Sheffield
Overview
Sheffield is a city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 and metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough
A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as metropolitan districts, however all of them have been granted or regranted...

 of South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It has a population of 1.29 million. It consists of four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and City of Sheffield...

, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf
River Sheaf
The River Sheaf is a river in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Its source is the union of the Totley Brook and the Old Hay Brook in Totley, now a suburb of Sheffield. It flows northwards, past Dore, through the valley called Abbeydale and north of Heeley...

, which runs through the city. Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire
West Riding of Yorkshire
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding , was based closely on the historic boundaries...

, and with some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains within its boundary of approx...

, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the English Core Cities Group
English Core Cities Group
The Core Cities Group is a coalition of some of England's major regional cities:*Birmingham - West Midlands*Bristol - South West England*Leeds - Yorkshire and the Humber*Liverpool - North West England*Manchester - North West England...

.

During the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production.
Quotations

This town of Sheffield is very populous and large, the streets narrow, and the houses dark and black, occasioned by the continued smoke of the forges, which are always at work: Here they make all sorts of cutlery-ware, but especially that of edged-tools, knives, razors, axes, &. and nails;

Daniel Defoe, A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain, (1724).

Some houses are brick, some stone, and there is a fair number of pretty ones; but they are lost in such a multitude of shapeless huts and outlandish factory-buildings that Sheffield could never pass for a fine town.

Alexandre and François La Rochefoucauld, Diaries, translation in Norman Scarfe, Innocent Espionage: The LA Rochefoucauld Brothers' Tour of England in 1785

If the people of Sheffield could only receive a tenth part of what their knives sell for by retail in America, Sheffield might pave its streets with silver.

William Cobbett|William Cobbett, Rural Rides|Rural Rides, (1830).

What a beautiful place Sheffield would be, if Sheffield were not there!

Walter White, A Month in Yorkshire, (1861).

There is no more public spirit in Sheffield than there is in the smallest village of Yorkshire.

Thomas Moore, Sheffield Independent, 16 April 1870, quoted in Clyde Binfield et al, The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993: Volume One: Politics, (1993).

I see a pretty state of things in your Municipality. Everything is mean, petty, and narrow in the extreme. What a contrast to Leeds!

Anthony John Mundella|Anthony John Mundella, letter of October 1871 to Robert Leader, quoted in Clyde Binfield et al, The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993: Volume One: Politics, (1993).

...the town of Sheffield is of great antiquity, and its manufactures are of world-wide reputation, especially that of cutlery, which has been celebrated for more than 500 years.

Petition for city status to Queen Victoria from Sheffield Town Council, 1 February 1893.

The progress of Sheffield in my lifetime has been something wonderful. Why, in my young days it was a little bit of a place of no consequence and no trade. When I think of the small notions and little minds of the public men of old Sheffield I can hardly realise that the City has become the fine important flourishing place it is today, one of the largest Cities of the Empire.

Frederick Mappin|Frederick Mappin, 1905, quoted in Sidney Pollard, A History of Labour in Sheffield, (1959).

Encyclopedia
Sheffield is a city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 and metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough
A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as metropolitan districts, however all of them have been granted or regranted...

 of South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It has a population of 1.29 million. It consists of four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and City of Sheffield...

, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf
River Sheaf
The River Sheaf is a river in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Its source is the union of the Totley Brook and the Old Hay Brook in Totley, now a suburb of Sheffield. It flows northwards, past Dore, through the valley called Abbeydale and north of Heeley...

, which runs through the city. Historically
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire
West Riding of Yorkshire
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding , was based closely on the historic boundaries...

, and with some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains within its boundary of approx...

, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the English Core Cities Group
English Core Cities Group
The Core Cities Group is a coalition of some of England's major regional cities:*Birmingham - West Midlands*Bristol - South West England*Leeds - Yorkshire and the Humber*Liverpool - North West England*Manchester - North West England...

.

During the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Many innovations were developed locally, including crucible
Crucible steel
Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel in a crucible. Its manufacture is essentially a refining process which is dependent on preexisting furnace products...

 and stainless steel
Stainless steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass....

, fuelling an almost tenfold increase in the population during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

. Sheffield received its municipal charter
Municipal charter
A city charter or town charter is a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the middle ages....

 in 1893, officially becoming the City of Sheffield. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in traditional local industries during the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area.

The 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added
Gross value added
Gross Value Added ' is a measure in economics of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy...

 (GVA) has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the nine regions of England and formally one of the government office regions. It covers most of the historic county of Yorkshire, along with the part of northern Lincolnshire that was, from 1974 to 1996, within the former shire county of Humberside. The...

.

The city is located within the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley
River Loxley
The River Loxley is a river in the City of Sheffield South Yorkshire, England. Its source is a series of streams which rise some to the north-west of Sheffield on Bradfield Moors, and converge at Low Bradfield...

, the Porter Brook
Porter Brook
The Porter Brook is a river in the City of Sheffield, Englanddescending over 300 metres from its source among the sedge grass on Burbage moor behind a small farm on Hangram just inside the Peak District National Park in the west of the city at Clough Hollow, near the village of Ringinglow...

, the Rivelin
River Rivelin
The River Rivelin is a river in South Yorkshire, England.It rises on the Hallam moors, north west of Sheffield, and on the outskirts of Sheffield joins the River Loxley . The Rivelin Valley, through which the river flows, is a three and a half mile long woodland valley which includes the popular...

, and the Sheaf
River Sheaf
The River Sheaf is a river in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Its source is the union of the Totley Brook and the Old Hay Brook in Totley, now a suburb of Sheffield. It flows northwards, past Dore, through the valley called Abbeydale and north of Heeley...

, from which the city takes its name. 61% of the Sheffield's entire area is green space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District National Park. There are more than 200 parks, woodlands and gardens in the city, and an estimated 2.5 million trees, giving Sheffield the highest ratio of trees to people of any city in Europe.

History

The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield has been inhabited since at least the late Upper Palaeolithic period, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags
Creswell Crags
Creswell Crags is a limestone gorge on the border between Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, England near the villages of Creswell, Whitwell and Elmton...

 to the east of the city. In the Iron Age
British Iron Age
The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron-Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, and which had an independent Iron Age culture of...

 the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine
Pennines
The Pennines are a low-rising mountain range, separating the North West of England from Yorkshire and the North East.Often described as the "backbone of England", they form a more-or-less continuous range stretching from the Peak District in Derbyshire, around the northern and eastern edges of...

 tribe called the Brigantes
Brigantes
The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England, and a significant part of the Midlands. Their kingdom is sometimes called Brigantia, and it was centred in what was later known as Yorkshire...

. It is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts in and around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Celt
Celt
The Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.The earliest archaeological culture commonly accepted as Celtic, or rather Proto-Celtic, was the central European Hallstatt culture , named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria....

ic kingdom of Elmet
Elmet
Elmet was an independent Brythonic kingdom covering a broad area of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire during the Early Middle Ages, between approximately the 5th century and early 7th century. Although its precise boundaries are unclear, it appears to have been bordered by the River...

, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia
Mercia
Mercia was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. It was centred on the valley of the River Trent and its tributaries in the region now known as the English Midlands...

. Gradually, Anglian
Angles
The Angles is a modern English term for a Germanic people who took their name from the ancestral cultural region of Angeln, a district located in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany...

 settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Celtic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales
Wales, South Yorkshire
Wales is a village and a civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. It is on the border of South Yorkshire and Derbyshire...

 and Waleswood close to Sheffield. The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, however, date from the second half of the 1st millennium, and are of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxon is a term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Great Britain beginning in the early 5th century AD, and the period from their creation of the English nation to the Norman conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of...

 and Danish
Danelaw
The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the "Danes" held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons. It is contrasted with "West Saxon law" and "Mercian law". The term has been extended by modern historians to...

 origin. In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia
Mercia
Mercia was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. It was centred on the valley of the River Trent and its tributaries in the region now known as the English Midlands...

 and Northumbria
Northumbria
Northumbria was a medieval kingdom of the Angles, in what is now Northern England and South-East Scotland, becoming subsequently an earldom in a united Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England. The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber Estuary.Northumbria was...

. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great...

reports that King Eanred
Eanred of Northumbria
Eanred was king of Northumbria in the early ninth century.Very little is known for certain about Eanred. The only reference made by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to the Northumbrians in this period is the statement that in 829 Egbert of Wessex...

 of Northumbria
Northumbria
Northumbria was a medieval kingdom of the Angles, in what is now Northern England and South-East Scotland, becoming subsequently an earldom in a united Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England. The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber Estuary.Northumbria was...

 submitted to King Egbert
Egbert of Wessex
Egbert was King of Wessex from 802 until his death in 839. His father was Ealhmund of Kent...

 of Wessex
Wessex
The Kingdom of Wessex or Kingdom of the West Saxons was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the West Saxons, in South West England, from the 6th century, until the emergence of a united English state in the 10th century, under the Wessex dynasty. It was to be an earldom after Canute the Great's conquest...

 at the hamlet of Dore
Dore
Dore is a village in South Yorkshire, England. The village lies on a hill above the River Sheaf, and until 1934 was part of Derbyshire, but it is now a suburb of Sheffield. It is served by Dore and Totley railway station on the Hope Valley Line...

 (now a suburb of Sheffield) in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest of England
The Norman conquest of England began on 28 September 1066 with the invasion of England by William, Duke of Normandy. William became known as William the Conqueror after his victory at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, defeating King Harold II of England...

, Sheffield Castle
Sheffield Castle
Sheffield Castle was a castle in Sheffield, England, constructed at the confluence of the River Sheaf and the River Don, possibly on the site of a former Anglo-Saxon long house, and dominating the early town. A motte and bailey castle had been constructed on the site at some time in the century...

 was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city.

By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square
Castle Square, Sheffield
Castle Square is the plaza at the intersection of High Street, Angel Street, and Arundel Gate in the City of Sheffield, England. This name was given to the square in the 1960s to reflect the proximity of the square to the site of Sheffield Castle, which was formerly located a short distance to the...

, and Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was already noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer , known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey...

's The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at...

, and by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery
Cutlery
Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. It is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery can have the more specific meaning of knives and other cutting instruments. This is probably the...

 manufacture in England outside of London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire
Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire
The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire is a trade guild of metalworkers based in Sheffield, England. It was incorporated in 1624 by an Act of parliament. The head is called the Master Cutler...

. From 1570 to 1584, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor
Sheffield Manor
Sheffield Manor, also known as the Manor Lodge or Manor Castle, is a lodge built about 1516 in what then was a large deer park east of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK, to provide a country retreat and further accommodate George Talbot, the 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, and his large family...

.

During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel
Crucible steel
Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel in a crucible. Its manufacture is essentially a refining process which is dependent on preexisting furnace products...

 process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible. In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became widely known as Sheffield plate
Sheffield plate
Sheffield plate is a layered combination of silver and copper that was used for many years to produce a wide range of household articles. These included buttons, caddy spoons, serving utensils, candlesticks and other lighting devices, tea and coffee services, serving dishes and trays, tankards and...

. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century. The resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

 epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew rapidly throughout the 19th century; increasing from 60,095 in 1801 to 451,195 by 1901. The town was incorporated as a borough
Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

 in 1842 and was granted a city charter
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 in 1893. The influx of people also led to demand for better water supplies, and a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood
Great Sheffield Flood
Not to be confused with the floods in Sheffield in 2007.The Great Sheffield Flood was a flood that devastated parts of Sheffield, England, on 11 March 1864, when the Dale Dyke Dam broke.- Collapse of Dale Dyke Dam :...

, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town. The growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell
George Orwell
Eric Arthur Blair , better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist...

 in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".

A recession in the 1930s was halted by increasing international tensions as the Second World War loomed; Sheffield's steel factories were set to work manufacturing weapons and ammunition for the war effort. As a result, the city became a target for bombing raids, the heaviest of which occurred on the nights of 12 and 15 December 1940, now known as the Sheffield Blitz
Sheffield Blitz
The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of German Luftwaffe bombing in Sheffield, England during the Second World War. It took place over the nights of 12 December and 15 December 1940....

. More than 660 lives were lost and many buildings destroyed.

In the 1950s and 1960s, many of the city's slums were demolished, and replaced with housing schemes such as the Park Hill flats. Large parts of the city centre were also cleared to make way for a new system of roads. Increased automation and competition from abroad resulted in the closure of many steel mills. The 1980s saw the worst of this run-down of Sheffield's industries, along with those of many other areas of the UK. The building of the Meadowhall shopping centre on the site of a former steelworks in 1990 was a mixed blessing, creating much needed jobs but hastening the decline of the city centre. Attempts to regenerate the city were kick-started when the city hosted the 1991 World Student Games
Universiade
The Universiade is an International multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation . The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"...

, which saw the construction of new sporting facilities such as the Sheffield Arena, Don Valley Stadium
Don Valley Stadium
The Don Valley Stadium is a stadium in Sheffield, England and is the home of Rotherham United F.C.. The stadium is an athletics stadium which has hosted major UK Athletic events and the 1991 World Student Games. Sheffield Eagles RLFC and Parramore Sports FC also use the stadium. It was designed by...

, and the Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge International Sports Centre is a leisure complex in the City of Sheffield, England that contains an Olympic-sized swimming pool with seating for 2,600 spectators, family and kids pools, water slides and other sports facilities.-Brief history:...

 complex.

Sheffield is changing rapidly as new projects regenerate some of the more run-down parts of the city. One such, the Heart of the City Project, has initiated a number of public works in the city centre: the Peace Gardens
Peace Gardens
The Peace Gardens are an inner city square in Sheffield, England. It was created as part of the Heart of the City project by Sheffield City Council....

 were renovated in 1998, the Millennium Galleries
Millennium Galleries
The Millennium Galleries is an art gallery in the City of Sheffield, England. Opened in April 2001 as part of Sheffield's Heart of the City project, it is located in the city centre close to the city library, Sheffield Hallam University, and the city's theatre district...

 opened in April 2001, the Winter Gardens
Sheffield Winter Gardens
Sheffield Winter Garden in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire is one of the largest temperate glasshouses to be built in the UK during the last hundred years, and the largest urban glasshouse anywhere in Europe. It is home to more than 2,000 plants from all around the world...

 were opened in May 2003, and a public space to link these two areas, the Millennium Square, was opened in May 2006. Additional developments included the remodelling of Sheaf Square
Sheaf Square
Sheaf Square is a municipal square lying immediately east of the city centre of Sheffield, England. The sides of the square are lined with major buildings: Sheffield railway station, the Showroom Cinema, Sheffield Science Park, the early nineteenth century Howard Hotel, in addition to the site of...

, in front of the recently refurbished railway station. The new square contains The Cutting Edge, a sculpture designed by Si Applied Ltd and made from Sheffield steel.

Sheffield was particularly hard-hit during the 2007 United Kingdom floods
2007 United Kingdom floods
The 2007 United Kingdom floods were a series of destructive floods that occurred in various areas across the country during the summer of 2007. The most severe floods occurred across Northern Ireland on 12 June; East Yorkshire and The Midlands on 15 June; Yorkshire, The Midlands, Gloucestershire,...

 and the 2010 Big Freeze.

Government

Sheffield is governed at the local level by Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council is the city council for the metropolitan borough of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It consists of 84 councillors, elected to represent 28 wards, each with three councillors...

. It consists of 84 councillors elected to represent 28 wards—three councillors per ward. It is currently controlled by the Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

. Following the 2011 local elections, the distribution of council seats is Labour, 49 Liberal Democrats
Liberal Democrats
The Liberal Democrats are a social liberal political party in the United Kingdom which supports constitutional and electoral reform, progressive taxation, wealth taxation, human rights laws, cultural liberalism, banking reform and civil liberties .The party was formed in 1988 by a merger of the...

, 32 the Green Party
Green Party of England and Wales
The Green Party of England and Wales is a political party in England and Wales which follows the traditions of Green politics and maintains a strong commitment to social progressivism. It is the largest Green party in the United Kingdom, containing within it various regional divisions including...

 two and one independent. The city also has a Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.-Commonwealth of Nations:* In Australia it is a political position. Australian cities with Lord Mayors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Parramatta, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong...

; though now simply a ceremonial position, in the past the office carried considerable authority, with executive powers over the finances and affairs of the city council. As of 2010, the Lord Mayor is Alan Law.

For much of its history the council was controlled by the Labour Party, and was noted for its leftist
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 sympathies; during the 1980s, when Sheffield City Council was led by David Blunkett
David Blunkett
David Blunkett is a British Labour Party politician and the Member of Parliament for Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough, having represented Sheffield Brightside from 1987 to 2010...

, the area gained the epithet the "Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire
People's Republic of South Yorkshire
The People's Republic of South Yorkshire or The Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire, is a satirical reference to Sheffield. It refers to the left-wing Labour administration of Sheffield City Council during the 1980s, under the leadership of David Blunkett.The expression is said to have been...

". However, the Liberal Democrats controlled the Council between 1999 and 2001 and took control again from 2008 to 2010, when they lost their majority. The council is currently Labour controlled.

The majority of council-owned facilities are operated by independent charitable trusts. Sheffield International Venues
Sheffield International Venues
Sheffield International Venues has grown rapidly over the past 10 years to become one of the largest sport, leisure and entertainment companies in Europe...

 runs many of the city's sporting and leisure facilities, including Sheffield Arena, Don Valley Stadium
Don Valley Stadium
The Don Valley Stadium is a stadium in Sheffield, England and is the home of Rotherham United F.C.. The stadium is an athletics stadium which has hosted major UK Athletic events and the 1991 World Student Games. Sheffield Eagles RLFC and Parramore Sports FC also use the stadium. It was designed by...

 and English Institute of Sport – Sheffield. Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust
Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust
Museums Sheffield is the new name for Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust. It is a charity that runs council owned art galleries and museums in Sheffield, England. One of the trustees is His Grace the Duke of Devonshire. They run the following galleries and museums:* Bishops' House* Graves Art...

 and the Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust
Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust
The Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust is an independent charitable trust based in Sheffield, England, that runs the Sheffield City Council-owned Kelham Island, Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet, and Shepherd Wheel museums....

 take care of galleries and museums owned by the council.

The city returns five Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, with a sixth, the Member of Parliament for Penistone and Stocksbridge
Penistone and Stocksbridge (UK Parliament constituency)
Penistone and Stocksbridge is a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was contested for the first time at the 2010 general election, and returns one Member of Parliament elected by the first past the post system of election.-...

 representing parts of Sheffield and Barnsley.

Geography

Sheffield is located at 53°23′N 1°28′W. It lies directly beside Rotherham
Rotherham
Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, England. It lies on the River Don, at its confluence with the River Rother, between Sheffield and Doncaster. Rotherham, at from Sheffield City Centre, is surrounded by several smaller settlements, which together form the wider Metropolitan Borough of...

, from which it is separated largely by the M1 motorway
M1 motorway
The M1 is a north–south motorway in England primarily connecting London to Leeds, where it joins the A1 near Aberford. While the M1 is considered to be the first inter-urban motorway to be completed in the United Kingdom, the first road to be built to motorway standard in the country was the...

. Although Barnsley Metropolitan Borough
Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley
The Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley is a metropolitan borough of the metropolitan county of South Yorkshire, England. Its main town is Barnsley....

 also borders Sheffield to the north, the town itself is a few miles further away. The southern and western borders of the city are shared with Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains within its boundary of approx...

; in the first half of the 20th century Sheffield extended its borders south into Derbyshire, annexing a number of villages, including Totley
Totley
Totley is a suburb on the extreme southwest of the City of Sheffield, in South Yorkshire, England. Lying in the historic county boundaries of Derbyshire, Totley was amalgamated into the city of Sheffield in 1935, and is today part of the Dore and Totley electoral ward in the city, though it remains...

, Dore
Dore
Dore is a village in South Yorkshire, England. The village lies on a hill above the River Sheaf, and until 1934 was part of Derbyshire, but it is now a suburb of Sheffield. It is served by Dore and Totley railway station on the Hope Valley Line...

 and the area now known as Mosborough
Mosborough
Mosborough ward — which includes the districts of Halfway, Mosborough village, Waterthorpe, and Westfield — is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield, England. It is located in the eastern part of the city, on the border with Rotherham, and covers an area of 8.9 km2....

 Townships. Directly to the west of the city is the Peak District National Park and the Pennine
Pennines
The Pennines are a low-rising mountain range, separating the North West of England from Yorkshire and the North East.Often described as the "backbone of England", they form a more-or-less continuous range stretching from the Peak District in Derbyshire, around the northern and eastern edges of...

 hill range.
Sheffield is a geographically diverse city. The city nestles in a natural amphitheatre created by several hills and the confluence of five rivers: Don, Sheaf
River Sheaf
The River Sheaf is a river in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Its source is the union of the Totley Brook and the Old Hay Brook in Totley, now a suburb of Sheffield. It flows northwards, past Dore, through the valley called Abbeydale and north of Heeley...

, Rivelin
River Rivelin
The River Rivelin is a river in South Yorkshire, England.It rises on the Hallam moors, north west of Sheffield, and on the outskirts of Sheffield joins the River Loxley . The Rivelin Valley, through which the river flows, is a three and a half mile long woodland valley which includes the popular...

, Loxley
River Loxley
The River Loxley is a river in the City of Sheffield South Yorkshire, England. Its source is a series of streams which rise some to the north-west of Sheffield on Bradfield Moors, and converge at Low Bradfield...

 and Porter
Porter Brook
The Porter Brook is a river in the City of Sheffield, Englanddescending over 300 metres from its source among the sedge grass on Burbage moor behind a small farm on Hangram just inside the Peak District National Park in the west of the city at Clough Hollow, near the village of Ringinglow...

. As such, much of the city is built on hillsides with views into the city centre or out to the countryside. The city's lowest point is just 29 metres (95 ft) above sea level near Blackburn Meadows
Blackburn Meadows
Blackburn Meadows is an area of land in England, just inside the Sheffield city border at Tinsley, which became the location of the main sewage treatment works for the city in 1884...

, while some parts of the city are at over 500 metres (1,640 ft); the highest point being 548 metres (1,798 ft) at High Stones
High Stones
High Stones, at , is the highest point within the boundaries of Sheffield City Council. It lies on the Howden Moors in South Yorkshire, England towards the northern boundary of the Peak District National Park, between Langsett Reservoir to the north east and Howden Reservoir to the south west...

, near Margery Hill
Margery Hill
Margery Hill is a hill on the Howden Moors in South Yorkshire, England. It lies towards the northern boundary of the Peak District National Park, between Langsett Reservoir to the northeast and Howden Reservoir to the southwest...

. However, 79% of the housing in the city is between 100 and 200 m (328.1 and 656.2 ft) above sea level.

Estimated to contain over two million trees, Sheffield has more trees per person than any other city in Europe, and according to Sheffield City Council, it is England's greenest city, a claim that was reinforced when it won the 2005 Entente Florale
Entente Florale
The Entente Florale is an international horticultural competition established to recognise municipalities and villages in Europe for excellence in horticultural displays. Trophies are presented annually by tourist boards and horticultural societies of European countries...

 competition. It has over 170 woodlands (covering 10.91 sq mi (28.3 km²)), 78 public parks (covering 7.07 sq mi (18.3 km²)) and 10 public gardens. Added to the 52 square miles (134.7 km²) of national park and 4.2 square miles (10.9 km²) of water this means that 61% of the city is greenspace
Open space reserve
Open space reserve, open space preserve, and open space reservation, are planning and conservation ethics terms used to describe areas of protected or conserved land or water on which development is indefinitely set aside...

. Despite this, about 64% of Sheffield householders live further than 300 metres (328 yd) from their nearest greenspace, although access is better in less affluent neighbourhoods across the city.

Sheffield also has a very wide variety of habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

, comparing favourably with any city in the United Kingdom: urban, parkland and woodland, agricultural and arable land, moors, meadows and freshwater-based habitats. There are six areas within the city that are designated as sites of special scientific interest
Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. SSSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in Great Britain are based upon...

.

The present city boundaries were set in 1974 (with slight modification in 1994), when the former county borough
County borough
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in...

 of Sheffield merged with Stocksbridge
Stocksbridge
Stocksbridge is a small town and civil parish in the City of Sheffield, in South Yorkshire, England, with a population of 13,663. It lies just to the east of the Peak District....

 Urban District
Urban district
In the England, Wales and Ireland, an urban district was a type of local government district that covered an urbanised area. Urban districts had an elected Urban District Council , which shared local government responsibilities with a county council....

 and two parishes from the Wortley Rural District
Wortley Rural District
Wortley was a rural district in the West Riding of Yorkshire from 1894 to 1974, situated to the north-west of the county borough of Sheffield....

. This area includes a significant part of the countryside surrounding the main urban region. Roughly a third of Sheffield lies in the Peak District National Park. No other English city included parts of a national park within its boundary, until the creation in March 2010 of the South Downs National Park
South Downs National Park
The South Downs National Park is England's newest National Park, having become fully operational on 1 April 2011. The park, covering an area of in southern England, stretches for from Winchester in the west to Eastbourne in the east through the counties of Hampshire, West Sussex and East Sussex...

, part of which lies within Brighton & Hove
Brighton & Hove
Brighton and Hove is a unitary authority area and city on the south coast of England. It is England's most populous seaside resort.In 1997 Brighton and Hove were joined to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove, which was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium...

.

Climate

Like the rest of the United Kingdom, the climate in Sheffield is generally temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

. The Pennines
Pennines
The Pennines are a low-rising mountain range, separating the North West of England from Yorkshire and the North East.Often described as the "backbone of England", they form a more-or-less continuous range stretching from the Peak District in Derbyshire, around the northern and eastern edges of...

 to the west of the city can create a cool, gloomy and wet environment, but they also provide shelter from the prevailing westerly winds, casting a "rain shadow" across the area. Between 1971 and 2000 Sheffield averaged 824.7 millimetres (32.5 in) of rain per year; December was the wettest month with 91.9 millimetres (3.6 in) and July the driest with 51 millimetres (2 in). July was also the hottest month, with an average maximum temperature of 20.8 °C (69.4 °F). The average minimum temperature in January and February was 1.6 °C (34.9 °F), though the lowest temperatures recorded in these months can be between -10 C to -15 C, although since 1960, the temperature has never fallen below -9.2 C, suggesting that urbanization around the Weston Park site during the second half of the 20th century may prevent temperatures below -10 C occuring. The coldest temperature to be recorded in recent years was -8.2 C during December 2010.
On average, through the winter months (December–March), there are 67 days during which ground frost occurs.
The Weston Park Weather station, established in 1882, is one of the longest running weather stations in Great Britain. It has recorded weather for more than 125 years, and a 2008 report showed that the climate of Sheffield is warming faster than it has at any time during this period, with 1990 and 2006 being the hottest years on record. In collaboration with the Stockholm Environment Institute, Sheffield developed a carbon footprint (based on 2004/05 consumption figures) of 5,798,361 tonnes per year. This compares to the UK's total carbon footprint of 698,568,010 tonnes per year. The factors with the greatest impact are housing (34%), transportation (25%), consumer (11%), private services (9%), public services (8%), food (8%), and capital investment (5%). Sheffield City Council has signed up to the 10:10
10:10
Drono Acharya composed the film's songs and Ritam Sen, Sandip Chakrabarty, Padmanabha Dasgupta, Rana Basu Thakur and Rangeet wrote the lyrics.-External links:* IMDB Title* * *...

 campaign.

Subdivisions

Sheffield is made up of numerous suburbs and neighbourhoods, many of which developed from villages or hamlets
Hamlet (place)
A hamlet is usually a rural settlement which is too small to be considered a village, though sometimes the word is used for a different sort of community. Historically, when a hamlet became large enough to justify building a church, it was then classified as a village...

 that were absorbed into Sheffield as the city grew. These historical areas are largely ignored by the modern administrative and political divisions of the city; instead it is divided into 28 electoral wards, with each ward generally covering 4–6 areas. These electoral wards are grouped into six parliamentary constituencies
United Kingdom constituencies
In the United Kingdom , each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly.Within the United Kingdom there are now five bodies with members elected by constituencies:...

. Sheffield is largely unparished
Civil parish
In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation and, where they are found, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties...

, but Bradfield
Bradfield, South Yorkshire
Bradfield is a village and civil parish in the City of Sheffield, in South Yorkshire, England. It is situated in the Peak District. Bradfield itself is divided into two settlements, High Bradfield atop a hill and Low Bradfield in the valley of the River Loxley.Bradfield is the largest parish in...

 and Ecclesfield
Ecclesfield
Ecclesfield is a suburb and civil parish in the City of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England, about north of Sheffield City Centre. At the 2001 census the civil parish— which also includes the Sheffield suburbs of Chapeltown, Grenoside, High Green, and formerly Thorpe Hesley —had a population...

 have parish councils, and Stocksbridge
Stocksbridge
Stocksbridge is a small town and civil parish in the City of Sheffield, in South Yorkshire, England, with a population of 13,663. It lies just to the east of the Peak District....

 has a town council.

Demography

The United Kingdom Census 2001
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

 reported a resident population for Sheffield of 513,234, a 1.9% decline from the 1991 census. The city is part of the wider Sheffield Urban Area
Sheffield urban area
The Sheffield Urban Area is a conurbation with a population of 640,720 making it the 8th largest conurbation in the United Kingdom and England's 6th largest. Named the Sheffield Urban Area by the Office for National Statistics, it must not be confused with the Sheffield City Region, a...

, which had a population of 640,720. The racial composition of Sheffield's population was 91.2% White, 4.6% Asian, 1.8% Black, and 1.6% Mixed. In terms of religion, 68.6% of the population are Christian and 4.6% Muslim. Other religions represent less than 1% each. The number of people without a religion is above the national average at 17.9%, with 7.8% not stating their religion. The largest quinary
Quinary
Quinary is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a quinary system is that there are five fingers on either hand. The base five is stated from 0-4...

 group is 20- to 24-year-olds (9.4%), mainly because of the large university student population.
Sheffield Compared
UK Census 2001
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

 
Sheffield South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It has a population of 1.29 million. It consists of four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and City of Sheffield...

 
England
Total population 513,234 1,266,338 49,138,831
Foreign born 6.4% 8.9% 9.2%
White 91% 95% 91%
Asian 4.6% 2.6% 4.6%
Black 1.8% 0.9% 2.3%
Christian 69% 75% 72%
Muslim 4.6% 2.5% 3.1%
Hindu 0.3% 0.2% 1.1%
No religion 18% 14% 15%
Over 75 years old 8.0% 7.6% 7.5%
Unemployed 4.2% 4.1% 3.3%


The population of Sheffield peaked in 1951 at 577,050, and has since declined steadily. However, the mid-2007 population estimate was 530,300—representing an increase of about 17,000 residents since 2001.

Although a city, Sheffield is informally known as "the largest village in England
Largest village in England
Several places claim to be the largest village in England. This title is disputed as there is no standard definition of a village and size might be determined by population or area....

", because of a combination of topographical isolation and demographic stability. It is the largest city in the U.K. that does not form the basis of a conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

, and is relatively geographically isolated, being cut off from other places by a ring of hills. (Local folklore insists that, like Rome, Sheffield was built "on seven hills".) The land surrounding Sheffield was unsuitable for industrial use, and now includes several protected green belt
Green belt
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character and may run through an...

 areas. These topographical factors have served to restrict urban spread, resulting in a relatively stable population size and a low degree of mobility.

In 1956, Hunt stated that "Modern Sheffield, a flourishing industrial city with over half a million inhabitants and a world-wide reputation, still retains many of the essential characteristics of the small market town of about five thousand people from which it has grown in the space of two and a half centuries." A 1970 survey has supported Hunt's characterisation, with more Sheffield residents able to identify a "home area" within the city than people from other large county boroughs were, and greatly more Sheffield residents expressing an unwillingness to leave their city than people from other large county boroughs did. This latter unwillingness was noted, by the survey analysis, as far more characteristic of the response that would be obtained by surveying a "a small urban or rural authority rather than a large county borough".

Sidney Pollard's analysis of the 1851 Census data caused him to describe Sheffield as "the most proletarian city in England" at the time, it having more people per 100,000 employed in manufacturing occupations (187.6 for Sheffield, as compared to 146.1 for Leeds) and fewer people per 100,000 employed in professional occupations (41 for Sheffield, as compared to 65.8 for Birmingham, and 43.1 for Leeds). He attributed this to the cutlery trade in the city, which was organised not on polarised Capital-versus-Labour lines, but as a complex network of contracts between cutlery workshops, craftsmen, and merchants, whose positive influence on community cohesion and equality lasted through the rise of the steel industry in the city later in the 19th century. Even by 1981, social polarisation (as defined by the Census and Registrar-General) in Sheffield was far lower than in many other cities, with only 4.1% of the population having professional occupations, as opposed to 62.1% classified as skilled or unskilled manual labourers.

Economy

Labour profile
Total employee jobs 255,700
Full-time 168,000 65.7%
Part-time 87,700 34.3%
Manufacturing 31,800 12.4%
Construction 8,500 3.3%
Services 214,900 84.1%
Distribution, hotels & restaurants 58,800 23.0%
Transport & communications 14,200 5.5%
Finance, IT, other business activities 51,800 20.2%
Public admin, education & health 77,500 30.3%
Other services 12,700 5.0%
Tourism-related 18,400 7.2%


After many years of decline, the Sheffield economy is going through a strong revival. The 2004 Barclays Bank Financial Planning study revealed that, in 2003, the Sheffield district of Hallam was the highest ranking area outside London for overall wealth, the proportion of people earning over £60,000 a year standing at almost 12%. A survey by Knight Frank revealed that Sheffield was the fastest-growing city outside London for office and residential space and rents during the second half of 2004. This can be seen by the current surge of redevelopments, including the City Lofts Tower and accompanying St Paul's Place
St Paul's Place
St Paul's Place is part of the Heart of the City project in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It encompasses the new office blocks surrounding the Peace Gardens, the car park and is linked to the St. Pauls Tower...

, Velocity Living, and the Moor
The Moor
The Moor is a primary pedestrianised thoroughfare and one of the main shopping streets of Sheffield, England. Along its length lie some of the most popular department stores and it is seen as one of the primary retail cores of the city centre...

 redevelopment, the forthcoming NRQ and the recently completed Winter Gardens
Sheffield Winter Gardens
Sheffield Winter Garden in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire is one of the largest temperate glasshouses to be built in the UK during the last hundred years, and the largest urban glasshouse anywhere in Europe. It is home to more than 2,000 plants from all around the world...

, Peace Gardens
Peace Gardens
The Peace Gardens are an inner city square in Sheffield, England. It was created as part of the Heart of the City project by Sheffield City Council....

, Millennium Galleries
Millennium Galleries
The Millennium Galleries is an art gallery in the City of Sheffield, England. Opened in April 2001 as part of Sheffield's Heart of the City project, it is located in the city centre close to the city library, Sheffield Hallam University, and the city's theatre district...

, and many projects under the Sheffield One
Sheffield One
Sheffield One is an urban redevelopment company created in 2000 to regenerate Sheffield city centre. In April 2007, it was merged into Creative Sheffield, a newly created city economic development company.-Projects:*Castlegate Quarter*Cathedral Quarter...

 redevelopment agency. The Sheffield economy grew from £5.6 billion in 1997 (1997 GVA) to £9.2 billion in 2007 (2007 GVA).

The "UK Cities Monitor 2008" placed Sheffield among the top ten "best cities to locate a business today", the city occupying 3rd and 4th places respectively for best office location and best new call centre location. The same report places Sheffield in 3rd place regarding "greenest reputation" and 2nd in terms of the availability of financial incentives.

Sheffield has an international reputation for metallurgy and steel-making. Many innovations in these fields have been made in Sheffield, for example Benjamin Huntsman
Benjamin Huntsman
Benjamin Huntsman was an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.-Biography:Huntsman was born the third son of a Quaker farmer in Epworth, Lincolnshire. His parents were Germans who had emigrated only a few years before his birth.Huntsman started business as a clock, lock and...

 discovered the crucible technique in the 1740s at his workshop in Handsworth
Handsworth, South Yorkshire
Handsworth is a suburb of south eastern Sheffield, in South Yorkshire, England. Handsworth has a population of approximately 15,000. It covers an overall area of approximately...

. This process was rendered obsolete in 1856 by Henry Bessemer
Henry Bessemer
Sir Henry Bessemer was an English engineer, inventor, and businessman. Bessemer's name is chiefly known in connection with the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel.-Anthony Bessemer:...

's invention of the Bessemer converter. Thomas Boulsover
Thomas Boulsover
Thomas Boulsover , Sheffield cutler and the inventor of Sheffield Plate, was born in what is now the Ecclesfield district of the city and died at his home at Whiteley Wood Hall, on the River Porter....

 invented Sheffield Plate
Sheffield plate
Sheffield plate is a layered combination of silver and copper that was used for many years to produce a wide range of household articles. These included buttons, caddy spoons, serving utensils, candlesticks and other lighting devices, tea and coffee services, serving dishes and trays, tankards and...

 (silver-plated copper) in the early 18th century. Stainless steel
Stainless steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass....

 was invented by Harry Brearley
Harry Brearley
Harry Brearley is usually credited with the invention of "rustless steel" in the anglophone world.-Life:...

 in 1912, and the work of F. B. Pickering
Frederick Brian Pickering
Professor Frederick Brian Pickering is a British metallurgist. His research and development activities contributed significantly to the creation of the stronger and lighter steels....

 and T. Gladman throughout the 1960s, '70s, and '80s was fundamental to the development of modern high-strength low-alloy steels. Further innovations continue, with new advanced manufacturing technologies and techniques being developed on the Advanced Manufacturing Park
Advanced Manufacturing Park
The Advanced Manufacturing Park is a manufacturing technology park on the Rotherham/Sheffield border in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, facing the Sheffield Business Park across the Parkway...

 by Sheffield's universities and other independent research organisations. Organisations located on the AMP include the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC, a research partnership between the Boeing Company and the University of Sheffield), Castings Technology International (Cti) and TWI (The Welding Institute
The Welding Institute
The Welding Institute or TWI is a research and technology organisation with a specialty in welding. The Welding Institute is based in Cambridgeshire, England, since 1946, and has several offices around the world....

).

Forgemasters, founded in 1805, is the sole remaining independent steel works in the world and dominates the north east of Sheffield around the Lower Don Valley
Lower Don Valley
The Lower Don Valley, or historically the East End of Sheffield, is the mainly industrial north-east quarter of Sheffield, England. Based around the River Don it encompasses the areas of Attercliffe, Brightside, Darnall, Tinsley and Wincobank....

. The firm has a global reputation for producing the largest and most complex steel forgings and castings and is certified to produce critical nuclear components, with recent projects including the Royal Navy's Astute class submarines. The firm also has the capacity for pouring the largest single ingot (570 tonnes) in Europe and is currently in the process of expanding its capabilities.

While iron and steel have long been the main industries of Sheffield, coal mining has also been a major industry, particularly in the outlying areas, and the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom—the House of Lords and the House of Commons...

 in London was built using limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 from quarries
Quarry
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. Quarries are generally used for extracting building materials, such as dimension stone, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, and gravel. They are often collocated with concrete and asphalt plants due to the requirement...

 in the nearby village of Anston
Anston
The villages of North Anston and South Anston are the principal constituents of the civil parish of North and South Anston, in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England...

. Other areas of employment include call centre
Call centre
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls for telemarketing,...

s, the City Council
City council
A city council or town council is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area.-Australia & NZ:Because of the differences in legislation between the States, the exact definition of a City Council varies...

, universities and hospitals.
Sheffield is a major retail centre, and is home to many High Street
High Street
High Street, or the High Street, is a metonym for the generic name of the primary business street of towns or cities, especially in the United Kingdom. It is usually a focal point for shops and retailers in city centres, and is most often used in reference to retailing...

 and department store
Department store
A department store is a retail establishment which satisfies a wide range of the consumer's personal and residential durable goods product needs; and at the same time offering the consumer a choice of multiple merchandise lines, at variable price points, in all product categories...

s as well as designer boutiques. The main shopping areas in the city centre are on The Moor
The Moor
The Moor is a primary pedestrianised thoroughfare and one of the main shopping streets of Sheffield, England. Along its length lie some of the most popular department stores and it is seen as one of the primary retail cores of the city centre...

 precinct, Fargate
Fargate
Fargate is a pedestrian precinct and shopping area in Sheffield, England. It runs between Barker's Pool and High Street opposite the cathedral. It was pedestrianised in 1973...

, Orchard Square
Orchard Square
Orchard Square is a small open-air court shopping centre located in Sheffield, England. It opened in 1987 and contains several stores, notably Schuh, Clarks, Waterstone's , River Island, Subway, The Body Shop and TK Maxx...

 and the Devonshire Quarter
Devonshire Quarter
The Devonshire Quarter is an area in the centre of Sheffield, England. It is based around the Division Street and Devonshire Street shopping areas, known for their small independent shops and variety of pubs and bars...

. Department store
Department store
A department store is a retail establishment which satisfies a wide range of the consumer's personal and residential durable goods product needs; and at the same time offering the consumer a choice of multiple merchandise lines, at variable price points, in all product categories...

s in the city centre include John Lewis
John Lewis Partnership
The John Lewis Partnership is an employee-owned UK partnership which operates John Lewis department stores, Waitrose supermarkets and a number of other services...

, Marks and Spencer, Atkinsons
Atkinsons
Atkinsons is a family-owned department store located on The Moor in Sheffield, England. The store has been trading for over 130 years and sells a broad range of merchandise including clothing, furnishings, lighting, gifts, jewellery, toys, cookers and televisions. Facilities include a restaurant...

 and Debenhams
Debenhams
Debenhams plc is a British retailer operating under a department store format in the UK, Ireland and Denmark, and franchise stores in other countries. The Company was founded in the eighteenth century as a single store in London and has now grown to around 160 shops...

. Sheffield's main market is the Castle Market
Castle Market
Castle Market is an indoor market in Sheffield, England. It lies in the north east of the present city centre, by the River Don, and is built on top of the remains of Sheffield Castle, which can still be seen via guided tours....

, built above the remains of the castle. Shopping areas outside the city centre include the Meadowhall shopping centre and retail park, Ecclesall Road
Ecclesall Road
|thumb|200px|right|Ecclesall Road South, which runs through a large part of the Hallam Constituency, the second wealthiest in the UK.Ecclesall Road is a road in Sheffield that runs for about 3.5 miles south-west from Sheffield's city centre under the number A625...

, London Road
London Road (Sheffield)
London Road is a shopping street in Sheffield, England. It leads south from the city centre near Moorfoot, parallel to Bramall Lane, through Sharrow, Highfield, Lowfield and Heeley, before becoming Chesterfield Road in Meersbrook next to The Crown Inn. Near Heeley Bridge was Heeley railway...

, Hillsborough
Hillsborough, South Yorkshire
Hillsborough is an electoral ward which includes the districts of Malin Bridge, Owlerton, Wadsley and Wisewood. It is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield, England. It is located in the northwestern part of the city and covers an area of 4.6 km2...

, Firth Park and the Crystal Peaks
Crystal Peaks
Crystal Peaks is a shopping centre and retail park near Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Located seven miles from Sheffield city centre Crystal Peaks is accessible from Junction 30 and 31 off the M1 motorway.-Shopping centre and retail park:...

 shopping centre. In a 2010 survey of forecast expenditure at retail centres in the United Kingdom, Meadowhall was ranked 12th and Sheffield city centre 19th.

Sheffield has a District Energy system that exploits the city's domestic waste, by incinerating
Sheffield Incinerator
The Sheffield Energy Recovery Facility is a modern incinerator which treats Sheffield's household waste. It is notable as it not only provides electricity from the combustion of waste but also supplies heat to a local district heating scheme, making it one of the most advanced, energy efficient...

 it and converting the energy from it to electricity. It also provides hot water, which is distributed through over 25 miles (40.2 km) of pipes under the city, via two networks. These networks supply heat and hot water for many buildings throughout the city. These include not only cinemas, hospitals, shops, and offices but also universities (Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University is a higher education institution in South Yorkshire, England, based on two sites in Sheffield. City Campus is located in the city centre, close to Sheffield railway station, and Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away, adjacent to Ecclesall Road in...

 and the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a research university based in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It is one of the original 'red brick' universities and is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities...

), and residential properties. Energy generated in a waste plant produces 60 megawatts of thermal energy and up to 19 megawatts of electrical energy from 225,000 tonnes of waste.

In 2011 it was announced that Sheffield will become an enterprise zone, which will help small businesses in the region to increase economic growth.

National and international travel

Road

Sheffield is linked into the national motorway network via the M1
M1 motorway
The M1 is a north–south motorway in England primarily connecting London to Leeds, where it joins the A1 near Aberford. While the M1 is considered to be the first inter-urban motorway to be completed in the United Kingdom, the first road to be built to motorway standard in the country was the...

 and M18 motorways. The M1 skirts the north-east of the city, linking Sheffield with London to the south and Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

 to the north, and crosses Tinsley Viaduct
Tinsley Viaduct
Tinsley Viaduct is a two-tier road bridge in Sheffield, England; the first of its kind in the UK. It carries the M1 and the A631 1033 metres over the Don Valley, from Tinsley to Wincobank, also crossing the Sheffield Canal, the Midland Main Line and the former South Yorkshire Railway line from...

 near Rotherham; the M18 branches from the M1 close to Sheffield, linking the city with Doncaster
Doncaster
Doncaster is a town in South Yorkshire, England, and the principal settlement of the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. The town is about from Sheffield and is popularly referred to as "Donny"...

, Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield Airport, and the Humber
Humber
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England. It is formed at Trent Falls, Faxfleet, by the confluence of the tidal River Ouse and the tidal River Trent. From here to the North Sea, it forms part of the boundary between the East Riding of Yorkshire on the north bank...

 ports. The Sheffield Parkway
Sheffield Parkway
The Sheffield Parkway is a major dual carriageway which runs between the City of Sheffield and junction 33 of the M1 in South Yorkshire, England. The 5.5 mile road was opened in 1974, and runs to the east of the City, connecting Park Square in the City centre with the inner ring road, outer ring...

 connects the city centre with the motorways.

Train

Major railway routes through Sheffield railway station include the Midland Main Line
Midland Main Line
The Midland Main Line is a major railway route in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system.The present-day line links London St...

, which links the city to London via the East Midlands, the Cross Country Route which links the East of Scotland and Northeast of England with the West Midlands and the Southwest, and the lines linking Liverpool and Manchester with Hull and East Anglia. With the redevelopment of London St Pancras station (now St Pancras International) complete, Sheffield has a direct connection to continental Europe
Continental Europe
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands....

. East Midlands Trains
East Midlands Trains
East Midlands Trains is a British passenger train operating company. Based in Derby, it provides train services in the East Midlands, chiefly in the counties of Lincolnshire, South Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire and Northamptonshire, and between the East Midlands and London...

 run services to St Pancras International and Eurostar
Eurostar
Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Paris and Brussels. All its trains traverse the Channel Tunnel between England and France, owned and operated separately by Eurotunnel....

 run services from there to France and Belgium. The Master Cutler
Master Cutler (train)
The Master Cutler is a British named express passenger train that operates on the National Rail network from Sheffield to London and return...

, a named passenger express train running from Sheffield railway station to London St Pancras, is, and has historically been seen as, Sheffield's premier business train and the city's primary connection to the capital.

The coalition government
Premiership of David Cameron
The premiership of David Cameron began on 11 May 2010 when Cameron accepted the Queen's invitation to form a government. This occurred upon the resignation of Cameron's predecessor as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Gordon Brown...

 announced in October 2010 that Sheffield would be included in the proposed High Speed
High Speed 2
High Speed 2 is a proposed high-speed railway between London and the Midlands, the North of England, and potentially at a later stage the central belt of Scotland. The project is being developed by High Speed Two Ltd, a company established by the British government...

 Rail network connecting the North of England with London. The plan will see Sheffield and Leeds served by the same line which will connect with another to Manchester just south of Birmingham, with London Euston station
Euston railway station
Euston railway station, also known as London Euston, is a central London railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden. It is the sixth busiest rail terminal in London . It is one of 18 railway stations managed by Network Rail, and is the southern terminus of the West Coast Main Line...

 being the probable London terminus. Construction of the Yorkshire/East Midlands High Speed line is likely to begin 2025 and services begin operation in 2032.

Other trains serving Sheffield (apart from East Midland Trains) are provided by Cross Country Trains, First TransPennine Express
First TransPennine Express
First TransPennine Express is a British train operating company. It is a joint operation between First Group and Keolis . It operates regular passenger services in northern England, including services linking the west and east coasts across the Pennines...

, and Northern Rail
Northern Rail
Northern Rail is a British train operating company that has operated local passenger services in Northern England since 2004. Northern Rail's owner, Serco-Abellio, is a consortium formed of Abellio and Serco, an international operator of public transport systems...

.Aside from the main railway station there are five other stations in Sheffield. Meadowhall
Meadowhall Interchange
Meadowhall Interchange to the north of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England is a railway station on the Midland Main Line, a Sheffield Supertram stop, and bus station. It is close to junction 34 on the M1, and serves Meadowhall Shopping Centre...

, a bus, rail and tram interchange, is the second largest station and accommodates a number of services including the long distance Cross Country
CrossCountry
CrossCountry is the brand name of XC Trains Ltd., a British train operating company owned by Arriva...

 Service. Dore and Totley, Woodhouse
Woodhouse railway station
This station is in Woodhouse, Sheffield. It should not be confused with a station of similar name at Mansfield Woodhouse.Woodhouse railway station, formerly Woodhouse Junction, is a railway station serving the Woodhouse and Woodhouse Mill in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The station is ...

, Chapeltown
Chapeltown railway station
Chapeltown railway station, originally known as Chapeltown South, is a railway station in Chapeltown, a district of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England...

 and Darnall
Darnall railway station
Darnall railway station was built to serve Darnall, a community about from the centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England and which later became a suburb of the city.-History:...

 stations serve as commuter stations
Commuter rail in the United Kingdom
Urban rail, commuter rail, regional rail, or suburban rail, plays a key role in the public transport system of many of the United Kingdom's major cities. Urban rail is defined as a rail service between a central business district and suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a...

 for suburban communities but are also connected to the national rail network
Rail transport in Great Britain
The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world, with the world's first locomotive-hauled public railway opening in 1825. As of 2010, it consists of of standard gauge lines , of which are electrified. These lines range from single to double, triple, quadruple track and up to twelve...

.

Coach

Coach
Coach (vehicle)
A coach is a large motor vehicle, a type of bus, used for conveying passengers on excursions and on longer distance express coach scheduled transport between cities - or even between countries...

 services running through Sheffield are operated by National Express and to a lesser extent Megabus
Megabus (United Kingdom)
Megabus is a UK coach service operated by Stagecoach Group. It started in 2003 and as of February 2010 operated 19 UK coach routes serving 41 destinations in England, Scotland and Wales. Some services link with Megatrain services which are also operated by Stagecoach...

, part of the Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains, trams, express coaches and ferries. The group was founded in 1980 by the current chairman, Sir Brian Souter, his sister, Ann Gloag, and her former husband Robin...

. National Express services call at Sheffield Interchange, Meadowhall Interchange
Meadowhall Interchange
Meadowhall Interchange to the north of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England is a railway station on the Midland Main Line, a Sheffield Supertram stop, and bus station. It is close to junction 34 on the M1, and serves Meadowhall Shopping Centre...

 and Meadowhead Bus Stop. Megabus services only call at Meadowhall. National Express services 564, 560, 350, 320, 310 and 240 call at Sheffield, as do others on a less frequent basis. The 560/564 service is a direct connection to London Victoria Coach Station
Victoria Coach Station
Victoria Coach Station is the largest and most significant coach station in London. It serves long distance coach services and is also the departure point for many countryside coach tours originating from London. It should not be confused with the nearby Green Line Coach Station serving Green Line...

 via Chesterfield
Chesterfield Coach Station
Chesterfield coach station opened on 3 May 2005, and is in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England. It was built on the site of the old bus station. It is owned by Stagecoach and is served by Stagecoach Express and National Express coach services.-Facilities :...

 and Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes Coachway
The Milton Keynes Coachway is situated on the A509 road close to Junction 14 of the M1 Motorway on the eastern edge of Milton Keynes, north Buckinghamshire, England offering coach services to cities, towns and airports on the M1 corridor and on into Scotland, to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, the...

, operating 12 times a day in both directions. The 350 and 240 services connect Sheffield to Manchester Airport and Heathrow/Gatwick Airports respectively. Two Megabus services, the M12 and M20, call at Sheffield en route to London from Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically a part of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne...

 and Inverness
Inverness
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for the Highland council area, and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands of Scotland...

 respectively.

Canal

The Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation
Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation
The Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation is a system of navigable inland waterways in South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, England....

 (S&SY) is a system of navigable inland waterways (canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

s and canalised rivers) in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire is a county in the east of England. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders...

. Chiefly based on the River Don, it runs for a length of 43 miles (69.2 km) and has 29 locks. It connects Sheffield, Rotherham
Rotherham
Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, England. It lies on the River Don, at its confluence with the River Rother, between Sheffield and Doncaster. Rotherham, at from Sheffield City Centre, is surrounded by several smaller settlements, which together form the wider Metropolitan Borough of...

, and Doncaster
Doncaster
Doncaster is a town in South Yorkshire, England, and the principal settlement of the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. The town is about from Sheffield and is popularly referred to as "Donny"...

 with the River Trent
River Trent
The River Trent is one of the major rivers of England. Its source is in Staffordshire on the southern edge of Biddulph Moor. It flows through the Midlands until it joins the River Ouse at Trent Falls to form the Humber Estuary, which empties into the North Sea below Hull and Immingham.The Trent...

 at Keadby
Keadby
Keadby is a small village lying just off the A18, west of Scunthorpe, in North Lincolnshire, England. It lies on the West bank of the River Trent. It is pronounced "Kidby"....

 and (via the New Junction Canal
New Junction Canal
The New Junction Canal is a canal in South Yorkshire, England. It is part of the Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation , although it was jointly funded by the Aire and Calder Navigation, and was opened in 1905. It links the River Don Navigation and the Stainforth and Keadby Canal with the Aire...

) the Aire and Calder Navigation
Aire and Calder Navigation
The Aire and Calder Navigation is a river and canal system of the River Aire and the River Calder in the metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, England. The first improvements to the rivers above Knottingley were completed in 1704 when the Aire was made navigable to Leeds and the Calder to...

.

Air

The closest international airport to Sheffield is Doncaster Sheffield Airport, which is located 18 miles (29 km) from the city centre, on the site of the former RAF Finningley
RAF Finningley
RAF Finningley is a former Royal Air Force station at Finningley, South Yorkshire, partly within the traditional county boundaries of Nottinghamshire and partly in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now wholly within the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster....

. The airport opened on 28 April 2005 and is served mainly by charter and budget airlines. It handles about one million passengers a year. Leeds Bradford International Airport
Leeds Bradford International Airport
Leeds Bradford International Airport is located at Yeadon, in the City of Leeds Metropolitan District in West Yorkshire, England, northwest of Leeds city centre itself...

 and East Midlands Airport: Nottingham, Leicester, Derby lie within one hour's drive of the city, and Manchester Airport is connected to Sheffield by a direct train every hour.

Local travel

The A57
A57 road
The A57 is a major road in England. It runs east from Liverpool to Lincoln, via Warrington, Cadishead, Irlam, Patricroft, Eccles, Salford and Manchester, then through the Pennines over the Snake Pass , around the Ladybower Reservoir, through Sheffield and past Worksop...

 and A61 road
A61 road
The A61 is a major trunk road in England. It runs from Derby to Thirsk in North Yorkshire. From Derby, it heads north via Alfreton, Clay Cross, Chesterfield, Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield, Leeds, Harrogate and Ripon...

s are the major trunk roads through Sheffield. These run east–west and north–south respectively, crossing in the city centre, from where the other major roads generally radiate spoke-like. An inner ring road
Sheffield Inner Ring Road
Sheffield Inner Ring Road is a dual-carriageway circling central Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Built from the 1960s onwards the Ring Road connects to the Sheffield Parkway, which itself connects with the M1 motorway...

, mostly constructed in the 1970s and extended in 2007 to form a complete ring, allows traffic to avoid the city centre, and an outer ring road
Sheffield Outer Ring Road
Sheffield Outer Ring Road is one of two main routes circumventing Sheffield, a partial ring around Sheffield City Centre and its suburbs.It begins in Bradway as the B6054 Bradway Road, progressing anticlockwise as Greenhill Parkway, crossing the A61 Meadowhead/Chesterfield Road South into the A6102...

 runs to the east, south east and north, nearer the edge of the city, but does not serve the western side of Sheffield.

Sheffield does not have as extensive a suburban and inter-urban railway network as other comparable British cities. However, there are several local rail routes running along the city's valleys and beyond, connecting it with other parts of South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It has a population of 1.29 million. It consists of four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and City of Sheffield...

, West Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire is a county in the East Midlands of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west...

, Lincolnshire and Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The northern part of Derbyshire overlaps with the Pennines, a famous chain of hills and mountains. The county contains within its boundary of approx...

. These local routes include the Penistone Line
Penistone Line
The Penistone Line is operated by Northern Rail in the West Yorkshire Metro/ Travel South Yorkshire area of northern England. It connects Huddersfield and Sheffield via Penistone and Barnsley, serving many rural communities...

, the Dearne Valley Line
Dearne Valley Line
The Dearne Valley Line is the name given to a railway line in the north of England running from York to Sheffield via Pontefract Baghill and Moorthorpe.-History:...

, the Hope Valley Line
Hope Valley Line
The Hope Valley Line is a railway line in England linking Sheffield with Manchester. It was completed in 1894.From Sheffield, trains head down the Midland Main Line to Dore, where the Hope Valley Line branches off to run through the Totley Tunnel .It emerges in the stunning scenery of the Hope...

, and the Hallam Line
Hallam Line
The Hallam Line is the name given to rail services operated by Northern Rail, in the West Yorkshire Metro/ Travel South Yorkshire area of northern England which connect Leeds and Sheffield via Barnsley. It is the slower of the two routes between Leeds and Sheffield, with faster services provided...

. As well as the main stations of Sheffield
Sheffield Midland station
Sheffield station, formerly Pond Street and later Sheffield Midland, is a railway station in Sheffield, England and is the busiest station in South Yorkshire...

 and Meadowhall
Meadowhall Interchange
Meadowhall Interchange to the north of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England is a railway station on the Midland Main Line, a Sheffield Supertram stop, and bus station. It is close to junction 34 on the M1, and serves Meadowhall Shopping Centre...

, there are four suburban stations, at Chapeltown
Chapeltown railway station
Chapeltown railway station, originally known as Chapeltown South, is a railway station in Chapeltown, a district of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England...

, Darnall
Darnall railway station
Darnall railway station was built to serve Darnall, a community about from the centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England and which later became a suburb of the city.-History:...

, Woodhouse
Woodhouse railway station
This station is in Woodhouse, Sheffield. It should not be confused with a station of similar name at Mansfield Woodhouse.Woodhouse railway station, formerly Woodhouse Junction, is a railway station serving the Woodhouse and Woodhouse Mill in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The station is ...

, and Dore
Dore railway station
Dore and Totley railway station is a small, one platform railway halt near the Sheffield areas of Dore and Totley in South Yorkshire, England...

.
The Sheffield Supertram
Sheffield Supertram
The Supertram, officially called the Stagecoach Supertram, is a light rail tram system in the City of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England...

, owned and operated by Stagecoach
Stagecoach
A stagecoach is a type of covered wagon for passengers and goods, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, usually four-in-hand. Widely used before the introduction of railway transport, it made regular trips between stages or stations, which were places of rest provided for stagecoach travelers...

, opened in 1994, shortly after the similar Metrolink
Manchester Metrolink
Metrolink is a light rail system in Greater Manchester, England. It consists of four lines which converge in Manchester city centre and terminate in Bury, Altrincham, Eccles and Chorlton-cum-Hardy. The system is owned by Transport for Greater Manchester and operated under contract by RATP Group...

 scheme in Manchester. Its network consists of 37 miles (59.5 km) of track and three lines, from Halfway to Malin Bridge
Malin Bridge
Malin Bridge is a suburb of the city of Sheffield, England. It is located at grid reference and stands 2½ miles north-west of the city centre where the rivers Loxley and Rivelin meet...

 (Blue Line), from Meadowhall to Middlewood (Yellow Line), and from Meadowhall to Herdings Park (Purple Line), with all three lines running via the city centre. The system runs on both roads and train tracks, depending upon the section and line. The supertram serves as an important connection between areas in the North East of Sheffield (namely Meadowhall
Meadowhall
Meadowhall is an indoor shopping centre in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It lies three miles north east of Sheffield city centre and four miles from Rotherham town centre....

 and Valley Centertainment
Valley Centertainment
Valley Centertainment is a leisure and entertainment complex in the Don Valley in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It was built on land previously occupied by steel mills near what is now Meadowhall and the Sheffield Arena...

) and the city centre. Because it is operated by the Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains, trams, express coaches and ferries. The group was founded in 1980 by the current chairman, Sir Brian Souter, his sister, Ann Gloag, and her former husband Robin...

, the ticketing system for the Supertram is integrated with Stagecoach buses in Sheffield, meaning passengers can switch between the two modes of transport without having to buy a separate ticket.

Sheffield's local bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 infrastructure has its main hub at Sheffield Interchange. Other bus stations lie at Halfway, Hillsborough
Hillsborough, South Yorkshire
Hillsborough is an electoral ward which includes the districts of Malin Bridge, Owlerton, Wadsley and Wisewood. It is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield, England. It is located in the northwestern part of the city and covers an area of 4.6 km2...

 and Meadowhall. A flurry of new operators were created after deregulation in 1986, though a series of mergers has reduced the number. There are numerous bus operators within Sheffield: First, Stagecoach
Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains, trams, express coaches and ferries. The group was founded in 1980 by the current chairman, Sir Brian Souter, his sister, Ann Gloag, and her former husband Robin...

, TM Travel
TM Travel
TM Travel is a bus operator based in Halfway, Sheffield which operates passenger bus services in South Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Founded in 1995 as a family-owned operation with one bus, by March 2008 it had expanded to become the largest independent operator in Derbyshire...

, Hulleys of Baslow
Hulleys of Baslow
Henry Hulley and Sons Ltd, trading as Hulleys of Baslow, is a bus company based in Baslow, Derbyshire, England. It has been in business for over eighty years. As well as operating scheduled bus services and school contracts, it also operates chartered coach services. The company comprises 16...

, Powell's Co, K&H Doyle and Sheffield Community Transport. First South Yorkshire
First South Yorkshire
First South Yorkshire is the largest bus operator in South Yorkshire, England. As a division of FirstGroup the company's legal name was, for a time, Mainline which operated it between 1993 and 1998, following the sale South Yorkshire Transport to its employees.-History:SYT was eventually sold to...

, part of FirstGroup, became by far the largest bus operator and in recent years implemented a series of fare rises and service cuts which saw bus ridership drop. Recent developments have seen Stagecoach Sheffield
Stagecoach Sheffield
Stagecoach Sheffield is a bus operator based in Sheffield, England, a subsidiary of the Stagecoach Group. It was formed from the Sheffield based operations of the Yorkshire Traction Group, purchased by Stagecoach in 2005...

 taking over Yorkshire Terrier, Andrews and parent company Yorkshire Traction
Yorkshire Traction
Yorkshire Traction was a bus operator in South Yorkshire. Between 1986 and 2005 it was a key part of the Traction Group. In December 2005 it was sold to the Stagecoach Group.-History:...

, thus forming one company and in the process expanding their bus services in the city. This has resulted in increased competition, and price drops on certain routes. A zero-fare bus service—the FreeBee (Operated by TM Travel
TM Travel
TM Travel is a bus operator based in Halfway, Sheffield which operates passenger bus services in South Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Founded in 1995 as a family-owned operation with one bus, by March 2008 it had expanded to become the largest independent operator in Derbyshire...

 and soon to pass over to First)—operates on a circular route around the city centre from the Sheffield Interchange.

In 2008, the Bus Rapid Transit
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 Scheme between Sheffield and Rotherham
Rotherham
Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, England. It lies on the River Don, at its confluence with the River Rother, between Sheffield and Doncaster. Rotherham, at from Sheffield City Centre, is surrounded by several smaller settlements, which together form the wider Metropolitan Borough of...

 was approved by the Yorkshire and Humber Assembly
Yorkshire and Humber Assembly
Yorkshire and Humber Assembly was the regional assembly for the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It closed on 31 March 2009. The responsibilities of the assembly were assumed by a Joint Regional Board consisting of members of Yorkshire Forward, the Regional Development Agency, and Local...

's Regional Transport Board. There are plans for two routes; one (the Northern route) via Meadowhall and Templeborough
Templeborough
Templeborough is a suburb of Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England. The area takes its name from the remains of the Roman fort found there which were mistakenly believed to be that of a Roman Temple.-Roman fort:...

, and the other via the developing employment centre and Waverley.

Cycling

For cycling, although hilly, Sheffield is compact and has few major trunk roads. It is on the Trans-Pennine Trail, a National Cycle Network
National Cycle Network
The National Cycle Network is a network of cycle routes in the United Kingdom.The National Cycle Network was created by the charity Sustrans , and aided by a £42.5 million National Lottery grant. In 2005 it was used for over 230 million trips.Many routes hope to minimise contact with motor...

 route running from Southport
Southport
Southport is a seaside town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton in Merseyside, England. During the 2001 census Southport was recorded as having a population of 90,336, making it the eleventh most populous settlement in North West England...

 in the north-west to Hornsea
Hornsea
Hornsea is a small seaside resort, town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England at the eastern end of the Trans Pennine Trail.-Overview:According to the 2001 UK Census, Hornsea parish had a population of 8,243....

 in the East Riding
East Riding of Yorkshire
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England. For ceremonial purposes the county also includes the city of Kingston upon Hull, which is a separate unitary authority...

.
There are many cycle routes going along country paths in the woods surrounding the city.

Education

Universities and colleges

Sheffield has two universities, the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a research university based in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It is one of the original 'red brick' universities and is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities...

 and Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University is a higher education institution in South Yorkshire, England, based on two sites in Sheffield. City Campus is located in the city centre, close to Sheffield railway station, and Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away, adjacent to Ecclesall Road in...

. The two combined bring about 54,000 students to the city every year. Sheffield University was established in 1897 as University College Sheffield and became the University of Sheffield in 1905. The University is now ranked 40th in the world, 20th in Europe, and 25th in the UK. The university is a member of the Russell Group
Russell Group
The Russell Group is a collaboration of twenty UK universities that together receive two-thirds of research grant and contract funding in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1994 to represent their interests to the government, parliament and other similar bodies...

 and has produced five Nobel Prize winners.
Sheffield Hallam University's history goes back to 1834 with the establishment of the Sheffield School of Design. During the 1960s several independent colleges (including the School of Design) joined to become Sheffield Polytechnic (Sheffield City Polytechnic from 1976) and was finally renamed Sheffield Hallam University in 1992. Sheffield Hallam University is the fourth largest university in the UK in terms of enrolment.
Robert Winston
Robert Winston
Robert Maurice Lipson Winston, Baron Winston is a British professor, medical doctor, scientist, television presenter and politician.-Early life and education :...

, the well known physician, politician and TV presenter, is the Chancellor of the university.

Sheffield has two further education
Further education
Further education is a term mainly used in connection with education in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is post-compulsory education , that is distinct from the education offered in universities...

 colleges, The Sheffield College
Sheffield College
Sheffield College is a further education college in Sheffield, England. It was formed by the merger of six FE colleges in 1993. The main centres are Sheffield City College , Hillsborough College and Norton College...

 and Longley Park Sixth Form College
Longley Park Sixth Form College
Longley Park Sixth Form College is a further education college in the Longley area of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Longley Park Sixth Form College is not owned by Sheffield College.-History:...

. The Sheffield College
Sheffield College
Sheffield College is a further education college in Sheffield, England. It was formed by the merger of six FE colleges in 1993. The main centres are Sheffield City College , Hillsborough College and Norton College...

 is organised on a federal basis and was originally created from the merger of six colleges around the city, since reduced to just four: Sheffield City (formerly Castle) near the city centre, Hillsborough, serving the north of the city and Norton and Peaks to the south.

Secondary, primary and pre-school education

There are 137 primary schools, 25 secondary schools—of which 8 have sixth form
Sixth form
In the education systems of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, and of Commonwealth West Indian countries such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize, Jamaica and Malta, the sixth form is the final two years of secondary education, where students, usually sixteen to eighteen years of age,...

s: (High Storrs
High Storrs School (Sheffield)
High Storrs is a secondary comprehensive school on the south-western outskirts of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England.-Admissions:High Storrs has a Sixth Form and is a specialist Arts College in the Performing Arts, with a second specialism in Maths and Computing...

, King Ecgberts
King Ecgbert School
King Ecgbert School is a coeducational comprehensive school in the village of Dore in the south west of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England....

, King Edward VII
King Edward VII School (Sheffield)
King Edward VII School is a secondary school and language college located in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. KES, named after the reigning monarch, was formed in 1905 when Wesley College was merged with Sheffield Royal Grammar School on the site of the former on Glossop Road...

, Silverdale, Meadowhead
Meadowhead School
Meadowhead Community Learning Trust and Language College is a "larger than average" mixed comprehensive Trust school in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England...

, Tapton
Tapton School
Tapton Secondary School, is a Comprehensive school located in Crosspool, in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is a state school, sited next to another secondary, King Edward VII School, and near to Lydgate Junior School, Lydgate Infant School and Notre Dame High School. Tapton School has...

, Notre Dame Catholic High and All Saints Catholic High
All Saints Catholic High School, Sheffield
The All Saints Catholic High School is a state secondary school in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.-Admissions:It serves boys and girls between the ages of eleven and eighteen. There are currently approximately 1,300 pupils and 95 staff members...

)—and a sixth-form college, Longley Park Sixth Form College
Longley Park Sixth Form College
Longley Park Sixth Form College is a further education college in the Longley area of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Longley Park Sixth Form College is not owned by Sheffield College.-History:...

. The city's five independent private schools include Birkdale School
Birkdale School
Birkdale School is a Christian public school for boys in the city of Sheffield, South Yorkshire in England, and is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference...

 and the Sheffield High School. There are three academies in the City – Sheffield Springs Academy
Sheffield Springs Academy
The Sheffield Springs Academy in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, is one of three Academies in the city, alongside Sheffield Park Academy and Parkwood Academy. Sheffield Springs Academy has over 1,125 students aged 11–18, and opened in September 2006...

, Sheffield Park Academy
Sheffield Park Academy
Sheffield Park Academy, a secondary school in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, opened in September 2006, replacing Waltheof School. It is run in tandem with Sheffield Springs Academy by the United Learning Trust.- Age range :...

 and Parkwood Academy. There are also 12 Special schools and a number of Integrated Resource Units in mainstream schools which are, along with all other schools, managed by Sheffield City Council. All schools are non-selective, mixed sex schools.
The Early Years Education and Childcare Service of Sheffield City Council manages 32 nurseries and children's centres in the city.

Sport

Sheffield has a long sporting heritage. In 1857 a collective of cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

ers formed the world's first-ever official football club, Sheffield F.C.
Sheffield F.C.
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire. The club is most noted for the fact that they are the world's oldest club now playing Association football, founded in 1857...

, and the world's second-ever, Hallam F.C.
Hallam F.C.
Hallam Football Club are a football club in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, who currently play in the Northern Counties East League Division One...

, who also play at the world's oldest football ground
Sandygate Road
Sandygate Road is a football and cricket stadium in the Sheffield suburb of Crosspool, South Yorkshire, England. It is home to Hallam F.C. and Hallam C.C....

 in the suburb of Crosspool
Crosspool
Crosspool is a suburb of the City of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, located west of the city centre. It is a Middle class residential area in an elevated position above the Porter and Rivelin valleys and stands at around 200 metres above sea level...

. By 1860 there were 15 football clubs in Sheffield, with the first ever amateur league and cup competitions taking place in the city. There are two professional clubs in the Football League: Sheffield United
Sheffield United F.C.
Sheffield United Football Club is a professional English football club based in the city of Sheffield, South Yorkshire.They were the first sporting team to use the name 'United' and are nicknamed 'The Blades', thanks to Sheffield's worldwide reputation for steel production...

 and Sheffield Wednesday
Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
Sheffield Wednesday Football Club are a football club based in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, who are currently competing in the Football League One in the 2011-12 season, in England. Sheffield Wednesday are one of the oldest professional clubs in the world and the fourth oldest in the...

. Both Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday Play in Football League One
Football League One
Football League One is the second-highest division of The Football League and third-highest division overall in the English football league system....

. Rotherham United
Rotherham United F.C.
Rotherham United Football Club are an English professional football club based in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, who compete in League Two, the fourth tier of English football. The club's colours have traditionally been red and white, although these have evolved through history...

, who play in Football League Two
Football League Two
Football League Two is the third-highest division of The Football League and fourth-highest division overall in the English football league system....

, also play their home games in the city as of 2010, having moved to play at Sheffield's Don Valley Stadium
Don Valley Stadium
The Don Valley Stadium is a stadium in Sheffield, England and is the home of Rotherham United F.C.. The stadium is an athletics stadium which has hosted major UK Athletic events and the 1991 World Student Games. Sheffield Eagles RLFC and Parramore Sports FC also use the stadium. It was designed by...

 in 2008 following a dispute with their previous landlord at their traditional home ground of Millmoor
Millmoor
Millmoor is a stadium in Rotherham, England. It was built and was used for football matches, and until the end of the 2007–08 season was the home ground of Rotherham United F.C., until a dispute over ownership forced them to move to the Don Valley Stadium in nearby Sheffield.The stadium was...

, Rotherham. There are also two major non-league sides: Sheffield F.C.
Sheffield F.C.
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire. The club is most noted for the fact that they are the world's oldest club now playing Association football, founded in 1857...

 and Hallam F.C.
Hallam F.C.
Hallam Football Club are a football club in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, who currently play in the Northern Counties East League Division One...

, although Sheffield now play just outside the city in nearby Dronfield
Dronfield
Dronfield is a town in North East Derbyshire in the North Midlands region of England. It comprises the three communities of Dronfield, Dronfield Woodhouse and Coal Aston. It is sited in the valley of the small River Drone, and lies between the town of Chesterfield and the city of Sheffield. The...

. Sheffield and Hallam contest what has become known as the Sheffield derby, whilst United and Wednesday contest the Steel City derby
Steel City derby
The Steel City Derby is a local derby that takes place between Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, the two professional football league teams based in the city of Sheffield, England...

.
There are also facilities for golf, climbing
Climbing
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands and feet to ascend a steep object. It is done both for recreation and professionally, as part of activities such as maintenance of a structure, or military operations.Climbing activities include:* Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small...

, and bowling, as well as a newly inaugurated national ice-skating arena (IceSheffield
IceSheffield
IceSheffield is an ice arena in the Lower Don Valley, Sheffield, England. It was completed in May 2003 at a cost of £15 million. It consists of two Olympic-size ice rinks with seating for 1,500 people...

).

Sheffield is also home to the Sheffield Steelers
Sheffield Steelers
The Sheffield Steelers are a British ice hockey club, from Sheffield, England. They were formed in 1991 and play their home games at the Sheffield Arena. They are currently members of the Elite Ice Hockey League...

 ice hockey team who play out of the 8,500 seater Sheffield Arena. They play in the 10 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League
Elite Ice Hockey League
Several competitions fall under the jurisdiction of the Elite League. In 2006–07, the EIHL ran a total of four competitions: the league, playoffs, Challenge Cup and Knockout Cup. The league consists of a single division, each team playing three home games and three away games against the other...

.
Many of Sheffield's sporting facilities were built for the World Student Games
Universiade
The Universiade is an International multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation . The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"...

, which the city hosted in 1991. They include the Don Valley International Athletics Stadium
Don Valley Stadium
The Don Valley Stadium is a stadium in Sheffield, England and is the home of Rotherham United F.C.. The stadium is an athletics stadium which has hosted major UK Athletic events and the 1991 World Student Games. Sheffield Eagles RLFC and Parramore Sports FC also use the stadium. It was designed by...

, the largest athletics stadium in the UK with a capacity of 25,000, Sheffield Arena, and the Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge International Sports Centre is a leisure complex in the City of Sheffield, England that contains an Olympic-sized swimming pool with seating for 2,600 spectators, family and kids pools, water slides and other sports facilities.-Brief history:...

 international diving and swimming complex. Ponds Forge is also the home of Sheffield City Swimming Club, a local swimming club competing in the speedo league.
The Sheffield Ski Village
Sheffield Ski Village
Sheffield Ski Village is an artificial ski slope complex in the Parkwood Springs area of Sheffield, England. It is believed to be the largest artificial ski resort in Europe with a sports shop, bar, restaurant and a range of slopes which include a snowflex nursery slope, a dendix recreational...

 is the largest artificial ski
Ski
A ski is a long, flat device worn on the foot, usually attached through a boot, designed to help the wearer slide smoothly over snow. Originally intended as an aid to travel in snowy regions, they are now mainly used for recreational and sporting purposes...

 resort in Europe. The city also has three indoor climbing centres. Sheffield was the UK's first National City of Sport and is now home to the English Institute of Sport – Sheffield, where British athletes are training for the 2012 Olympics.

Sheffield Eagles
Sheffield Eagles
Sheffield Eagles RLFC are an English rugby league club based in the South Yorkshire city of Sheffield. They currently play in the Co-operative Championship. Their home games are played at Bramall Lane after leaving Don Valley Stadium in late 2009....

 rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 are the cities profesional rugby league team who play their matches at Bramall Lane
Bramall Lane
-Cricket at the Lane:Bramall Lane opened as a cricket ground in 1855, having been leased by Michael Ellison from the Duke of Norfolk at an annual rent of £70. The site was then away from the town's industrial area, and relatively free from smoke. It was built to host the matches of local cricket...

 and occasionally at the Don Valley Stadium
Don Valley Stadium
The Don Valley Stadium is a stadium in Sheffield, England and is the home of Rotherham United F.C.. The stadium is an athletics stadium which has hosted major UK Athletic events and the 1991 World Student Games. Sheffield Eagles RLFC and Parramore Sports FC also use the stadium. It was designed by...

. Their most succesful moment came in 1998, when, against all the odds they defeated Wigan Warriors
Wigan Warriors
Wigan Warriors is an English rugby league club based in Wigan, Greater Manchester. The club's first team squad competes in the engage Super League and the team are the current Challenge Cup holders as of the 27th August 2011....

 in the Challenge Cup final, despite being huge underdogs. The team then hit troubled times before reforming in 2003. Since then they have played their rugby in the Championship (second tier). In 2011, they made the play offs finishing in 5th place. They hit aa good spell of form and suprisingly made the Grand Final. However, they fell just short losing to Featherstone. The city of Sheffield has also bid to be a host city in the 2013 rugby league world cup. They will find out whether theire bid is succesful by the end of November 2011

Sheffield also has close ties with snooker
Snooker
Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a green baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. A regular table is . It is played using a cue and snooker balls: one white , 15 worth one point each, and six balls of different :...

, with the city's Crucible Theatre
Crucible Theatre
The Crucible Theatre is a theatre built in 1971 and located in the city centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. As well as theatrical performances, it is home to the most important event in professional snooker, the World Snooker Championship....

 being the venue for the World Snooker Championship
World Snooker Championship
The World Snooker Championship is the leading professional snooker tournament in terms of both prize money and ranking points. The first championship was held in 1927; since 1977, it has been played at the Crucible Theatre, Sheffield, England...

s. The English Institute of Sport hosts most of the top fencing
Fencing
Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games...

 competitions each year, including the National Championships for Seniors, Juniors (U20's) and Cadets (U17's) as well as the 2011 Senior European Fencing Championships. The English squash
Squash (sport)
Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball...

 open is also held in the city every year. The International Open and World Matchplay Championship bowls
Bowls
Bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll slightly asymmetric balls so that they stop close to a smaller "jack" or "kitty". It is played on a pitch which may be flat or convex or uneven...

 tournaments have both been held at Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge International Sports Centre is a leisure complex in the City of Sheffield, England that contains an Olympic-sized swimming pool with seating for 2,600 spectators, family and kids pools, water slides and other sports facilities.-Brief history:...

. The city also hosts the Sheffield Tigers
Sheffield Tigers RUFC
Sheffield Tigers Rugby Football Club are a rugby union team based in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. They currently play in the North 1 in the English league system.Formed in 1932 they celebrate their 75th season of Rugby in 2007...

 rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

, Sheffield Sharks
Sheffield Sharks
Sheffield Sharks, officially named One Health Sheffield Sharks due to sponsorship, is a professional basketball team from the city of Sheffield, England. Sharks currently play in the British Basketball League and play their home fixtures at English Institute of Sport - Sheffield...

 basketball, Sheffield University Bankers
Sheffield University Bankers Hockey Club
Sheffield University Bankers Hockey Club is a hockey club based in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, who play in the English Hockey League and other leagues. It is associated with the University of Sheffield men's and women's hockey clubs, and many of its players are current students or alumni...

 hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

, Sheffield Steelers
Sheffield Steelers
The Sheffield Steelers are a British ice hockey club, from Sheffield, England. They were formed in 1991 and play their home games at the Sheffield Arena. They are currently members of the Elite Ice Hockey League...

 ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 and Sheffield Tigers speedway
Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually...

 teams.

Sheffield was selected as a candidate host city by the English Football Association (FA) as part of the English 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bid
English 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bid
England 2018 was the Football Association's unsuccessful bid for the right to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup. FIFA invited bidding countries to bid for either the 2018 or the 2022 finals, or both...

 on 16 December 2009.
Hillsborough Stadium
Hillsborough Stadium
Hillsborough Stadium is the home of Sheffield Wednesday football club, Sheffield, England. Football has been played at the ground since it was opened on 2 September 1899, when Wednesday moved from their original ground at Olive Grove. Today it is a 39,812 capacity all-seater stadium, making it the...

 was chosen as the proposed venue for matches in Sheffield.
The bid failed.

The National Hockey League's Stanley Cup was made in Sheffield in 1892.

Culture and attractions

Sheffield made the shortlist for the first city to be designated UK City of Culture
UK City of Culture
UK City of Culture is a designation given to a city in the United Kingdom for a period of one year. The aim of the initiative, which is administered by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, is to "build on the success of Liverpool's year as European Capital of Culture 2008, which had...

, but in July 2010 it was announced that Derry
Derry
Derry or Londonderry is the second-biggest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-biggest city on the island of Ireland. The name Derry is an anglicisation of the Irish name Doire or Doire Cholmcille meaning "oak-wood of Colmcille"...

 had been selected.

Attractions

The Sheffield Walk of Fame in the City Centre honours famous Sheffield residents past and present in a similar way to the Hollywood version. Sheffield also had its own Ferris Wheel known as the Wheel of Sheffield
Wheel of Sheffield
The Wheel of Sheffield was a tall transportable Ferris wheel installation on Fargate, by the Town Hall, in Sheffield, England.It was opened on 20 July 2009, and was intended to remain until January 2010. However, planning permission was sought for a further year of operation, and permission was...

, located atop Fargate shopping precinct. The Wheel was dismantled in October 2010 and moved to London's Hyde Park. Heeley City Farm and Graves Park
Graves Park
Graves Park is a large parkland area in the South of Sheffield, between the districts of Norton, Woodseats and Meadowhead. The park was developed by Alderman J.G.Graves between 1926 and 1936, to protect the thousand year old woodland from building development. Mr Graves donated the 91.9 hectares...

 are home to Sheffield's two farm animal collections, both of which are fully open to the public.

There are about 1,100 listed buildings in Sheffield (including the whole of the Sheffield postal district
S postcode area
The S postcode area, also known as the Sheffield postcode area, is a group of postcode districts around Barnsley, Chesterfield, Dronfield, Hope Valley, Mexborough, Rotherham, Sheffield and Worksop in England....

). Of these, only five are Grade I listed. Fifty-nine are Grade II*, but the overwhelming majority are listed as Grade II. Compared to other English cities, Sheffield has few buildings with the highest Grade I listing—Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

, for example, has 26 Grade I listed buildings. This situation led the noted architecture historian Nikolaus Pevsner
Nikolaus Pevsner
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner, CBE, FBA was a German-born British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture...

, writing in 1959, to comment that the city was "architecturally a miserable disappointment", with no pre-19th century buildings of any distinction. By contrast, in November 2007, Sheffield's Peace and Winter Gardens beat London's South Bank to gain the Royal Institute of British Architects' Academy of Urbanism "Great Place" Award, as an "outstanding example of how cities can be improved, to make urban spaces as attractive and accessible as possible".

Music

Sheffield has been the home of several well-known bands and musicians, with an unusually large number of synth pop and other electronic
Electronic music
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production. In general a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound...

 outfits originating from the city. These include The Human League
The Human League
The Human League are an English electronic New Wave band formed in Sheffield in 1977. They achieved popularity after a key change in line-up in the early 1980s and have continued recording and performing with moderate commercial success throughout the 1980s up to the present day.The only constant...

, Heaven 17
Heaven 17
Heaven 17 are an English synthpop band originating from Sheffield in the early 1980s. The trio comprises Martyn Ware , Ian Craig Marsh and Glenn Gregory...

, ABC
ABC (band)
ABC are an English band, that charted ten UK and five US Top 40 singles between 1981 and 1990. The band continues to tour and released a new album, Traffic, in 2008.-Formation:...

, and the more industrially
Industrial music
Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the...

 inclined Cabaret Voltaire
Cabaret Voltaire (band)
Cabaret Voltaire were a British music group from Sheffield, England.Initially composed of Stephen Mallinder, Richard H. Kirk and Chris Watson, the group was named after the Cabaret Voltaire, a nightclub in Zürich, Switzerland that was a centre for the early Dada movement.Their earliest performances...

. This electronic tradition has continued: techno label Warp Records
Warp Records
Warp, commonly referred to as Warp Records, is a pioneering independent British record label, founded in Sheffield in 1989, notable for discovering some of the more enduring artists in electronic music....

 was a central pillar of the Yorkshire Bleeps and Bass scene of the early 1990s, and has gone on to become one of Britain's oldest and best-loved dance music labels. More recently, other popular genres of electronic music such as bassline house
Bassline house
Bassline is a type of music related to UK garage that originated from speed garage, and shares characteristics with fellow subgenres dubstep and grime for their emphasis on bass. The style originated in Sheffield around 2002....

 have originated in the city. Sheffield is home to a number of high-profile nightclubs—Gatecrasher One
Gatecrasher
Gatecrasher is an international clubbing brand made famous by the Gatecrasher dance music events held at the Gatecrasher One nightclub in Sheffield, England during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The event received awards such as "Club Of The Year" at the Ericsson Muzik Magazine Dance Awards in...

 was one of the most popular nightclubs in the north of England until its destruction by fire on 18 June 2007.
Artists such as: Joe Cocker
Joe Cocker
John Robert "Joe" Cocker, OBE is an English rock and blues musician, composer and actor, who came to popularity in the 1960s, and is most known for his gritty voice, his idiosyncratic arm movements while performing, and his cover versions of popular songs, particularly those of The Beatles...

, Pulp
Pulp (band)
Pulp are an English alternative rock band formed in Sheffield in 1978. Their lineup consists of Jarvis Cocker , Russell Senior , Candida Doyle , Mark Webber , Steve Mackey and Nick Banks ....

, Paul Carrack
Paul Carrack
Paul Carrack is an English singer, songwriter and musician. Carrack has been a member of several bands including Ace, Squeeze, Mike + The Mechanics, and Roxy Music, been a session and touring musician for several others including Nick Lowe, and has enjoyed success as a solo artist as well...

, Def Leppard
Def Leppard
Def Leppard are an English rock band formed in 1977 in Sheffield as part of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal movement. Since 1992, the band have consisted of Joe Elliott , Rick Savage , Rick Allen , Phil Collen , and Vivian Campbell...

, Richard Hawley
Richard Hawley
Richard Hawley is a guitarist, singer-songwriter and producer. After his first band Treebound Story broke up, Hawley found success as a member of Britpop band Longpigs in the 1990s. He later joined the band Pulp, led by his friend Jarvis Cocker...

, The Longpigs
The Longpigs
Longpigs were a British band who rose to fame on the fringe of Britpop in the 1990s; comprising Crispin Hunt , Richard Hawley , Simon Stafford and former Cabaret Voltaire member Dee Boyle who was replaced by Andy Cook on their second album...

, Milburn
Milburn (band)
Milburn was an indie rock band from Sheffield, England that consisted of Joe Carnall, Louis Carnall, Tom Rowley, and Joe Green. They announced they would split on 28 March 2008, with the band playing their final gig at Sheffield's Carling Academy on 24 May 2008.-Formation:Milburn's formation came...

, Moloko
Moloko
Moloko were an Anglo-Irish electronic/pop duo consisting of Róisín Murphy from Wicklow, Ireland and Mark Brydon, from Sunderland, England.- Origin of band name :...

, and Bring Me the Horizon
Bring Me the Horizon
Bring Me the Horizon are a British metalcore band from Sheffield, Yorkshire, who formed in 2004. Bring Me the Horizon constits of Oliver Sykes as the lead vocalist, lead guitarist Lee Malia, rhythm guitarist Jona Weinhofen, bassist Matt Kean and drummer Matt Nicholls...

, along with many other popular and alternative musicians, were born in Sheffield. More recently several indie
Indie (music)
In music, independent music, often shortened to indie music or "indie" is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels or their subsidiaries, and an autonomous, Do-It-Yourself approach to recording and publishing....

 bands, including Arctic Monkeys
Arctic Monkeys
Arctic Monkeys are an English indie rock band. Formed in 2002 in High Green, a suburb of Sheffield, the band currently consists of Alex Turner , Jamie Cook , Nick O'Malley and Matt Helders...

, The Long Blondes
The Long Blondes
The Long Blondes were a five-piece English indie rock band formed in Sheffield, United Kingdom in 2003 by Dorian Cox , Reenie Hollis , Emma Chaplin , Kate Jackson and Screech Louder .After several critically...

 and Toddla T have emerged from the city as part of what the NME
NME
The New Musical Express is a popular music publication in the United Kingdom, published weekly since March 1952. It started as a music newspaper, and gradually moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s, changing from newsprint in 1998. It was the first British paper to include a singles...

dubbed the New Yorkshire
New Yorkshire
New Yorkshire is a musical movement identified by UK music magazine NME in 2005, in response to the success of Yorkshire bands such as Arctic Monkeys, The Cribs, and Kaiser Chiefs....

 movement.

In 1999, the National Centre for Popular Music
National Centre for Popular Music
The National Centre for Popular Music was a museum in Sheffield, England for contemporary music and culture, a £15 million project largely funded with contributions from the National Lottery, which opened on 1 March 1999, and closed in June 2000....

, a museum dedicated to the subject of popular music
Popular music
Popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional music, which are typically disseminated academically or orally to smaller, local...

, was opened in the city. It was not as successful as was hoped, however, and later evolved to become a live music venue; then in February 2005, the unusual steel-covered building became the students' union
Students' union
A students' union, student government, student senate, students' association, guild of students or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and universities, and has started appearing in some high schools...

 for Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University is a higher education institution in South Yorkshire, England, based on two sites in Sheffield. City Campus is located in the city centre, close to Sheffield railway station, and Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away, adjacent to Ecclesall Road in...

. Live music venues in the city include the Harley Hotel, Leadmill
Leadmill
The Leadmill is a live music venue and nightclub on Leadmill Road, Sheffield, England lying on the south-east edge of the city centre. It opened in 1980, in what despite its name was a former flour mill...

, West Street Live, the Boardwalk
Boardwalk (nightclub)
The Boardwalk was a bar/nightclub based on the corner of Snig Hill and Bank Street, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The venue played host to many up-and-coming home-grown bands, as well as smaller touring bands and cover acts. In November 2010, the landlord of the venue voluntarily placed the...

, Dove & Rainbow, The Casbah, The Cremorne, Corporation
Corporation (nightclub)
The Corporation is a nightclub and venue located in city centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Originally based in the north of the city centre, on Bank Street near Castle Market, it moved to a nightclub previously known as the Unit in the early 2000s, which is located in the Devonshire...

, New Barrack Tavern, The Broadfield Hotel, Redstone bar and nightclub, the City Hall
Sheffield City Hall
Sheffield City Hall is a Grade II* listed building in Sheffield, England, containing several venues, ranging from the Oval Concert Hall which seats over 2,000 people to a ballroom featuring a sprung dance floor...

, the University of Sheffield Students' Union, the Studio Theatre at the Crucible Theatre
Crucible Theatre
The Crucible Theatre is a theatre built in 1971 and located in the city centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. As well as theatrical performances, it is home to the most important event in professional snooker, the World Snooker Championship....

, the O2 Academy Sheffield, and The Grapes.

Sheffield hosts a number of festivals, the Grin Up North Sheffield Comedy Festival, the Sensoria Music & Film Festival
Sensoria Music & Film Festival
- History :Sensoria is the UK's festival of music, film and digital.The festival, based in Sheffield, presents a unique mix of live performance, film screenings, installations, exhibitions and music industry activity...

 and the Tramlines Festival
Tramlines Festival
The Tramlines Festival is an annual music festival that takes place in Sheffield. The festival is free to attend, and the lineup consists of national and local artists. The festival is curated and organised by a panel comprising local venue owners, promoters and volunteers. The name of the...

. The Tramlines Festival was launched as an annual music festival in 2009, it is held throughout venues in Sheffield City Centre
Sheffield City Centre
Sheffield City Centre—often just referred to as town—is a district of the City of Sheffield, and part of the Sheffield Central ward. It includes the area that is within a radius of roughly of Sheffield Cathedral, and is encircled by the Inner Ring Road—a circular route started in the late 1960s...

, and features local and national artists. The city is also home to several local orchestras and choirs, such as the Sheffield Symphony Orchestra
Sheffield Symphony Orchestra
The Sheffield Symphony Orchestra is an orchestra based in Sheffield, England. Founded in 1956, the orchestra specialises in pieces written within the last hundred years....

, the Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra
Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra
The Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra is an amateur symphony orchestra based in Sheffield, England. Formed in 1945, it performs a programme of music from the classical, romantic and modern periods. The orchestra is in a phase of development, initially under the baton of John Pearson followed by the...

, the Sheffield Chamber Orchestra
Sheffield Chamber Orchestra
The Sheffield Chamber Orchestra is a standard classical orchestra based in Sheffield, England. Formed in 1950, the orchestra performs works suitable for Chamber Orchestra from the baroque to the present day. Each programme generally includes one 20th century or contemporary work. The joint...

, the City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra
City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra
The City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra is an orchestra in Sheffield, England. It has about 90 players whose age range from 13 to 21 years, with half still being at school with the rest at college, many of them training as professional musicians...

, and the Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus
Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus
Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus is a large choir based in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The chorus consists of about 190 members from Sheffield and the surrounding area and performs between 5 and 10 concerts each season...

.

Theatres

Sheffield has two large theatres, the Lyceum Theatre
Lyceum Theatre (Sheffield)
-History:Built in 1897 following a traditional proscenium arch design, the Lyceum is the only surviving theatre outside of London designed by the famous theatre architect W.G.R. Sprague and the last example of an Edwardian auditorium in Sheffield...

 and the Crucible Theatre
Crucible Theatre
The Crucible Theatre is a theatre built in 1971 and located in the city centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. As well as theatrical performances, it is home to the most important event in professional snooker, the World Snooker Championship....

, which together with the smaller Studio Theatre make up the largest theatre complex outside London, located in Tudor Square. The Crucible theatre is the home (since 1977) of the world snooker championships and hosts many well known stage productions throughout the year. The Lyceum, which opened in 1897, serves as a venue for touring West End productions and operas by Opera North, as well as locally produced shows. Sheffield also has the Montgomery Theatre, a small 420 seater theatre located a short distance from Tudor Square, opposite the town Hall on Surrey Street. There are also a large number of smaller amateur theatres scattered throughout the city.

Museums

Sheffield's museums are managed by two distinct organisations. Museums Sheffield manages the Weston Park Museum (a Grade II* listed Building), Millennium Galleries
Millennium Galleries
The Millennium Galleries is an art gallery in the City of Sheffield, England. Opened in April 2001 as part of Sheffield's Heart of the City project, it is located in the city centre close to the city library, Sheffield Hallam University, and the city's theatre district...

, Graves Art Gallery
Graves Art Gallery
Graves Art Gallery is in the centre of Sheffield above the Central Library and close to the Millennium Galleries. It shows permanent displays from the city’s collections of 19th and 20th century British and European art as well as a programme of temporary exhibitions.The collection encapsulates the...

 and Bishops House
Bishops' House
Bishops' House is a half-timbered house in the Norton Lees district of the City of Sheffield, England. It was built c. 1500 and is located at , on the southern tip of Meersbrook Park...

 (a preserved Tudor
Tudor style architecture
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of medieval architecture during the Tudor period and even beyond, for conservative college patrons...

 building located to the south of the city centre).
Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust
Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust
The Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust is an independent charitable trust based in Sheffield, England, that runs the Sheffield City Council-owned Kelham Island, Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet, and Shepherd Wheel museums....

 manages the museums dedicated to Sheffield's industrial heritage of which there are three. Kelham Island Museum
Kelham Island Museum
The Kelham Island Museum is an industrial museum on Alma Street, alongside the River Don, in the centre of Sheffield, England. It was opened in 1982.-The site:...

 (located just to the North of the city centre) showcases the citys history of steel manufacturing. Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet
Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet
Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet is an industrial museum in the south of the City of Sheffield, England. The museum forms part of a former steel-working site on the River Sheaf, with a history going back to at least the 13th century...

 (in the south of the city) is a Grade 1 Listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument
Scheduled Ancient Monument
In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a 'nationally important' archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorized change. The various pieces of legislation used for legally protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term...

. Shepherd Wheel
Shepherd Wheel
Shepherd Wheel is a working museum in a former water-powered grinding workshop situated on the Porter Brook in the south-west of the City of Sheffield, England. One of the earliest wheels on the River Porter, it is one of the few remaining—and effectively complete—examples of this kind of...

 (in the south-East of the city) is a former water-powered grinding workshop
Workshop
A workshop is a room or building which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods...

, Grade II listed, and a Scheduled Ancient Monument.

Greenspace

Sheffield has a reputed 2 million trees and is known as the greenest city in Europe.
Consequently, there are many parks and woods throughout the city and beyond. There are 83 parks in Sheffield (13 ‘City’ Parks, 20 ‘District’ Parks and 50 ‘Local’ Parks) which are located throughout the city. Included in the city parks category are 3 of Sheffield's 4 public gardens (The Sheffield Botanical Gardens
Sheffield Botanical Gardens
The Sheffield Botanical Gardens are botanical gardens situated off Ecclesall Road in Sheffield, England, with 5,000 species of plant in 19 acres of land....

, The Peace Gardens
Peace Gardens
The Peace Gardens are an inner city square in Sheffield, England. It was created as part of the Heart of the City project by Sheffield City Council....

 and Hillsborough Walled Gardens, with the Sheffield Winter Gardens
Sheffield Winter Gardens
Sheffield Winter Garden in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire is one of the largest temperate glasshouses to be built in the UK during the last hundred years, and the largest urban glasshouse anywhere in Europe. It is home to more than 2,000 plants from all around the world...

 being the separate entity). The Sheffield Botanical Gardens are on a 19 acresite located to the south west of the city centre and date back to 1836. The site includes a large, Grade II listed, Victorian era glasshouse. The Peace Gardens, located adjcant to the Town Hall
Sheffield Town Hall
Sheffield Town Hall is a building in the City of Sheffield, England. The building is used by Sheffield City Council, and also contains a publicly displayed collection of silverware. The current building, Sheffield's fourth town hall, is located on Pinstone Street. It was designed by the...

 and forming part of the Heart of the City project, occupy a 0.67 hectare site in the centre of the city. The site is dominated by its water features, principle among which is the Goodwin Fountain. Made up of 89 individual jets of water, this fountain lies at the corner of the quarter-circle shaped Peace Gardens and is named after a notable Sheffield industrialist. Since their redevelopment in 1998, the peace gardens have received a number of regional and national accolades. Hillsborough Walled Garden is located in Hillsborough Park
Hillsborough Park
Hillsborough Park is a large parkland area in Hillsborough, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The park was created in 1897 by the Dixon Family, who built Hillsborough Hall. It is now owned by Sheffield City Council and the hall is used as a library....

, to the north west of the city centre. The gardens date back to 1779 and have been dedicated to the victims of the Hillsborough Disaster
Hillsborough disaster
The Hillsborough disaster was a human crush that occurred on 15 April 1989 at Hillsborough, a football stadium, the home of Sheffield Wednesday F.C. in Sheffield, England, resulting in the deaths of 96 people, and 766 being injured, all fans of Liverpool F.C....

 since the redevelopment of the gardens in the early 1990s. The Winter Garden, lying within the Heart of the City, is a large wood framed, glass skinned greenhouse
Greenhouse
A greenhouse is a building in which plants are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings...

 housing some 2,500 plants from around the world.

Also within the city there are a number of nature reserves which when combined occupy 1600 acres (6.5 km²) of land. There are also 170 woodland
Woodland
Ecologically, a woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of...

 areas within the city, 80 of which are classed as ancient.

The South East boundary of the city overlaps with the Peak District National Park, the first national park in England (est. 1951). As a consequence, several communities actually reside within both entities. The Peak District is home to many notable, natural, features and also man-made features such as Chatsworth House
Chatsworth House
Chatsworth House is a stately home in North Derbyshire, England, northeast of Bakewell and west of Chesterfield . It is the seat of the Duke of Devonshire, and has been home to his family, the Cavendish family, since Bess of Hardwick settled at Chatsworth in 1549.Standing on the east bank of the...

, the setting for the BBC series Pride and Prejudice
Pride and Prejudice
Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England...

.

In September 2010 Sheffield City Council announced plans to create a new chain of parks spanning the hill side behind Sheffield Station. The park, known as Sheaf Valley Park, will include an arboretum and an open air amphitheatre. The site was once home to a medieval deer park, latterly owned by the Duke of Norfolk
Norfolk Heritage Park
Norfolk Heritage Park is a public park in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England surrounded by the Norfolk Park residential suburb.Located to the south of Sheffield City Centre, the estate has grown up on part of the former deer park associated with Sheffield Manor...

.

Entertainment

Sheffield has four cinema complexes, 2 of which are in the city centre and 2 in the Lower Don Valley. Valley Centertainment
Valley Centertainment
Valley Centertainment is a leisure and entertainment complex in the Don Valley in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It was built on land previously occupied by steel mills near what is now Meadowhall and the Sheffield Arena...

 is a leisure and entertainment complex in the Don Valley
Lower Don Valley
The Lower Don Valley, or historically the East End of Sheffield, is the mainly industrial north-east quarter of Sheffield, England. Based around the River Don it encompasses the areas of Attercliffe, Brightside, Darnall, Tinsley and Wincobank....

. It was built on land previously occupied by steel mills near what is now Meadowhall
Meadowhall
Meadowhall is an indoor shopping centre in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It lies three miles north east of Sheffield city centre and four miles from Rotherham town centre....

 and the Sheffield Arena. It is home to several restaurants, bars, a cinema
Cineworld
Cineworld Group plc is a cinema chain operating in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Jersey. The chain consists of 78 cinemas; 76 of which are located in the UK and one each in Ireland and Jersey. It is the second-largest cinema operator in the UK with 801 screens, and the owner of...

 multiplex, and a bowling alley
Bowling
Bowling Bowling Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule...

. It is also the largest Cineworld complex in the United Kingdom, containing 20 screens in one building. The Odeon
Odeon Cinemas
Odeon Cinemas is a British chain of cinemas, one of the largest in Europe. It is owned by Odeon & UCI Cinemas Group whose ultimate parent is Terra Firma Capital Partners.-History:Odeon Cinemas was created in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch...

, situated on Arundel Gate in the city Centre and Vue
Vue (cinema)
Vue Entertainment , formerly known as SBC International Cinemas, is a cinema company in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. The company was formed in May 2003 when SBC acquired 36 Warner Village cinemas. There are now 69 Vue cinemas, with 654 screens totaling 140,500 seats, including the rebranded...

, located within Meadowhall
Meadowhall
Meadowhall is an indoor shopping centre in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It lies three miles north east of Sheffield city centre and four miles from Rotherham town centre....

 Shopping Centre, are the two other mainstream cinemas in the city. The Showroom, an independent cinema showing non-mainstream productions, is located in Sheaf Square
Sheaf Square
Sheaf Square is a municipal square lying immediately east of the city centre of Sheffield, England. The sides of the square are lined with major buildings: Sheffield railway station, the Showroom Cinema, Sheffield Science Park, the early nineteenth century Howard Hotel, in addition to the site of...

, close to Sheffield Station. In 2002 the Showroom was voted as the best Independent cinema in the country by Guardian readers

Owing to its long history, Sheffield has a large number of pubs throughout the city. The oldest pub in the city is the Old Queen's Head
Old Queen's Head, Sheffield
The Old Queen's Head is a public house on Pond Hill in the City of Sheffield, England that occupies the oldest domestic building in the city. This timber framed building is thought to date from c.1475, although the earliest known written record of it is in an inventory compiled in 1582 of the...

 situated next to Sheffield Interchange, which is said to be the oldest domestic building in the city, dating back to 1475. West Street, running through the heart of the West End
West End, Sheffield
The West End is a loosely-defined area of Sheffield, consisting of part of the City Centre, in addition to some of the western suburbs. The term has been in use for at least 150 years.- Modern Usage :...

 district of the city centre, is home to many pubs, bars, bars and clubs and attracts many student visitors. A recent addition to the city's nightlife is Leopold Square
Leopold Square
Leopold Square is a new mixed use development in Sheffield's West End, England. It is located at the corner of Leopold Street and West Street...

, situated just off the northern end of West Street. Aagrah, an Indian restaurant in the square which serving Kashmiri cuisine, has recently been voted "Best Restaurant Group in the UK" at the prestigious British Curry Awards.

Media and film

Sheffield has two commercial newspapers, The Star
Sheffield Star
The Star, often known as the Sheffield Star is a daily newspaper published in Sheffield, England, from Monday to Saturday each week. Originally a broadsheet, the newspaper became a tabloid in 1989...

and Sheffield Telegraph
Sheffield Telegraph
The Sheffield Telegraph is a weekly newspaper published in Sheffield, England.-History:Founded in 1855 as the Sheffield Daily Telegraph, it was the city's first daily newspaper, published at 08:00 each morning. The newspaper struggled until W. C...

, both published by Johnston Press PLC
Johnston Press
Johnston Press plc is a newspaper publishing company headquartered in Edinburgh, Scotland. Its flagship titles are The Scotsman and the Yorkshire Post; it also operates many other newspapers around the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and the Isle of Man. It is the second-largest publisher...

. The Star has been published daily since 1897; the Sheffield Telegraph, now a weekly publication, originated in 1855.

Sheffield does not have a television station; regional broadcasters BBC Yorkshire
BBC Yorkshire
BBC Yorkshire is one of the English regions of the BBC. It was formed from the division of the former BBC North region into BBC Yorkshire and BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, based in Hull.-Television:...

 and Yorkshire Television
Yorkshire Television
Yorkshire Television, now officially known as ITV Yorkshire and sometimes unofficially abbreviated to YTV, is a British television broadcaster and the contractor for the Yorkshire franchise area on the ITV network...

 cover the city. Five local radio stations broadcast in the city. The professional services are BBC Radio Sheffield
BBC Radio Sheffield
BBC Radio Sheffield is the BBC Local Radio service for English metropolitan county of South Yorkshire and North Derbyshire. This includes the city of Sheffield, plus Doncaster, Barnsley, Rotherham, Chesterfield and surrounding areas. It was the BBC local radio station, beginning on 15 November 1967...

, the independent Hallam FM
Hallam FM
Hallam FM is an independent local radio station serving South Yorkshire and the North Midlands from studios in Sheffield. The station is owned and operated by Bauer Radio and forms part of Bauer's Place Network of stations.-History:...

, and its sister station Magic AM
Magic AM
Magic AM is a commercial local radio station which broadcasts to South Yorkshire and the North Midlands. The station forms part of the Magic Network and is owned by Bauer Radio...

. Sheffield is also home to two FM
FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

 licensed community radio
Community radio
Community radio is a type of radio service, that offers a third model of radio broadcasting beyond commercial broadcasting and public broadcasting. Community stations can serve geographic communities and communities of interest...

 stations: Sheffield Live 93.2, and Burngreave Community Radio
Burngreave Community Radio
Burngreave Community Radio, also known as BCR103.1FM or simply BCR is a community radio station based in Burngreave, Sheffield. BCR is Sheffield's newest major radio station, and can be accessed in the local area on 103.1FM or by streaming over the web...

 on 103.1.

HBS Radio (Hospital Broadcasting Sheffield) broadcasts a 24 hour service to the Royal Hallamshire, Jessop Wing, Northern General and Weston Park Hospitals. HBS is operated by volunteers from studios at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital and is provided free to bedside terminals via Hospedia and on medium wave 1431am from a transmitter at the Northern General Hospital.

The films and plays The Full Monty
The Full Monty
The Full Monty is a 1997 British comedy film directed by Peter Cattaneo, starring Robert Carlyle, Mark Addy, William Snape, Steve Huison, Tom Wilkinson, Paul Barber, and Hugo Speer. The screenplay was written by Simon Beaufoy...

, Threads
Threads
Threads is a British television drama produced by the BBC in 1984. Written by Barry Hines and directed by Mick Jackson, it is a documentary-style account of a nuclear war and its effects on the city of Sheffield in northern England....

, Looks and Smiles
Looks and Smiles (film)
Looks and Smiles is a 1981 film by Ken Loach and based on the novel of the same name by Barry Hines. It was shot in black and white.In 1980s Sheffield, Mick and Alan, two school-leavers, face the reality of life in Margaret Thatcher's Britain...

, When Saturday Comes
When Saturday Comes (film)
When Saturday Comes is a British film from 1996 starring Sean Bean and Emily Lloyd, directed by Maria Giese. It is about a factory worker who gets scouted, firstly by the well-known non-league side Hallam F.C. and then later by Sheffield United Football Club...

, Whatever Happened to Harold Smith?
Whatever Happened to Harold Smith?
Whatever Happened to Harold Smith? is a film written by Ben Steiner, directed by Peter Hewitt and released in 1999. The British movie was filmed in Sheffield....

, The History Boys
The History Boys
The History Boys is a play by British playwright Alan Bennett. The play premiered at the Lyttelton Theatre in London on 18 May 2004. Its Broadway debut was on 23 April 2006 at the Broadhurst Theatre where there were 185 performances staged before it closed on 1 October 2006.The play won multiple...

and Four Lions
Four Lions
Four Lions is a 2010 British satirical comedy film. It is the debut feature from director Chris Morris, written by Morris, Sam Bain and Jesse Armstrong. The film is a jihad satire following a group of homegrown Islamist terrorist jihadis from Sheffield, England.-Plot:A group of young Muslim men...

are set in the city. F.I.S.T.
F.I.S.T.
F.I.S.T. is a 1978 movie directed by Norman Jewison and starring Sylvester Stallone. In this film, Stallone plays a Cleveland warehouse worker named Johnny Kovak who becomes involved in the labor union leadership of the fictional "Federation of Inter State Truckers", and finds that he must...

also included several scenes filmed in Sheffield. The documentary festival Sheffield Doc/Fest has been run annually since 1994 at the Showroom Cinema
Showroom Cinema
The Showroom Cinema is an independent arthouse cinema in Sheffield, England. It is housed in a 1936 art deco building which was formerly the Kennings car dealership...

, and in 2007 Sheffield hosted the Awards of the International Indian Film Academy.

Public services

Sheffield is policed by South Yorkshire Police
South Yorkshire Police
South Yorkshire Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing South Yorkshire in England.The police force covers an area of approximately 1,554 square kilometres which is made up of the county's three boroughs , along with the City of Sheffield. The resident population is 1.2...

 (a territorial police force
Territorial police force
The phrase Territorial Police Force varies in precise meaning according to the country to which it is related, generally distinguishing a force whose area of responsibility is defined by sub-national boundaries from others which deal with the entire country or a restricted range of...

) whose headquarters are in the city. Sheffield constitutes one of its four Basic Command Units (Barnsley, Doncaster and Rotherham being the other three). The force polices an area of approximately 1,554 square kilometres and is the 13th largest force in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The force has in its possession one Police Helicopter
Police helicopter
A police aircraft is an airplane, helicopter, powered paraglider, or blimpused in police operations. They are commonly used for traffic control, ground support, search and rescue, high-speed car pursuits, observation, air patrol and riot control...

, known as Sierra Yankee 99.

Medical services in Sheffield are provided by two NHS Foundation Trusts. Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is the largest of the United Kingdom's current 140 NHS Foundation Trusts. The Chief Executive is Sir Andrew Cash and the Medical Director Professor Michael Richmond....

 provides healthcare to people (primarily adults) throughout Sheffield and South Yorkshire. The trusts title includes the word ‘teaching’ because it undertakes training of medical students at the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a research university based in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It is one of the original 'red brick' universities and is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities...

 and has strong links to Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University is a higher education institution in South Yorkshire, England, based on two sites in Sheffield. City Campus is located in the city centre, close to Sheffield railway station, and Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away, adjacent to Ecclesall Road in...

 as well. The trust has two campuses: The West Campus containing the Royal Hallamshire Hospital
Royal Hallamshire Hospital
The Royal Hallamshire Hospital is a general and teaching hospital located in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is in the city's West End, facing Glossop Road and close to the main campus of University of Sheffield and the Collegiate Crescent campus of Sheffield Hallam University...

, the Jessop Wing (maternity wing), Weston Park Hospital
Weston Park Hospital
Weston Park Hospital is part of the Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in Broomhill, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. The hospital specialises in the treatment of cancer and is one of three purpose built specialist cancer hospitals in the United Kingdom...

 (specialist cancer treatment) and Charles Clifford Dental Hospital. The Northern General Hospital
Northern General Hospital
The Northern General Hospital is a large teaching hospital in Sheffield, England. It hosts most major departments, including a busy Accident and Emergency for adults...

 is the second ‘campus’ and is a large faciliy in the northern suburbs of Sheffield, containing the city's A&E department.
Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust
Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust
Sheffield Children's Trust is one of the United Kingdom's NHS hospital trusts mainly providing healthcare for Children in Sheffield and the surrounding area of South Yorkshire...

 provides healthcare for children within the city of Sheffield, South Yorkshire and the UK as a whole.

On 18 November 2010, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II inaugurated the Sheffield Institute for Motor Neurone Disease (also known as Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience – SITraN), a unique, world-class facility that has been developed by the University of Sheffield.

Ambulances are provided by the South Yorkshire Ambulance Service
South Yorkshire Ambulance Service
South Yorkshire Ambulance Service was the NHS ambulance service covering South Yorkshire, England. On 1 July 2006 it was merged into the new Yorkshire Ambulance Service.-History:...

, which itself is an NHS trust.

Fire services in Sheffield are provided by South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service
South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service
South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue is the statutory fire and rescue service for the area of South Yorkshire, England. The service is split into four districts covering the areas of Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield-Stations:...

. For the purposes of fire-fighting and rescue, Sheffield is divived into East and West sub-divisions.

Domestic waste services in Sheffield are provided by Veolia Environmental Services under contract from and on behalf of the council. Domestic recycling services were recently improved with the addition of glass recycling bins for each home.

Council owned/run buildings are maintained by Kier Group Sheffield in partnership with the council.

Sister Cities

The "Sheffield International Linking Committee" promotes Sheffield overseas, especially with four sister cities
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

:
Anshan City, China Bochum
Bochum
Bochum is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany. It is located in the Ruhr area and is surrounded by the cities of Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund, Witten and Hattingen.-History:...

, Germany Donetsk
Donetsk
Donetsk , is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin region...

, Ukraine Estelí
Estelí
Estelí, officially Villa de San Antonio de Pavia de Estelí is a city and municipality within the Estelí department. It is the third largest city in Nicaragua, an active commercial center in the north and is known as "the Diamond of the Segovias."...

, Nicaragua

A further four cities have a Friendship Agreement with Sheffield:
Kawasaki
Kawasaki, Kanagawa
is a city located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, between Tokyo and Yokohama. It is the 9th most populated city in Japan and one of the main cities forming the Greater Tokyo Area and Keihin Industrial Area....

, Japan Kitwe
Kitwe
Kitwe is the second largest city in terms of size and population in Zambia. With a population of 547,700 Kitwe is one of the most developed commercial and industrial areas in the nation, alongside Ndola and Lusaka...

, Zambia Kotli
Kotli
Kotli is the chief town of Kotli District, in the Pakistani-administered Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Kotli is linked with Mirpur by two metalled roads, one via Rajdhani, and the other via Charhoi...

, Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

 Pittsburgh, United States

Two roads in Sheffield have been named after sister cities; a section of the A6102 in Norton is named Bochum Parkway, and a road in Hackenthorpe is named Donetsk Way.

See also

  • Largest European metropolitan areas
    Largest European metropolitan areas
    __FORCETOC__This is a list of metropolitan areas in Europe, with their population according to five different sources. The list includes metropolitan areas that have a population of over 1 million....

  • Sheffield City Centre
    Sheffield City Centre
    Sheffield City Centre—often just referred to as town—is a district of the City of Sheffield, and part of the Sheffield Central ward. It includes the area that is within a radius of roughly of Sheffield Cathedral, and is encircled by the Inner Ring Road—a circular route started in the late 1960s...

  • Timeline of Sheffield history
    Timeline of Sheffield history
    This timeline of Sheffield history summarises key events in the history of Sheffield, a city in England. The origins of the city can be traced back to the founding of a settlement in a clearing beside the River Sheaf in the second half of the 1st millennium AD...

  • List of people from Sheffield
  • People of Sheffield
    People of Sheffield
    People who wish to be identified as coming from Sheffield call themselves Sheffielders. The latest population estimate for the City of Sheffield is residents...



External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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