Senarica is a village in the Abruzzo
Abruzzo is a region in Italy, its western border lying less than due east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea to the east...

 region of central Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. With a population of fewer than 300 people, Senarica was an independent republic for about four centuries until the end of the eighteenth century. It was the smallest state to maintain an independent status for that long, although now it is a frazione
A frazione , in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other administrative divisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere...

of the comune
In Italy, the comune is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.-Importance and function:...

of Crognaleto
Crognaleto is a comune and city of slightly less than two thousand people located in the Province of Teramo, central Italy. Crognaleto sits at an altitude of 1105 meters and has it communal administrative offices in the frazione of Nerito...



Senàrica and the neighbouring village Poggio Umbricchio
Poggio Umbricchio
Poggio Umbricchio is a frazione of Crognaleto in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy....

 became independent in circa 1343, when Queen Giovanna I of Angiò granted the area independence because of the inhabitants' fierce opposition against the enemy troops of Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

 under Lord Luchino I Visconti's relative Ambrogio Visconti. Impressed by the splendor of the dogal Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in...

, Senàrica rulers adopted a similar republican government, with an elected doge
Doge is a dialectal Italian word that descends from the Latin dux , meaning "leader", especially in a military context. The wife of a Doge is styled a Dogaressa....

 as head of state.

Its coat of arms was a black shield with a silver lion (as the symbol of the state) fetching a snake of the same colour. These arms appeared on a gold gonfalon and on the seal as well. In the village's cathedral is still visible a reproduction of the lion, which in this particular image is topped by a crown.


Senarica is also a family name. One member of the family is the minor Italian actor Piero Senarica.
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