Sheet metal
Overview
 
Sheet metal is simply metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

 formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking
Metalworking
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills,...

, and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. Thicknesses can vary significantly, although extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil
Foil
Foil may refer to:Materials* Foil , a quite thin sheet of metal, usually manufactured with a rolling mill machine* Metal leaf, a very thin sheet of decorative metal* Aluminium foil, a type of wrapping for food...

 or leaf
Metal leaf
Metal leaf, also called composition leaf or schlagmetal, is a thin foil used for decoration. Metal leaf can come in many different shades. Some metal leaf may look like gold leaf but not contain any real gold...

, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate
Structural steel
Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties...

.

Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or as a coiled strip.
Encyclopedia
Sheet metal is simply metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

 formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking
Metalworking
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills,...

, and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. Thicknesses can vary significantly, although extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil
Foil
Foil may refer to:Materials* Foil , a quite thin sheet of metal, usually manufactured with a rolling mill machine* Metal leaf, a very thin sheet of decorative metal* Aluminium foil, a type of wrapping for food...

 or leaf
Metal leaf
Metal leaf, also called composition leaf or schlagmetal, is a thin foil used for decoration. Metal leaf can come in many different shades. Some metal leaf may look like gold leaf but not contain any real gold...

, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate
Structural steel
Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties...

.

Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or as a coiled strip. The coils are formed by running a continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter
Roll slitting
Roll slitting, also known as log slitting, is a shearing operation that cuts a large roll of material into narrower rolls. The log slitting terminology refers back to the olden days of saw mills when they would cut logs into smaller sections. They would also use these saw mills to cut iron rods...

.

The thickness of the sheet metal is called its gauge. The gauge of sheet metal ranges from 30 gauge to about 8 gauge. The larger the gauge number, the thinner the metal.

There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal, such as aluminum, brass
Brass
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.In comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin...

, copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

, steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

, tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

, nickel
Nickel
Nickel is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile...

 and titanium
Titanium
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant transition metal with a silver color....

. For decorative uses, important sheet metals include silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

, gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

, and platinum
Platinum
Platinum is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pt and an atomic number of 78. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina del Pinto, which is literally translated into "little silver of the Pinto River." It is a dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal...

 (platinum sheet metal is also utilized as a catalyst.)

Sheet metal has applications in car bodies, airplane wings, medical tables, roofs for buildings and many other things. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high magnetic permeability
Permeability (electromagnetism)
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. In other words, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic permeability is typically...

, also known as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformer
Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field...

s and electric machine
Electric machine
The academic study of electric machines is the universal study of electric motors and electric generators. By the classic definition, electric machine is synonymous with electric motor or electric generator, all of which are electro-mechanical energy converters: converting electricity to mechanical...

s. Historically, an important use of sheet metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

, and sheet metal continues to have many decorative uses, including in horse tack
Horse tack
Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. Saddles, stirrups, bridles, halters, reins, bits, harnesses, martingales, and breastplates are all forms of horse tack...

. Sheet metal workers are also known as "Tin Bashers", which is derived from the hammering of panel seams when installing tin roofs.

Stainless steel

The three most common stainless steel
Stainless steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass....

 grades available in sheet metal are 304, 316, and 410.

Grade 304 is the most common of the three grades. It offers good corrosion resistance while maintaining formability
Formability
Formability is the ability of a given metal workpiece to undergo plastic deformation without being damaged. The plastic deformation capacity of metallic materials, however, is limited to a certain extent....

 and weldability
Weldability
The weldability, also known as joinability, of a material refers to its ability to be welded. Many metals and thermoplastics can be welded, but some are easier to weld than others...

. Available finishes
Brushed metal
Brushed metal is metal that has been abraded , usually with a fine grit sandpaper. The brushing gives the metal a distinctive look, as it retains some but not all of its metallic lustre and is given a pattern of very fine lines. It can be compared to metal with several small scratches all running...

 are #2B, #3, and #4. Note that grade 303 is not available in sheet form.

Grade 316 offers more corrosion resistance and strength at elevated temperatures than 304. It is commonly used for pump
Pump
A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries.A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Pumps fall into three major groups: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps...

s, valve
Valve
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category...

s, chemical equipment, and marine applications. Available finishes are #2B, #3, and #4.

Grade 410 is a heat treatable stainless steel, but does not offer as good corrosion resistance. It is commonly used in cutlery
Cutlery
Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. It is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery can have the more specific meaning of knives and other cutting instruments. This is probably the...

. The only available finish is dull.

Aluminium

The four most common aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

 grades available as sheet metal are 1100-H14, 3003-H14, 5052-H32, and 6061-T6.

Grade 1100-H14 is commercially pure aluminium, so it is highly chemical and weather resistant. It is ductile enough for deep drawing
Deep drawing
Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch. It is thus a shape transformation process with material retention. The process is considered "deep" drawing when the depth of the drawn part exceeds...

 and weldable, but low strength. It is commonly used in chemical processing equipment, light reflectors, and jewelry.

Grade 3003-H14 is stronger than 1100, while maintaining the same formability and low cost. It is corrosion resistant and weldable. It is often used in stamping
Stamping (metalworking)
Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes, such as punching using a machine press or stamping press, blanking, embossing, bending, flanging, and coining. This could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produce the desired form on the sheet...

s, spun
Spinning (polymers)
Spinning is manufacturing process for creating polymer fibers. It is a specialized form of extrusion that uses a spinneret to form multiple continuous filaments. There are four types of spinning: wet, dry, melt, and gel spinning.-Process:...

 and drawn parts, mail boxes, cabinets
Cabinet (furniture)
A cabinet is usually a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors or drawers for storing miscellaneous items. Some cabinets stand alone while others are built into a wall or are attached to it like a medicine cabinet. Cabinets are typically made of wood or, now increasingly, of synthetic...

, tank
Tank
A tank is a tracked, armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities...

s, and fan
Fan (mechanical)
A mechanical fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing...

 blades.

Grade 5052-H32 is much stronger than 3003 while still maintaining good formability. It maintains high corrosion resistance and weldability. Common applications include electronic chassis, tanks, and pressure vessel
Pressure vessel
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, their design,...

s.

Grade 6061-T6 is a common heat-treated structural aluminium alloy. It is weldable, corrosion resistant, and stronger than 5052, but not as formable. Note that it loses some of its strength when welded.

Gauge

The sheet metal gauge (sometimes spelled gage) indicates the standard thickness of sheet metal for a specific material. For most materials, as the gauge number increases, the material thickness decreases.

Sheet metal thickness gauges for steel are based on the weight of steel, allowing more efficient calculation of the cost of material used. The weight of steel is 41.82 pounds per square foot per inch of thickness (8039 kg/m3) / OR (7854 kg/m3) [ ?? ]; this is known as the Manufacturers' Standard Gage for Sheet Steel. For other materials, such as aluminium and brass, the thicknesses will be different.

Standard sheet metal gauges
Gauge Steel
in (mm)
Galvanized steel
in (mm)
Stainless steel
in (mm)
Aluminium
in (mm)
Zinc
in (mm)
3 0.2391 (6.1 mm) - - - 0.006 (0.1524 mm)
4 0.2242 (5.7 mm) - - - 0.008 (0.2032 mm)
5 0.2092 (5.3 mm) - - - 0.01 (0.254 mm)
6 0.1943 (4.9 mm) - - 0.162 (4.1 mm) 0.012 (0.3048 mm)
7 0.1793 (4.6 mm) - 0.1875 (4.8 mm) 0.1443 (3.7 mm) 0.014 (0.3556 mm)
8 0.1644 (4.2 mm) 0.1681 (4.3 mm) 0.1719 (4.4 mm) 0.1285 (3.3 mm) 0.016 (0.4064 mm)
9 0.1495 (3.8 mm) 0.1532 (3.9 mm) 0.1563 (4 mm) 0.1144 (2.9 mm) 0.018 (0.4572 mm)
10 0.1345 (3.4 mm) 0.1382 (3.5 mm) 0.1406 (3.6 mm) 0.1019 (2.6 mm) 0.02 (0.508 mm)
11 0.1196 (3 mm) 0.1233 (3.1 mm) 0.125 (3.2 mm) 0.0907 (2.3 mm) 0.024 (0.6096 mm)
12 0.1046 (2.7 mm) 0.1084 (2.8 mm) 0.1094 (2.8 mm) 0.0808 (2.1 mm) 0.028 (0.7112 mm)
13 0.0897 (2.3 mm) 0.0934 (2.4 mm) 0.094 (2.4 mm) 0.072 (1.8 mm) 0.032 (0.8128 mm)
14 0.0747 (1.9 mm) 0.0785 (2 mm) 0.0781 (2 mm) 0.0641 (1.6 mm) 0.036 (0.9144 mm)
15 0.0673 (1.7 mm) 0.071 (1.8 mm) 0.07 (1.8 mm) 0.057 (1.4 mm) 0.04 (1 mm)
16 0.0598 (1.5 mm) 0.0635 (1.6 mm) 0.0625 (1.6 mm) 0.0508 (1.3 mm) 0.045 (1.1 mm)
17 0.0538 (1.4 mm) 0.0575 (1.5 mm) 0.056 (1.4 mm) 0.045 (1.1 mm) 0.05 (1.3 mm)
18 0.0478 (1.2 mm) 0.0516 (1.3 mm) 0.05 (1.3 mm) 0.0403 (1 mm) 0.055 (1.4 mm)
19 0.0418 (1.1 mm) 0.0456 (1.2 mm) 0.044 (1.1 mm) 0.036 (0.9144 mm) 0.06 (1.5 mm)
20 0.0359 (0.91186 mm) 0.0396 (1 mm) 0.0375 (0.9525 mm) 0.032 (0.8128 mm) 0.07 (1.8 mm)
21 0.0329 (0.83566 mm) 0.0366 (0.92964 mm) 0.034 (0.8636 mm) 0.028 (0.7112 mm) 0.08 (2 mm)
22 0.0299 (0.75946 mm) 0.0336 (0.85344 mm) 0.031 (0.7874 mm) 0.025 (0.635 mm) 0.09 (2.3 mm)
23 0.0269 (0.68326 mm) 0.0306 (0.77724 mm) 0.028 (0.7112 mm) 0.023 (0.5842 mm) 0.1 (2.5 mm)
24 0.0239 (0.60706 mm) 0.0276 (0.70104 mm) 0.025 (0.635 mm) 0.02 (0.508 mm) 0.125 (3.2 mm)
25 0.0209 (0.53086 mm) 0.0247 (0.62738 mm) 0.022 (0.5588 mm) 0.018 (0.4572 mm) -
26 0.0179 (0.45466 mm) 0.0217 (0.55118 mm) 0.019 (0.4826 mm) 0.017 (0.4318 mm) -
27 0.0164 (0.41656 mm) 0.0202 (0.51308 mm) 0.017 (0.4318 mm) 0.014 (0.3556 mm) -
28 0.0149 (0.37846 mm) 0.0187 (0.47498 mm) 0.016 (0.4064 mm) 0.0126 (0.32004 mm) -
29 0.0135 (0.3429 mm) 0.0172 (0.43688 mm) 0.014 (0.3556 mm) 0.0113 (0.28702 mm) -
30 0.012 (0.3048 mm) 0.0157 (0.39878 mm) 0.013 (0.3302 mm) 0.01 (0.254 mm) -
31 0.0105 (0.2667 mm) 0.0142 (0.36068 mm) 0.011 (0.2794 mm) 0.0089 (0.22606 mm) -
32 0.0097 (0.24638 mm) - - - -
33 0.009 (0.2286 mm) - - - -
34 0.0082 (0.20828 mm) - - - -
35 0.0075 (0.1905 mm) - - - -
36 0.0067 (0.17018 mm) - - - -
37 0.0064 (0.16256 mm) - - - -
38 0.006 (0.1524 mm) - - - -


Tolerances

During the rolling
Rolling (metalworking)
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling...

 process the rollers bow slightly, which results in the sheets being thinner on the edges.
Steel sheet metal tolerances
Gauge Nominal [in] Max [in] Min [in]
10 0.1345 0.1405 0.1285
11 0.1196 0.1256 0.1136
12 0.1046 0.1106 0.0986
14 0.0747 0.0797 0.0697
16 0.0598 0.0648 0.0548
18 0.0478 0.0518 0.0438
20 0.0359 0.0389 0.0329
22 0.0299 0.0329 0.0269
24 0.0239 0.0269 0.0209
26 0.0179 0.0199 0.0159
28 0.0149 0.0169 0.0129

Aluminium sheet metal tolerances
Thickness [in] | Sheet width
36 in [in] 48 in [in]
0.018–0.028 0.002 0.0025
0.029–0.036 0.002 0.0025
0.037–0.045 0.0025 0.003
0.046–0.068 0.003 0.004
0.069–0.076 0.003 0.004
0.077–0.096 0.0035 0.004
0.097–0.108 0.004 0.005
0.109–0.125 0.0045 0.005
0.126–0.140 0.0045 0.005
0.141–0.172 0.006 0.008
0.173–0.203 0.007 0.010
0.204–0.249 0.009 0.011

Stainless steel sheet metal tolerances
Thickness [in] | Sheet width
36 in [in] 48 in [in]
0.017–0.030 0.0015 0.002
0.031–0.041 0.002 0.003
0.042–0.059 0.003 0.004
0.060–0.073 0.003 0.0045
0.074–0.084 0.004 0.0055
0.085–0.099 0.004 0.006
0.100–0.115 0.005 0.007
0.116–0.131 0.005 0.0075
0.132–0.146 0.006 0.009
0.147–0.187 0.007 0.0105


Bending

The equation for estimating the maximum bending force is,

,

where k is a factor taking into account several parameters including friction. T is the ultimate tensile strength of the metal. L and t are Length and thickness of sheet metal respectively. The variable W is open width of a V-die or wiping die.

Deep drawing

Drawing is a forming process in which the metal is stretched over a form. In deep drawing the depth of the part being made is more than half its diameter. Deep drawing is used for making automotive fuel tanks, kitchen sinks, 2 piece aluminum can
Aluminum can
An aluminum can, or can, is a container for packaging made primarily of aluminum .They are commonly used for foods and beverages but also for products such as oil, chemicals, and other liquids. The common 12-ounce size can weighs 15 grams when empty.-Usage:Use of aluminum in cans began in 1957...

s, etc. Deep drawing is generally done in multiple steps called draw reductions. The greater the depth the more reductions are required. Deep drawing may also be accomplished with fewer reductions by heating the workpiece, for example in sink manufacture.

In many cases, material is rolled at the mill in both directions to aid in deep drawing. This has a more uniform grain structure and is referred to as "draw quality" material which limits tearing.

Laser cutting

Cutting sheet metal can be done in various ways from hand tools called tin snips
Tin snips
Snips, also known as shears, are hand tools used to cut sheet metal and other tough webs. There are two broad categories: tinner's snips, which are similar to common scissors, and compound-action snips, which use a compound leverage handle system to increase the mechanical advantage.-Tinner's...

 up to very large powered shears. With the advances in technology, sheet metal cutting has turned to computers for precise cutting.

Many sheet metal cutting operations are based on computer numerically controlled (CNC) lasers cutting or multi-tool CNC punch press.

CNC laser involves moving a lens assembly carrying a beam of laser light over the surface of the metal. Oxygen, nitrogen or air is fed through the same nozzle from which the laser beam exits. The metal is heated and burnt by the laser beam, cutting the metal sheet. The quality of the edge can be mirror smooth and a precision of around 0.1 mm (0.00393700787401575 in) can be obtained. Cutting speeds on thin (1.2mm) sheet can be as high as 25m a minute. Most of the laser cutting systems use a CO2 based laser source with a wavelength of around 10 um; some more recent systems use a YAG based laser with a wavelength of around 1 um.

Perforating

Perforating is a cutting process that punches multiple small holes close together in a flat workpiece. Perforated sheet metal is used to make a wide variety of surface cutting tools, such as the surform
Surform
A surform tool features perforated sheet metal and resembles a food grater. A surform tool consists of a steel strip with holes punched out and the rim of each hole sharpened to form a cutting edge. The strip is mounted in a carriage or handle...

.

Press brake forming

This is a form of bending, used for long and thin sheet metal parts. The machine that bends the metal is called a press brake
Brake press
A press brake, also known as a brake press or just brake, is a machine tool for bending sheet and plate material, most commonly sheet metal....

. The lower part of the press contains a V shaped groove. This is called the die. The upper part of the press contains a punch that will press the sheet metal down into the v shaped die, causing it to bend. There are several techniques used here, but the most common modern method is "air bending". Here, the die has a sharper angle than the required bend (typically 85 degrees for a 90 degree bend) and the upper tool is precisely controlled in its stroke to push the metal down the required amount to bend it through 90 degrees. Typically, a general purpose machine has a bending force available of around 25 tonnes per metre of length. The opening width of the lower die is typically 8 to 10 times the thickness of the metal to be bent (for example, 5mm material could be bent in a 40mm die) the inner radius of the bend formed in the metal is determined not by the radius of the upper tool, but by the lower die width. Typically, the inner radius is equal to 1/6 of the V width used in the forming process.

The press usually has some sort of back gauge to position depth of the bend along the workpiece. The backgauge can be computer controlled to allow the operator to make a series of bends in a component to a high degree of accuracy. Simple machines control only the backstop, more advanced machines control the position and angle of the stop, its height and the position of the two reference pegs used to locate the material. The machine can also record the exact position and pressure required for each bending operation to allow the operator to achieve a perfect 90 degree bend across a variety of operations on the part.

Punching

Punching is performed by placing the sheet of metal stock between a punch and a die mounted in a press. The punch and die are made of hardened steel and are the same shape. The punch just barely fits into the die. The press pushes the punch against and into the die with enough force to cut a hole in the stock. In some cases the punch and die "nest" together to create a depression in the stock. In progressive stamping
Progressive stamping
Progressive stamping is a metalworking method that can encompass punching, coining, bending and several other ways of modifying metal raw material, combined with an automatic feeding system....

 a coil of stock is feed into a long die/punch set with many stages. Multiple simple shaped holes may be produced in one stage but complex holes are created in multiple stages. The final stage the part is punched free from the "web".

A typical CNC punch has a choice of up to 60 tools in a "turret" that can be rotated to bring any tool to the punching position. A simple shape (e.g. a square, circle, or hexagon) is cut directly from the sheet. A complex shape can be cut out by making many square or rounded cuts around the perimeter. A punch is less flexible than a laser for cutting compound shapes, but faster for repetitive shapes (for example, the grille of an air-conditioning unit). A CNC punch can take 600 strokes per minute.

A typical component (such as the side of a computer case) can be cut to high precision from a blank sheet in under 15 seconds by either a press
Machine press
A machine press, commonly shortened to press, is a machine tool that changes the shape of a workpiece.-Servomechanism:A servomechanism press, also known as a servo press or a electro press, is a press driven by an AC servo motor. The torque produced is converted to a linear force via a ball screw....

 or a laser CNC machine.

Roll forming

A continuous bending operation for producing open profiles or welded tubes with long lengths or in large quantities.

Rolling


Spinning

Spinning is used to make tubular(axis-symmetric) parts by fixing a piece of sheet stock to a rotating form (mandrel
Mandrel
A mandrel is one of the following:* an object used to shape machined work.* a tool component that grips or clamps materials to be machined.* a tool component that can be used to grip other moving tool components.- Variants :...

). Rollers or rigid tools press the stock against the form, stretching it, until the stock takes the shape of the form. Spinning is used to make rocket motor casings, missile nose cones, satellite dishes and metal kitchen funnels.

Stamping

Includes a variety of operations, such as punching, blanking, embossing, bending, flanging, and coining; simple or complex shapes formed at high production rates; tooling and equipment costs can be high, but labor costs are low.

Alternatively, the related techniques repoussé and chasing
Repoussé and chasing
Repoussé or repoussage is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief. There are few techniques that offer such diversity of expression while still being relatively economical...

 have low tooling and equipment costs, but high labor costs.

Water jet cutting

A water jet cutter, also known as a waterjet, is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance.

Fasteners

Fasteners that are commonly used on sheet metal include:
  • Cleko
    Cleko
    A cleko, also spelled cleco, is a fastener developed by the Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Company. Widely used in the manufacture and repair of aluminum-skinned aircraft, it is used to temporarily fasten multiple sheets of material together before the pieces are permanently joined.The basic type...

    s
  • Rivet
    Rivet
    A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. On installation the rivet is placed in a punched or pre-drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked A rivet...

    s
  • Sheet metal screws

See also

  • Circle grid analysis
    Circle grid analysis
    Circle grid analysis , also known as circle grid strain analysis, is a method of measuring the strain levels of sheet metal after a part is formed by stamping or drawing. The name itself is a fairly accurate description of the process. Literally, a grid of circles of known diameter is etched to the...

  • Forming limit diagram
    Forming limit diagram
    A forming limit diagram, also known as a forming limit curve, is used in sheet metal forming for predicting forming behaviour of sheet metal. The diagram attempts to provide a graphical description of material failure tests, such as a punched dome test....

  • Diamond plate
    Diamond plate
    Diamond plate, also known as checker plate, tread plate and Durbar floor plate, is a type of lightweight metal stock with a regular pattern of raised diamonds or lines on one side, with the reverse side being featureless. Diamond plate is usually steel, stainless steel or aluminum...

  • Strip steel
    Strip steel
    Strip Steel or cold rolled strip is a steel product that is produced from a hot rolled strip that has been pickled. The coil is then reduced by a single stand cold roll steel mill straight away or reversing mill or in a tandem mill consisting of several single stands in a series...

  • Temper mill
    Temper mill
    A temper mill is a steel sheet or steel plate processing line composed of a horizontal pass cold rolling mill stand, entry and exit conveyor tables and upstream and downstream equipment depending on the design and nature of the processing system....


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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