Shrimp
Overview
 
Shrimp are swimming
Aquatic locomotion
Swimming is biologically propelled motion through a liquid medium. Swimming has evolved a number of times in a range of organisms ranging from arthropods to fish to molluscs.-Evolution of swimming:...

, decapod
Decapoda
The decapods or Decapoda are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. It is estimated that the order contains nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with...

 crustacean
Crustacean
Crustaceans form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at , to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span...

s classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh
Fresh Water
Fresh Water is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum, released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve...

 and salt water
Seawater
Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% . This means that every kilogram of seawater has approximately of dissolved salts . The average density of seawater at the ocean surface is 1.025 g/ml...

. Adult shrimp are filter feeding
Filter feeder
Filter feeders are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish and some sharks. Some birds,...

 benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools
Shoaling and schooling
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are said to be shoaling , and if, in addition, the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are said to be schooling . In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely...

 and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important food source for larger animals from fish to whale
Whale
Whale is the common name for various marine mammals of the order Cetacea. The term whale sometimes refers to all cetaceans, but more often it excludes dolphins and porpoises, which belong to suborder Odontoceti . This suborder also includes the sperm whale, killer whale, pilot whale, and beluga...

s. They have a high tolerance to toxins in polluted areas, and may contribute to high toxin
Toxin
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded...

 levels in their predators.
Encyclopedia
Shrimp are swimming
Aquatic locomotion
Swimming is biologically propelled motion through a liquid medium. Swimming has evolved a number of times in a range of organisms ranging from arthropods to fish to molluscs.-Evolution of swimming:...

, decapod
Decapoda
The decapods or Decapoda are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. It is estimated that the order contains nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with...

 crustacean
Crustacean
Crustaceans form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at , to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span...

s classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh
Fresh Water
Fresh Water is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum, released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve...

 and salt water
Seawater
Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% . This means that every kilogram of seawater has approximately of dissolved salts . The average density of seawater at the ocean surface is 1.025 g/ml...

. Adult shrimp are filter feeding
Filter feeder
Filter feeders are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish and some sharks. Some birds,...

 benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools
Shoaling and schooling
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are said to be shoaling , and if, in addition, the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are said to be schooling . In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely...

 and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important food source for larger animals from fish to whale
Whale
Whale is the common name for various marine mammals of the order Cetacea. The term whale sometimes refers to all cetaceans, but more often it excludes dolphins and porpoises, which belong to suborder Odontoceti . This suborder also includes the sperm whale, killer whale, pilot whale, and beluga...

s. They have a high tolerance to toxins in polluted areas, and may contribute to high toxin
Toxin
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded...

 levels in their predators. Together with prawn
Prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...

s, shrimp are widely caught and farmed for human consumption.

Taxonomy

A number of more or less unrelated crustaceans share the word "shrimp" in their common name. Examples are the mantis shrimp
Mantis shrimp
Mantis shrimp or stomatopods are marine crustaceans, the members of the order Stomatopoda. They are neither shrimp nor mantids, but receive their name purely from the physical resemblance to both the terrestrial praying mantis and the shrimp. They may reach in length, although exceptional cases of...

 and the opossum or mysid shrimp, both of which belong to the same class
Class (biology)
In biological classification, class is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order...

 (Malacostraca
Malacostraca
Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing over 25,000 extant species, divided among 16 orders. Its members display a greater diversity of body forms than any other class of animals, and include crabs, lobsters, shrimp, krill, woodlice, scuds , mantis shrimp and many...

) as decapods
Decapoda
The decapods or Decapoda are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. It is estimated that the order contains nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with...

 including shrimp, but constitute two different order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

s within it, the Stomatopoda and the Mysidacea
Mysidacea
Mysida is a group of small, shrimp-like crustaceans, an order in the malacostracan superorder Peracarida. Their common name opossum shrimps stems from the presence of a brood pouch, or marsupium, in females. Mysids are mostly found in marine waters throughout the world, but are also important in...

. Triops longicaudatus
Triops longicaudatus
Triops longicaudatus is a freshwater crustacean of the order Notostraca, resembling a miniature horseshoe crab. It is characterized by an elongated, segmented body, flattened shield-like brownish carapace covering two thirds of the thorax and two long filaments on the abdomen...

and Triops cancriformis
Triops cancriformis
Triops cancriformis, or tadpole shrimp , is a species of tadpole shrimp found in Europe, the Middle East and Japan....

are also popular animals in freshwater aquaria
Aquarium
An aquarium is a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, marine mammals, turtles, and aquatic plants...

, and are often called shrimp, although they belong instead to the Notostraca
Notostraca
The order Notostraca comprises the single family Triopsidae, containing the tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp. The two genera, Triops and Lepidurus, are considered living fossils, having not changed significantly in outward form since the Triassic. They have a broad, flat carapace, which conceals the...

, a quite unrelated group.

Biological definition

The class Malacostraca contains about half of the crustaceans. The members of this class have a primitive body plan that can be described as shrimp-like, consisting of a 5-8-7 body plan. They have a small carapace that encloses the head and the thorax, and have a muscular abdomen for swimming. They also have a thin exoskeleton to maintain a light weight. These general characters are common in all members of the class.

The class can be further divided into the decapod
Decapoda
The decapods or Decapoda are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. It is estimated that the order contains nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with...

s, which are even still divided into the dendrobranchiates
Prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...

 (prawns) and the carideans (shrimp and snapping shrimp).

The prawns have sequentially overlapping body segments (segment one covers the segment two, segment two covers segment three, etc.), chelate (claw like) first three leg pairs, and have a very basic larval body type.

The shrimps also have overlapping segments, however, in a different pattern (segment two overlaps segments one and three), only the first two leg pairs are chelate, and they have a more complex larval form.

Biologists distinguish the true shrimp from the true prawn
Prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...

 because of the differences in their gill
Gill
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water, afterward excreting carbon dioxide. The gills of some species such as hermit crabs have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist...

 structures. The gill structure is lamellar in shrimp but branching in prawns. The easiest practical way to separate true shrimps from true prawns is to examine the second abdominal segment
Somite
A somite is a division of the body of an animal. In vertebrates this is mainly discernible in the embryo stage; in arthropods it is a characteristic of a hypothetical ancestor.- In vertebrates :...

. The second segment of a shrimp overlaps both the first and the third segment, while the second segment of a prawn overlaps only the third segment.

The infraorder Caridea is divided into 16 superfamilies:
  • Alpheoidea
    Alpheoidea
    Alpheoidea is a superfamily of shrimp containing the families Alpheidae, Barbouriidae and Hippolytidae....

     Rafinesque, 1815
  • Atyoidea
    Atyidae
    Atyidae is a family of shrimp, present in all tropical and most temperate waters of the world. Adults of this family are almost always confined to fresh water...

     De Haan, 1849
  • Bresilioidea
    Bresilioidea
    Bresilioidea is a superfamily of shrimp. It is likely to be an artificial group, containing five families which may or may not be related....

     Calman, 1896
  • Campylonotoidea
    Campylonotoidea
    Campylonotoidea is a superfamily of shrimp, containing the two families Campylonotidae and Bathypalaemonellidae. Fenner A. Chace considered it to be the sister group to the much larger superfamily Palaemonoidea, with which it shares the absence of endopods on the pereiopods, and the fact that the...

     Sollaud, 1913
  • Crangonoidea
    Crangonoidea
    Crangonoidea is a superfamily of shrimps containing the two families Crangonidae and Glyphocrangonidae....

     Haworth, 1825
  • Galatheacaridoidea Vereshchaka, 1997
  • Nematocarcinoidea
    Nematocarcinoidea
    Nematocarcinoidea is a superfamily of shrimp, comprising three families – Eugonatonotidae, Nematocarcinidae and Rhynchocinetidae. They share the presence of strap-like epipods on at least the first three pairs of pereiopods, and a blunt molar process. The family Xiphocarididae was formerly included....

     Smith, 1884
  • Oplophoroidea
    Oplophoridae
    The family Oplophoridae is a taxon of pelagic shrimps and the only subtaxon of the superfamily Oplophoroidea. It contains the following genera:*Acanthephyra A. Milne-Edwards, 1881*Ephyrina Smith, 1885*Heterogenys Chace, 1986...

     Dana, 1852
  • Palaemonoidea
    Palaemonoidea
    Palaemonoidea is a large superfamily of shrimp, containing nearly 1,000 species.*Anchistioididae Borradaile, 1915*Desmocarididae Borradaile, 1915*Euryrhynchidae Holthuis, 1950*Gnathophyllidae Dana, 1852*Hymenoceridae Ortmann, 1890...

     Rafinesque, 1815
  • Pandaloidea
    Pandaloidea
    Pandaloidea is a superfamily of shrimp, comprising the large family Pandalidae and the much smaller Thalassocarididae  ....

     Haworth, 1825
  • Pasiphaeoidea
    Pasiphaeidae
    Pasiphaeidae is a family of shrimps. It is the only family in the superfamily Pasiphaeoidea and contains seven extant genera:*Alainopasiphaea Hayashi, 1999*Eupasiphae Wood-Mason, 1893*Glyphus Filhol, 1884*Leptochela Stimpson, 1860...

     Dana, 1852
  • Physetocaridoidea
    Physetocaris
    Physetocaris is a monotypic genus of caridean shrimp, containing a single species, Physetocaris microphthalma. It is placed in its own family and superfamily . The species is rare, with only 35 specimens counted in a 1985 review...

     Chace, 1940a
  • Procaridoidea
    Procaridoidea
    Procaridoidea is a superfamily of shrimp, comprising only eleven species. Six of these are in the genera Procaris and Vetericaris, which together make up the family Procarididae. The remaining five species are only known from fossils and belong to the genus Udora, which cannot yet be assigned to...

     Chace & Manning, 1972
  • Processoidea Ortmann, 1896
  • Psalidopodoidea
    Psalidopus
    Psalidopus is a genus of shrimp placed in its own family, Psalidopodidae, and superfamily, Psalidopodoidea. It comprises three species, one in the western Atlantic Ocean, and two in the Indo-Pacific.-Psalidopus barbouri:P...

     Wood-Mason, 1892
  • Stylodactyloidea
    Stylodactylidae
    The family Stylodactylidae is a group of shrimps and the only representative of its superfamily . It contains the five genera Bathystylodactylus, Neostylodactylus, Parastylodactylus, Stylodactyloides and Stylodactylus....

     Bate, 1888

A number of extinct genera cannot be placed in any superfamily:
  • Acanthinopus
    Acanthinopus
    http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Acanthinopus+gibbosus&um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1024&bih=445&tbm=isch&tbnid=LkYIazbD2D_J0M:&imgrefurl=http://www.trueknowledge.com/q/what_types_of_shrimp_are_there&docid=ZS50FEDkCftZJM&w=90&h=90&ei=xsWQToyVEqaosQKTu5inAQ&zoom=1...

    Pinna, 1974
  • Alcmonacaris
    Alcmonacaris
    Alcmonacaris winkleri is an extinct species of shrimp in its own genus, Alcmonacaris, which cannot yet be placed in a family....

    Polz, 2009
  • Bannikovia
    Bannikovia
    Bannikovia is an extinct genus of shrimp in the order Decapoda. It existed in Russia during the Lower Miocene period....

    Garassino & Teruzzi, 1996
  • Blaculla
    Blaculla
    Blaculla is an extinct genus of shrimp. It existed during the Late Jurassic period, and contains the species Blaculla nikoides, Blaculla brevipes, and Blaculla sieboldi....

    Münster, 1839
  • Buergerocaris
    Buergerocaris
    Buergerocaris is an extinct genus of shrimp, containing only one species, Buergerocaris psittacoides....

    Schweigert & Garassino, 2004
  • Gampsurus
    Gampsurus
    Gampsurus is an extinct genus of shrimp in the order Decapoda. It existed in Germany during the Cretaceous period. It contains a single species, Gampsurus dubius....

    von der Marck, 1863
  • Hefriga
    Hefriga
    Hefriga is an extinct genus of shrimp in the order Decapoda. It contains three species, and lived in the Jurassic period....

    Münster, 1839
  • Leiothorax
    Leiothorax
    Leiothorax is an extinct genus of shrimp in the order Decapoda. It contains the species Leiothorax triasicus....

    Pinna, 1974
  • Parvocaris Bravi & Garassino, 1998
  • Pinnacaris Garassino & Teruzzi, 1993


Commercial and culinary definition

While in biological terms shrimps and prawn
Prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...

s belong to different suborder
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

s of Decapoda
Decapoda
The decapods or Decapoda are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. It is estimated that the order contains nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with...

, they are very similar in appearance. In commercial farming and fisheries
Fishery
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats,...

, the terms "shrimp" and "prawn" are often used interchangeably. However, recent aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

 literature increasingly uses the term "prawn" only for the freshwater forms of palaemonids and "shrimp" for the marine penaeids
Penaeidae
Penaeidae is a family of prawns, although they are often referred to as penaeid shrimp. It contains many species of economic importance, such as the tiger prawn , whiteleg shrimp, Atlantic white shrimp and Indian prawn. Many prawns are the subject of commercial fishery, and farming, both in marine...

.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, the word “prawn” is more common on menus than “shrimp”; while the opposite is the case in North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

. The term “prawn” is also loosely used to describe any large shrimp, especially those that come 15 (or fewer) to the pound (such as “king prawns”, yet sometimes known as “jumbo shrimp”). Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 and some other Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 nations follow this British usage to an even greater extent, using the word “prawn” almost exclusively. When Australian comedian Paul Hogan
Paul Hogan
Paul Hogan, AM is an Australian actor best known for his role as Michael "Crocodile" Dundee from the Crocodile Dundee film series, for which he won a Golden Globe award.-Early life and career:...

 used the phrase, “I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you”
Shrimp on the barbie
"Shrimp on the barbie" is an often-quoted phrase that originated in a series of television advertisements by the Australian Tourism Commission starring Paul Hogan from 1984 through to 1990. The actual quote spoken by Hogan is "I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you", and the actual slogan...

 in an American television advertisement, it was intended to make what he was saying easier for his American audience to understand, and was thus a deliberate distortion of what an Australian would typically say.

In Britain very small crustaceans with a brownish shell are called shrimp, and are used to make potted shrimp
Potted shrimps
Potted shrimps are a traditional Lancastrian dish made with brown shrimp flavoured with mace. The dish consists of brown shrimp in mace-flavoured butter, which has set in a small pot. Cayenne pepper and nutmeg may also be included. It is traditionally eaten with bread...

. They are also used in dishes where they are not the primary ingredient.

Behavioural definition

Alpheidae
Alpheidae
Alpheidae is a family of caridean snapping shrimp characterized by having asymmetrical claws, the larger of which is typically capable of producing a loud snapping sound. Other common names of these species include pistol shrimp or alpheid shrimp.The family is diverse and worldwide in distribution,...

is a family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 in the superfamilia Alpheoidea
Alpheoidea
Alpheoidea is a superfamily of shrimp containing the families Alpheidae, Barbouriidae and Hippolytidae....

. It is a snapping shrimp characterized by having asymmetrical claws, the larger of which is typically capable of producing a loud snapping sound. Another common name of these species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 include pistol shrimp, its ability also referred to as sonoluminescence
Sonoluminescence
Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.-History:The effect was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 as a result of work on sonar. H. Frenzel and H. Schultes put an ultrasound transducer in a tank of...

 when discovered in 2001.

Being neither shrimp nor mantids, the Mantis shrimp are marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 crustacean
Crustacean
Crustaceans form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at , to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span...

s, the members of the order
Order (biology)
In scientific classification used in biology, the order is# a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family...

 Stomatopoda, receiving their name purely from the physical resemblance to both. In 2005 it was concluded that they exhibit a similar prey killing dexterity with their claws, thus contributing to the whimsically dubbed "shrimpoluminescence" effect.

Consumption

As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

, iodine
Iodine
Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is pronounced , , or . The name is from the , meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor....

 and protein
Protein
Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of...

 but low in food energy
Food energy
Food energy is the amount of energy obtained from food that is available through cellular respiration.Food energy is expressed in food calories or kilojoules...

. A shrimp-based meal is also a significant source of cholesterol
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a complex isoprenoid. Specifically, it is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines. It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes...

, from 122 mg to 251 mg per 100 g
Gram
The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

 of shrimp, depending on the method of preparation. Shrimp consumption, however, is considered healthy for the circulatory system because the lack of significant levels of saturated fat in shrimp means that the high cholesterol content in shrimp actually improves the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol and lowers triglycerides.

Shrimp and other shellfish
Shellfish
Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found only in freshwater...

 are among the most common food allergens
Food allergy
A food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food protein. They are distinct from other adverse responses to food, such as food intolerance, pharmacological reactions, and toxin-mediated reactions....

. They are not kosher and thus are forbidden in Jewish cuisine
Jewish cuisine
Jewish Cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide. It is a diverse cuisine that has evolved over many centuries, shaped by Jewish dietary laws and Jewish Festival and Sabbath traditions...

. On the other hand, shrimp are halal
Halal
Halal is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law...

 according to some madhāhib, and therefore are permissible in Islamic cuisine.

Commercial fishing

Common commercial methods for catching shrimp and prawns include otter trawls, cast net
Cast net
A cast net, also called a throw net, is a net used for fishing. It is a circular net with small weights distributed around its edge.The net is cast or thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. This technique is called net casting or net throwing. Fish are caught as...

s, seines, shrimp baiting
Shrimp baiting
Shrimp baiting is a method used by recreational fisherman for of catching shrimp. In the 1980s the sport became popular in the southeastern coastal states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida...

 and dip netting
Hand net
A hand net, also called a scoop net, is a net or mesh basket held open by a hoop. It may or may not be on the end of a handle. Hand nets have been used since antiquity and can be used for scooping fish near the surface of the water, such as muskellunge or northern pike.A hand net with a long handle...

. Trawling
Trawling
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. The net that is used for trawling is called a trawl....

 involves the use of a system of nets. In some parts of the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
The Pacific Northwest is a region in northwestern North America, bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains on the east. Definitions of the region vary and there is no commonly agreed upon boundary, even among Pacific Northwesterners. A common concept of the...

, fishing with baited
Fishing bait
Fishing bait is any substance used to attract and catch fish, e.g. on the end of a fishing hook, or inside a fish trap. Traditionally, nightcrawlers, insects, and smaller bait fish have been used for this purpose...

 traps
Fish trap
A fish trap is a trap used for fishing. Fish traps may have the form of a fishing weir or a lobster trap. A typical trap might consist of a frame of thick steel wire in the shape of a heart, with chicken wire stretched around it. The mesh wraps around the frame and then tapers into the inside of...

 is also common.

The following table shows the yearly weight of shrimp and prawns captured globally in millions of tonnes:
Production 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Million tonnes 3.03 3.09 2.96 2.97 3.55 3.54 3.42

The highest rates of incidental catch of non-target species is associated with shrimp trawling. In 1997, the FAO
Fão
Fão is a town in Esposende Municipality in Portugal....

 documented the estimated bycatch
Bycatch
The term “bycatch” is usually used for fish caught unintentionally in a fishery while intending to catch other fish. It may however also indicate untargeted catch in other forms of animal harvesting or collecting...

 and discard levels from shrimp fisheries around the world. They found discard rates as high as 20 pounds for every pound of shrimp, with a world average of 5.7 pounds for every pound of shrimp.

Trawl nets
Trawling
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. The net that is used for trawling is called a trawl....

 in general, and shrimp trawls in particular, have been identified as sources of mortality for species of finfish and cetaceans. Bycatch is often discarded dead or dying by the time it is returned to the sea, and may alter the ecological balance in discarded regions. Worldwide, shrimp trawl fisheries generate about 2% of the world’s catch of fish in weight, but result in more than one third of the global bycatch total.

Farming


A shrimp farm is an aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

 business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawn
Prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...

s for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, particularly to match the market demands of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and Western Europe
Western Europe
Western Europe is a loose term for the collection of countries in the western most region of the European continents, though this definition is context-dependent and carries cultural and political connotations. One definition describes Western Europe as a geographic entity—the region lying in the...

. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonne
Tonne
The tonne, known as the metric ton in the US , often put pleonastically as "metric tonne" to avoid confusion with ton, is a metric system unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. The tonne is not an International System of Units unit, but is accepted for use with the SI...

s in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9 billion U.S. dollars
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

. About 75% of farmed shrimp are produced in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, in particular in China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 and in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 (normally shrimp or prawns are caught in lake, river and sea and are not farmed in tanks). The other 25% are produced mainly in Latin America
Latin America
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages  – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 21,069,500 km² , almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area...

, where Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 is the largest producer. The largest exporting nation is Thailand.

Marketing

Shrimp are marketed
Marketing
Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments...

 and commercialized with several issues in mind. Most shrimp are sold frozen and marketed based on their categorization of presentation, grading, colour, and uniformity.

Preparation

Preparing shrimp for consumption usually involves removing the head, shell, tail
Tail
The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. It is the part of the body that corresponds roughly to the sacrum and coccyx in mammals, reptiles, and birds...

, and "sand vein".

To de-shell a shrimp, the tail is held while gently removing the shell around the body. The tail can be detached completely at this point, or left attached for presentation purposes.

Removing the "sand vein" (a euphemism
Euphemism
A euphemism is the substitution of a mild, inoffensive, relatively uncontroversial phrase for another more frank expression that might offend or otherwise suggest something unpleasant to the audience...

 for the digestive tract) is referred to as "deveining
Deveining
Deveining is the removal of the gastrointestinal tract of a shrimp, a common part of preparing them for human consumption. The digestive tract is a dark band running from the head to the tail of the animal, where the spine would be if they were vertebrates. In females, the reproductive canal is...

". The sand vein can be removed by making a shallow cut lengthwise down the outer curve of the shrimp's body, allowing the dark ribbon-like digestive tract to be removed with a pointed utensil. Alternatively, if the tail has been detached, the vein can be pinched at the tail end and pulled out completely with the fingers. On large shrimp, the "blood vein" (a euphemism for the ventral nerve cord
Ventral nerve cord
The ventral nerve cord makes up the nervous system of some phyla of the invertebrates, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods. It usually consists of cerebral ganglia anteriorly with the nerve cords running down the ventral plane of the organism...

) along the inner curve of the shrimp's body is typically removed as well. The shrimp is then rinsed under cold running water.

Shrimp and prawns are versatile ingredients, and are often used as an accompaniment to fried rice. Common methods of preparation include baking
Baking
Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. It is primarily used for the preparation of bread, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts, quiches, cookies and crackers. Such items...

, boiling
Boiling
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure. While below the boiling point a liquid...

, frying
Frying
Frying is the cooking of food in oil or another fat, a technique that originated in ancient Egypt around 2500 BC. Chemically, oils and fats are the same, differing only in melting point, but the distinction is only made when needed. In commerce, many fats are called oils by custom, e.g...

, and grilling
Grilling
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.Grilling usually involves a significant amount of direct, radiant heat, and tends to be used for cooking meat quickly and meat that has already been cut into slices...

.

Recipes using shrimp form part of the cuisine
Cuisine
Cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific culture. Cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions that they originate from...

 of many cultures. Strictly speaking, dishes containing scampi
Scampi
Scampi is the term for a particular type of lobster, deriving originally from the Greek word κάμπη 'kampē' meaning a 'bending' or 'winding'. The name is sometimes used loosely to describe a style of preparation typically for seafood, and as a culinary name for some species of crustacean...

 should be made from the Norway lobster
Norway lobster
Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe"...

, a shrimp-like crustacean more closely related to the lobster
Lobster
Clawed lobsters comprise a family of large marine crustaceans. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate.Though several groups of crustaceans are known as lobsters, the clawed lobsters are most...

 than shrimp, but in some places it is quite common for large shrimp to be used instead.

Wet shrimp is commonly used as a flavouring and as a soup base in Asian cuisine
Asian cuisine
Asian cuisine styles can be broken down into several tiny regional styles that have roots in the peoples and cultures of those regions. The major types can be roughly defined as East Asian with its origins in Imperial China and now encompassing modern Japan and the Korean peninsula; Southeast Asian...

s while fried shrimp is popular in North America. In Europe, shrimp is very popular, forming a necessary ingredient in Spanish , Italian , Portuguese and many other seafood dishes. Shrimp curry
Curry
Curry is a generic description used throughout Western culture to describe a variety of dishes from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Thai or other Southeast Asian cuisines...

 is very popular in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Shrimp are also found in Latin and Caribbean dishes such as enchilada
Enchilada
An enchilada is a corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a chili pepper sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with a variety of ingredients, including meat, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables, seafood or combinations.-Etymology:...

s and coconut shrimp. Other recipes include jambalaya
Jambalaya
Jambalaya is a Louisiana Creole dish of Spanish and French influence. -Jambalaya varieties:Jambalaya is traditionally made in three parts, with meats and vegetables, and is completed by adding stock and rice. It is also a close cousin to the saffron colored paella found in Spanish culture...

, okonomiyaki
Okonomiyaki
is a Japanese dish containing a variety of ingredients. The name is derived from the word okonomi, meaning "what you like" or "what you want", and yaki meaning "grilled" or "cooked" . Okonomiyaki is mainly associated with Kansai or Hiroshima areas of Japan, but is widely available throughout the...

, poon choi
Poon choi
Poon Choi , also known as pun choi or Big Bowl Feast, is a traditional type of dish originating from Hong Kong village cuisine. It may also be found in different parts of Hong Kong. It is served in wooden, porcelain or metal basins.-Origin:...

 and bagoong
Bagoong
Bagoong is a Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimps and salt. The fermentation process also results in fish sauce .The preparation of bagoong can vary regionally in the Philippines....

. Shrimp are also consumed as salad, by frying, with rice, and as shrimp guvec (a dish baked in a clay pot) in the Western and Southern coasts of Turkey.

Life cycle

Most shrimp mature and breed only in a marine habitat
Habitat (ecology)
A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant or other type of organism...

, although there are a small number of freshwater species. The females lay 50,000 to 1 million eggs, which hatch after some 24 hours into tiny nauplii. These nauplii feed on yolk reserves within their body and then undergo a metamorphosis into zoeae. This second larval stage feeds in the wild on algae
Algae
Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants, and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many...

 and after a few days metamorphoses again into the third stage to become myses
Mysis
Mysis is a genus of mysid crustaceans in the family Mysidae, distributed mainly in the coastal zone of the Arctic and high boreal seas. There are also several species that inhabit northern freshwater lakes and the brackish Caspian Sea. Sixteen species are known...

. At this stage the myses already begin to appear like tiny versions of fully developed adults and feed on algae and zooplankton
Zooplankton
Zooplankton are heterotrophic plankton. Plankton are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon , meaning "animal", and , meaning "wanderer" or "drifter"...

. After another three to four days they metamorphose a final time into postlarvae: young shrimp having all the characteristics of adults. The whole process takes about 12 days from hatching. In the wild, the marine postlarvae then migrate into estuaries
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

, which are rich in nutrients and low in salinity
Salinity
Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. It is a general term used to describe the levels of different salts such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcium sulfates, and bicarbonates...

. There they grow and eventually migrate back into open waters when they mature. Most adult shrimp are benthic animals living primarily on the sea floor.

Common shrimp species include pink, brown and snapping shrimp. Depending on the species and location, they grow from about 1.2 to 30 cm (0.47244094488189 to 11.8 ) long, and live between one and 6.5 years.

Fossil record

The fossil record of shrimp is sparse, with only 57 exclusively fossil species known. The earliest of these cannot be assigned to any family, but date from the Lower Jurassic and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
The Cretaceous , derived from the Latin "creta" , usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide , is a geologic period and system from circa to million years ago. In the geologic timescale, the Cretaceous follows the Jurassic period and is followed by the Paleogene period of the...

.

Home aquaria

Several types of shrimp are kept in home aquaria
Aquarium
An aquarium is a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept. Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, marine mammals, turtles, and aquatic plants...

. Some are purely ornamental, while others are useful in controlling algae and removing debris. Freshwater shrimp commonly available for aquaria include the Bamboo shrimp, Japanese marsh shrimp (Caridina multidentata, also called "Amano shrimp," as their use in aquaria was pioneered by Takashi Amano
Takashi Amano
is a photographer, designer and Aquarist.His interest in aquaria led him to create the Japanese company Aqua Design Amano.Takashi Amano is one of the most influential people in the freshwater aquascaping community. He can largely be credited with introducing Japanese gardening concepts such as...

), cherry shrimp (Neocaridina heteropoda), and ghost or glass shrimp (Palaemonetes
Palaemonetes
The genus Palaemonetes includes a geographically diverse group of fresh and brackish-water shrimp. It includes the following species:*Palaemonetes africanus Balss, 1916*Palaemonetes antennarius The genus Palaemonetes includes a geographically diverse group of fresh and brackish-water shrimp. It...

spp.). Popular saltwater shrimp include the cleaner shrimp Lysmata amboinensis, the fire shrimp (Lysmata debelius
Lysmata debelius
Lysmata debelius is a species of cleaner shrimp indigenous to the Indo-Pacific. It is popular in the aquarium trade, where it is known as the fire shrimp, blood shrimp or scarlet cleaner shrimp.-Taxonomy:...

) and the harlequin shrimp (Hymenocera picta).

Etymology

The term shrimp originated around the 14th century with the Middle English
Middle English
Middle English is the stage in the history of the English language during the High and Late Middle Ages, or roughly during the four centuries between the late 11th and the late 15th century....

 , akin to the Middle Low German
Middle Low German
Middle Low German is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and is the ancestor of modern Low German. It served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League...

 , and meaning to contract or wrinkle; and the Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse is a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300....

 , meaning to shrivel up.

Nutritional information

100g of shrimps (raw mixed species) contains:
  • Calories :71
  • Fat(g): 1
  • Carbohydrates(g): 0
  • Fibers(g): 0
  • Protein(g): 13.61
  • Cholesterol(mg): 126

See also

  • List of shrimp and prawn species
  • List of freshwater aquarium shrimp
  • The Shrimp Girl
    The Shrimp Girl
    The Shrimp Girl is a painting by the English artist William Hogarth. It was painted around 1740–45, and is held by the National Gallery, London....

    by William Hogarth
    William Hogarth
    William Hogarth was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic and editorial cartoonist who has been credited with pioneering western sequential art. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects"...

  • Shrimp baiting
    Shrimp baiting
    Shrimp baiting is a method used by recreational fisherman for of catching shrimp. In the 1980s the sport became popular in the southeastern coastal states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida...


External links

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