws its inspiration from the Pueblos and the Spanish missions in New Mexico. The style developed at the turn of the 20th century and reached its greatest popularity in the 1920s and 1930s, though it...

 from the traditional Puebloan peoples in New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

. Both precedents were popularized in the Western United States
Western United States
.The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time...

 by the Fred Harvey
Fred Harvey Company
The origin of the Fred Harvey Company can be traced to the 1875 opening of two railroad eating houses located at Wallace, Kansas and Hugo, Colorado on the Kansas Pacific Railway. These cafés were opened by Fred Harvey, then a freight agent for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad...

 and his Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway , often abbreviated as Santa Fe, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. The company was first chartered in February 1859...

 Depots and Hotels. The Spanish Colonial Revival style is also influenced by the American Craftsman
American Craftsman
The American Craftsman Style, or the American Arts and Crafts Movement, is an American domestic architectural, interior design, landscape design, applied arts, and decorative arts style and lifestyle philosophy that began in the last years of the 19th century. As a comprehensive design and art...

 style and Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts was an international design philosophy that originated in England and flourished between 1860 and 1910 , continuing its influence until the 1930s...

.

Spanish Colonial Revival architecture is characterized by a combination of detail from several eras of Spanish Baroque, Spanish Colonial, Moorish Revival and Mexican Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque refers to a Spanish Baroque style of elaborate sculptural architectural ornament which emerged as a manner of stucco decoration in Spain in the late 17th century and was used up to about 1750, marked by extreme, expressive and florid decorative detailing, normally found above the...

 architecture, the style is marked by the prodigious use of smooth plaster
Plaster
Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting,...

 (stucco
Stucco
Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

) wall
Wall
A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air...

 and chimney
Chimney
A chimney is a structure for venting hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the...

 finishes, low-pitched
Roof pitch
In building construction, roof pitch is a numerical measure of the steepness of a roof, and a pitched roof is a roof that is steep.The roof's pitch is the measured vertical rise divided by the measured horizontal span, the same thing as what is called "slope" in geometry. Roof pitch is typically...

 clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

 tile, shed, or flat roofs, and terracotta or cast concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

 ornaments. Other characteristics typically include small porch
Porch
A porch is external to the walls of the main building proper, but may be enclosed by screen, latticework, broad windows, or other light frame walls extending from the main structure.There are various styles of porches, all of which depend on the architectural tradition of its location...

es or balconies
Balcony
Balcony , a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brackets, and enclosed with a balustrade.-Types:The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a...

, Roman
Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted certain aspects of Ancient Greek architecture, creating a new architectural style. The Romans were indebted to their Etruscan neighbors and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions, such as hydraulics...

 or semi-circular
Semicircle
In mathematics , a semicircle is a two-dimensional geometric shape that forms half of a circle. Being half of a circle's 360°, the arc of a semicircle always measures 180° or a half turn...

 arcades
Arcade (architecture)
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counterthrusting the next, supported by columns or piers or a covered walk enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians....

 and fenestration
Window
A window is a transparent or translucent opening in a wall or door that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound. Windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material like float glass. Windows are held in place by frames, which...

, wood casement
Casement window
A casement window is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges. Casement windows are hinged at the side. A casement window (or casement) is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges. Casement windows are hinged at the side. A casement window (or casement) is a...

 or tall, double–hung windows
Sash window
A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels or "sashes" that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from other panes by narrow muntins...

, canvas
Canvas
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used by artists as a painting surface, typically stretched across a wooden frame...

 awning
Awning
An awning or overhang is a secondary covering attached to the exterior wall of a building. It is typically composed of canvas woven of acrylic, cotton or polyester yarn, or vinyl laminated to polyester fabric that is stretched tightly over a light structure of aluminium, iron or steel, possibly...

s, and decorative iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 trim.

Notable architects

One of the most accomplished architects of the style was George Washington Smith
George Washington Smith (architect)
George Washington Smith, , was an American architect and painter. He is noted particularly for his work around Santa Barbara, California, and for popularizing the Spanish Colonial Revival style in early 20th Century America....

 who practiced during the 1920s in Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. Situated on an east-west trending section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply-rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean...

. His own residences El Hogar (1916, a.k.a. Casa Dracaena) and Casa del Greco (1920) brought him commissions from local society in Montecito and Santa Barbara. An example landmark house he designed is the Steedman estate Casa del Herrero
Casa del Herrero
Casa del Herrero is a home and gardens located in Montecito near Santa Barbara, California. It is an estate designed and constructed in the Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and made a National Historic Landmark on January 16, 2009...

in Montecito
Montecito, California
Montecito is an unincorporated community in Santa Barbara County, California. As a census-designated place, it had a population of 8,965 in 2010. This does not include areas such as Coast Village Road, that, while usually considered part of Montecito, are actually within the city limits of Santa...

, now a registered National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 and restored historic house—landscape museum. Other examples are the Jackling House
Jackling House
The Jackling House was a mansion in Woodside, California, designed and built for copper mining magnate Daniel Cowan Jackling and his family by the noted California architect George Washington Smith in 1925...

 and Lobero Theatre
Lobero Theatre
The Lobero Theatre, founded by José Lobero, is a historic building in Santa Barbara, California. It is at the corner of Anacapa and Canon Perdido Streets, less than a block away from the historic Presidio of Santa Barbara.-History:...

 also in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

.

Also notable in California were architects John Byers
John Byers (architect)
John Winford Byers was a Santa Monica architect and builder noted for use of the Spanish Colonial revival style.-Early life:...

, Wallace Neff
Wallace Neff
Wallace Neff was an architect based in Southern California and was largely responsible for developing the region's distinct architectural style referred to as "California" style...

, Reginald Johnson
Reginald Davis Johnson
Reginald Davis Johnson was an American architect. His practice, based in Pasadena, California, focused on the Los Angeles area and southern California in general, with a mixture of residential and commercial work...

, Elmer Grey
Elmer Grey
Elmer Grey, FAIA was an American architect and artist based in Pasadena, California. Grey designed many noted landmarks in Southern California, including the Beverly Hills Hotel, the Huntington Art Gallery, the Pasadena Playhouse and Wattles Mansion...

, William Johnson
William Johnson
William Johnson may refer to:Arts and Entertainment* William Allen Johnson , organ builder, Johnson Organs* William Gary Johnson , called Bunk Johnson, American jazz musician* William H...

, Lutah Maria Riggs
Lutah Maria Riggs
Lutah Maria Riggs, FAIA was an American architect who worked for several decades in the Southern California region...

, and many other designers. Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was a American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. He also designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press.-Early career:...

 and Carleton Winslow
Carleton Winslow
Carleton Monroe Winslow , also known as Carleton Winslow Sr., was an American architect, and key proponent of Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in Southern California in the early 20th Century....

 initiated the style as the dominant historical regional style, in Hawaiian architecture of the 1920s and in California to the present day.

In Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 notable architects include: Marion Wyeth, Robert Weed, Addison Mizner
Addison Mizner
Addison Cairns Mizner was an American resort architect whose Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival style interpretations left an indelible stamp on South Florida, where it continues to inspire architects and land developers. In the 1920s Mizner was the best-known and most-discussed...

, Maurice Fatio
Maurice Fatio
Maurice Fatio was a society architect in New York and Palm Beach. Born in Geneva, Switzerland in 1897, he graduated from the Polytechnical School at the University of Zurich and studied under Swiss architect Karl Moser. In 1920 he came to New York City where he first worked for society architect...

, James Gamble Rogers II
James Gamble Rogers II
James Gamble Rogers II was a celebrated American architect practicing primarily in Winter Park, Florida in the middle years of the twentieth century. He is noted for suavely elegant residential and commercial work, in the Spanish Revival, Mediterranean Revival, French Provincial and Colonial...

, Kiehnel and Elliott
Kiehnel and Elliott
The architectural firm of Kiehnel and Elliot was established in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1906. Richard Kiehnel was the designer. Kiehnel was born in Germany. He studied at the University of Breslau, Germany and the Ecole Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris. Kiehnel's first commission in the...

, John Elliot, Albert Pierce, Harry Griffin, and Wallace Neff
Wallace Neff
Wallace Neff was an architect based in Southern California and was largely responsible for developing the region's distinct architectural style referred to as "California" style...

.

Structural form

  • Rectangular, courtyard, or L-plan
  • Horizontal massing
  • Predominantly one-story
  • Interior or exterior courtyard
    Courtyard
    A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. These areas in inns and public buildings were often the primary meeting places for some purposes, leading to the other meanings of court....

    s
  • Asymmetrical shape
    Asymmetry
    Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry.-In organisms:Due to how cells divide in organisms, asymmetry in organisms is fairly usual in at least one dimension, with biological symmetry also being common in at least one dimension....

     with cross-gable
    Gable
    A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system being used and aesthetic concerns. Thus the type of roof enclosing the volume dictates the shape of the gable...

    s and side wings

List of example structures

  • "California Tower" and "El Prado," Balboa Park, San Diego, California: by Bertram Goodhue
    Bertram Goodhue
    Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue was a American architect celebrated for his work in neo-gothic design. He also designed notable typefaces, including Cheltenham and Merrymount for the Merrymount Press.-Early career:...

    , for the Panama–California Exposition (1915).
  • Casa del Herrero
    Casa del Herrero
    Casa del Herrero is a home and gardens located in Montecito near Santa Barbara, California. It is an estate designed and constructed in the Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and made a National Historic Landmark on January 16, 2009...

    , Montecito, California
    Montecito, California
    Montecito is an unincorporated community in Santa Barbara County, California. As a census-designated place, it had a population of 8,965 in 2010. This does not include areas such as Coast Village Road, that, while usually considered part of Montecito, are actually within the city limits of Santa...

    , architects George Washington Smith
    George Washington Smith (architect)
    George Washington Smith, , was an American architect and painter. He is noted particularly for his work around Santa Barbara, California, and for popularizing the Spanish Colonial Revival style in early 20th Century America....

     and Lutah Maria Riggs
    Lutah Maria Riggs
    Lutah Maria Riggs, FAIA was an American architect who worked for several decades in the Southern California region...

    , 1926.
  • The Main Quad and many buildings in the campus of Stanford University
    Stanford University
    The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

    .
  • "Casa Dracaena" (a.k.a. El Hogar or Heberton House), George Washington Smith residence #1, 1916.
  • Santa Barbara County Courthouse
    Santa Barbara County Courthouse
    The Santa Barbara County Courthouse is located at 1100 Anacapa Street, Santa Barbara, California. Designed by William Mooser III and completed in 1929, the Spanish Colonial Revival style building replaced the smaller Greek Revival courthouse of the same location...

    , by William Mooser III, in Santa Barbara, California
    Santa Barbara, California
    Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. Situated on an east-west trending section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply-rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean...

    , completed 1929.
  • George Fearn House
    George Fearn House
    The George Fearn House is a historic residence in Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was built in 1904 in the Spanish Colonial Revival style by local architect George Bigelow Rogers. It was the first Spanish Colonial Revival building to be built in Mobile. The house was placed on the National...

     in Mobile, Alabama
    Mobile, Alabama
    Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

    , completed 1904.
  • Farmer's Bank in Vero Beach, Florida
    Vero Beach, Florida
    Vero Beach is a city in Indian River County, Florida, USA. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the city had a population of 16,939. It is the county seat of Indian River County...

    , completed in 1914
  • Adamson House
    Adamson House
    Adamson House, also known as Vaquero Hill, is a historic house and gardens in Malibu, California that has been called the "Taj Mahal of Tile" due to its extensive use of decorative ceramic tiles created by the Malibu Potteries. The house was built in 1930 for Rhoda Rindge Adamson and Merritt...

    , "Taj Mahal of Tile" by Stiles O. Clements
    Stiles O. Clements
    Stiles Oliver Clements was a Los Angeles architect trained at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and a key figure in the art deco movement of 1920s Los Angeles...

    , in Malibu, California, completed 1930.
  • Alice Lynch Residence in Los Angeles, California
    Los Angeles, California
    Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

    , completed in 1922
  • Naval Training Center, San Diego, California
    Naval Training Center San Diego
    Naval Training Center San Diego is a former United States Navy base located at the north end of San Diego Bay. The Naval Training Center site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and many of the individual structures are designated as historic by the city of San Diego.The base...

    , completed 1923 (Buildings 1–26). Other phases completed 1936 (Barracks 27–30, Camp Lawrence), and 1942 (Camp Luce
    Stephen Luce
    Stephen Bleecker Luce was a U.S. Navy admiral. He was the founder and first president of the Naval War College, between 1884 and 1886.-Biography:...

    )
  • Quapaw Baths building in Bathhouse Row
    Bathhouse Row
    Bathhouse Row is a collection of bathhouses, associated buildings, and gardens located at Hot Springs National Park in the city of Hot Springs, Arkansas...

    , Hot Springs, Arkansas
    Hot Springs, Arkansas
    Hot Springs is the 10th most populous city in the U.S. state of Arkansas, the county seat of Garland County, and the principal city of the Hot Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area encompassing all of Garland County...

    , completed in 1922
  • "Casa de las Campañas" in Hancock Park district, Los Angeles, California
    Los Angeles, California
    Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

    , completed in 1928
  • C.E. Toberman Estate
    C.E. Toberman Estate
    The C. E. Toberman Estate, also known as Via Las Colinas, is a gated Mission Revival mansion and estate on Camino Palermo in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.-Architecture:...

    , by Russell & Alspagh, in Hollywood, California, completed 1924.
  • Frank H. Upham House in Altadena, California
    Altadena, California
    Altadena is an unincorporated area and census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California, United States, approximately from the downtown Los Angeles Civic Center, and directly north of the city of Pasadena, California...

    , completed 1928.
  • Azalea Court Apartments
    Azalea Court Apartments
    The Azalea Court Apartments is a historic three-story apartment building located in Mobile, Alabama. It was built in 1928 and was designed by architect J. Platt Roberts in the Spanish Colonial Revival style. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 11, 1988....

     in Mobile, Alabama, completed in 1928
  • "La Casa Nueva", Workman and Temple Family Estate, in City of Industry, California, completed 1927.
  • Serrallés Castle
    Serralles Castle
    Serrallés Castle is a mansion located in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico overlooking the downtown area . It was built during the 1920s by Juan Eugenio Serrallés, son of businessman Juan Serrallés, founder of Destilería Serrallés...

     in Ponce, Puerto Rico
    Ponce, Puerto Rico
    Ponce is both a city and a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico. The city is the seat of the municipal government.The city of Ponce, the fourth most populated in Puerto Rico, and the most populated outside of the San Juan metropolitan area, is named for Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the...

    , completed in the 1930s
  • William S. Hart
    William S. Hart
    William Surrey Hart was an American silent film actor, screenwriter, director and producer. He is remembered for having "imbued all of his characters with honor and integrity."-Biography:...

     “La Loma de los Vientos” Ranch, arch. Arthur R. Kelly
    Arthur R. Kelly
    Arthur Rolland Kelly was an American architect who specialized in residential architecture, primarily in the Los Angeles, California area. Arthur Kelly designed approximately five hundred homes and other buildings....

    , Newhall, California
    Newhall, California
    Newhall is the southernmost and oldest district of Santa Clarita, California. Prior to the 1987 consolidation of Valencia, Canyon Country, Saugus, Newhall, and other geographically proximate settlements into the conglomerate city of Santa Clarita, it was an independent but unincorporated town...

    , completed in early 1920s
  • Gaylord Suites in San Francisco, California, completed in 1928
  • Randolph Air Force Base
    Randolph Air Force Base
    Randolph Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located east-northeast of San Antonio, Texas. The base is under the jurisdiction of the 902d Mission Support Group, Air Education and Training Command ....

     (various structures) near San Antonio, Texas, designed in 1929
  • Hollywood, Homewood, Alabama
    Hollywood, Homewood, Alabama
    Hollywood is a former town annexed into Homewood, Alabama in 1929. A historic district of much of the area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Hollywood Historic District. The district is roughly bounded by U. S. Highway 31, U. S...

    , a 1926 residential development in Homewood, Alabama
    Homewood, Alabama
    Homewood is a city in southeastern Jefferson County, Alabama, United States. It is a suburb of Birmingham, located on the other side of Red Mountain due south of the city center. It has one of the highest population densities in Alabama. As of 2009 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the...

  • El Capitan Theatre
    El Capitan Theatre
    El Capitan Theatre is a fully restored movie palace at 6838 Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood. It is owned by Pacific Theatres and operated by the Walt Disney Company. It serves as the venue for many of Walt Disney Pictures' movie premieres...

    , Hollywood (built in 1928)
  • "Death Valley Ranch"
    Scotty's Castle
    Scotty's Castle is a two-story Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival style villa located in the Grapevine Mountains of northern Death Valley in Death Valley National Park, California, U.S.. It is also known as Death Valley Ranch...

    , "Scotty's Castle," a landmark in Death Valley National Park
    Death Valley National Park
    Death Valley National Park is a national park in the U.S. states of California and Nevada located east of the Sierra Nevada in the arid Great Basin of the United States. The park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes,...

    , which was begun in 1922 and had construction on the original design continue sporadically as late as 1943.
  • Scripps College
    Scripps College
    Scripps College is a progressive liberal arts women's college in Claremont, California, United States. It is a member of the Claremont Colleges. Scripps ranks 3rd for the nation's best women's college, ahead of Barnard College, Mount Holyoke College, and Bryn Mawr College at 23rd on the list for...

    , by Gordon Kaufmann
    Gordon Kaufmann
    Gordon Kaufmann was an English born American architect mostly known for his work on the Hoover Dam. He arrived in California in 1914 and during his early career he did much work in the Mediterranean Revival Style which had become popular at that time.He was also the initial architect for Scripps...

     and Sumner Hunt
    Sumner Hunt
    Sumner P. Hunt was an architect in Los Angeles from the 1890s to the 1930s.-Practice:In partnership with architect Silas Reese Burns he designed such regional landmarks as the original building of the Southwest Museum, the Casa de Rosas, Ebell of Los Angeles, the Bradbury Building, the Los Angeles...

    , in Claremont, California
    Claremont, California
    Claremont is a small affluent college town in eastern Los Angeles County, California, United States, about east of downtown Los Angeles at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. The population as of the 2010 census is 34,926. Claremont is known for its seven higher-education institutions, its...

    , women's college and campus established in 1926 by Ellen Browning Scripps
    Ellen Browning Scripps
    Ellen Browning Scripps was an American philanthropist who was the founding donor of several major institutions in Southern California.-Biography:...

    .
  • Hamilton Air Force Base, in San Francisco Bay Area
    San Francisco Bay Area
    The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

     near Novato, California
    Novato, California
    Novato is a city located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, in northern Marin County. Novato is located about north-northwest of San Rafael, at an elevation of 30 feet above sea level . The 2010 U.S. Census estimated the city population to be about 51,904. Novato is about ...

    , completed in 1934
  • Pima County Courthouse
    Pima County Courthouse
    Pima County Courthouse is the former main county courthouse building in downtown Tucson, Arizona. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places...

  • Louis P. Best Residence and Auto House, Davenport, Iowa
    Davenport, Iowa
    Davenport is a city located along the Mississippi River in Scott County, Iowa, United States. Davenport is the county seat of and largest city in Scott County. Davenport was founded on May 14, 1836 by Antoine LeClaire and was named for his friend, George Davenport, a colonel during the Black Hawk...

    , Constructed in 1909.
  • Pasadena City Hall
    Pasadena City Hall
    Pasadena City Hall, completed in 1927, serves as the central location for city government in the City of Pasadena and it is a significant example of the City Beautiful movement of the 1920s.-History:...

    , by Bakewell and Brown, in Pasadena, California
    Pasadena, California
    Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although famous for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game and Tournament of Roses Parade, Pasadena is the home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including the California Institute of Technology , the Jet...

    , completed 1927.

See also

  • Mediterranean Revival Style architecture
    Mediterranean Revival Style architecture
    The Mediterranean Revival was an eclectic design style that was first introduced in the United States about the end of the nineteenth century, and became popular during the 1920s and 1930s...

  • Mission Revival Style architecture
    Mission Revival Style architecture
    The Mission Revival Style was an architectural movement that began in the late 19th century for a colonial style's revivalism and reinterpretation, which drew inspiration from the late 18th and early 19th century Spanish missions in California....

  • Revivalism (architecture)
    Revivalism (architecture)
    Revivalism in architecture is the use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era.There were a number of architectural revivalist movements in the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries....

  • Category: Spanish Revival architecture
  • Spanish Revival architects
  • Spanish Colonial Revival architects
  • Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in California
  • Images of Revival styles of architecture
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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