Abruzzo
Overview
 
Abruzzo is a region in Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, its western border lying less than 50 miles (80.5 km) due east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche
Marche
The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona , and lowest in the province of Macerata...

 to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise
Molise
Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions. It was formerly part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise and now a separate entity...

 to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

 to the east. Although it is geographically more of a central than southern region, ISTAT
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica is the Italian national statistical institute.-History:Istat was created in 1926 to collect and organize essential data about the nation. Administering the census is one of its activities...

 (the Italian statistical authority) considers it part of Southern Italy, a vestige of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, commonly known as the Two Sicilies even before formally coming into being, was the largest and wealthiest of the Italian states before Italian unification...

.
The region is situated at the centre of the Italian peninsula
Italian Peninsula
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is one of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe , spanning from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives it the nickname Lo Stivale...

 facing the Adriatic
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

, which it follows along 150 km of beaches and rocks.
Encyclopedia
Abruzzo is a region in Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, its western border lying less than 50 miles (80.5 km) due east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche
Marche
The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona , and lowest in the province of Macerata...

 to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise
Molise
Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions. It was formerly part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise and now a separate entity...

 to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

 to the east. Although it is geographically more of a central than southern region, ISTAT
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica is the Italian national statistical institute.-History:Istat was created in 1926 to collect and organize essential data about the nation. Administering the census is one of its activities...

 (the Italian statistical authority) considers it part of Southern Italy, a vestige of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, commonly known as the Two Sicilies even before formally coming into being, was the largest and wealthiest of the Italian states before Italian unification...

.

Geography

The region is situated at the centre of the Italian peninsula
Italian Peninsula
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is one of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe , spanning from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives it the nickname Lo Stivale...

 facing the Adriatic
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

, which it follows along 150 km of beaches and rocks. With an area of 10763 km² (4,155.6 sq mi), and bordered on the east by the Adriatic and on the west by the Apennines, it is one of the most mountainous regions in Italy (the Corno Grande
Corno Grande
Corno Grande is part of the Gran Sasso massif, and is the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains and the highest on the Italian Peninsula, at 2,912 m above sea level....

 in the Gran Sasso massif, at 2914 m (9,560.37 ft), is the highest summit in the Apennines
Apennine mountains
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains or Greek oros but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine...

). The rivers, although numerous, are all seasonal except for the biggest – the Pescara and the Sangro. In the interior are the 500 km² (193.1 sq mi) of the Abruzzo National Park
Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise
Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise is an Italian national park founded in 1922. The majority of the park is located in the Abruzzo region though it is not constrained by regional boundaries and also includes territory in Lazio and Molise. The park headquarters are in Pescasseroli in the...

, where rare examples of Mediterranean flora and fauna survive (chamois, wolves, bears, golden eagles).The climate is varied – warm and dry on the coast, an alpine climate in the mountainous interior. Major roads and railway lines link the region to the south, west and north of Italy and the rest of Europe. name="ite1geo"> Text finalised in March 2004 – Eurostat

History

Humans have inhabited Abruzzo since Neolithic
Neolithic Europe
Neolithic Europe refers to a prehistoric period in which Neolithic technology was present in Europe. This corresponds roughly to a time between 7000 BC and c. 1700 BC...

 times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti has been radiometrically dated to 6,540 bp.
The name Abruzzo appears to derive from the Latin "Aprutium
Praetutii
The Praetutii , were an ancient tribe of central Italy. They are thought to have lived around Interamnia , which became modern Teramo, and to have given their name to the Abruzzo...

", although in Roman times the region was known at various times as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum and/or Campania et Samnium. This region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages arising from four possible sources. Many think it is apparently a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, Interamnaes, now present day Teramo. Another etymology is from the Latin "aper" (boar) so that Aprutium was the "land of boars" or from "abruptum" (rugged, steep). A more recent etymology is from the Latin expression "a Bruttiis" (from the Bruttii) meaning the land that began from the Bruzi people, who moved south to occupy Calabria.

Until 1963 it was part of the Abruzzi
Abruzzi e Molise
Abruzzi e Molise was formerly one of the regions of Italy encompassing a total of 16,600 km2 and including Abruzzo, Molise and Circondario di Cittaducale ....

region with Molise
Molise
Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions. It was formerly part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise and now a separate entity...

. The term Abruzzi derives from the time when the region was part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, commonly known as the Two Sicilies even before formally coming into being, was the largest and wealthiest of the Italian states before Italian unification...

  and the territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore (Nearer Abruzzo) and Abruzzo Ulteriore I and II (Farther Abruzzo I and II ), that being nearer and farther from Naples, the capital of the kingdom. Abruzzo Citeriore is present day Chieti province. Abruzzo Ulteriore I comprised the Teramo and Pescara provinces; Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the Province of L'Aquila. In this province is found the city of CORFINIO (known as CORFINIUM in ancient Italy), the chief city of the Paeligni, 7 m. N. of Sulmona in the valley of the Aternus. The site of the original town is occupied by the village of Pentima. It probably became subject to Rome in the 4th century B.C., though it does not appear in Roman history before the Social War (90 B.C.), in which it was at first adopted by the allies as the capital and seat of government of their newly founded state under the name Italia (this form, not Italica, is vouched for by the coins). It appears also as a fortress of importance in the Civil War, though it resisted Caesar's attack for a week (49 B.C.). The war was lost, but the name Italia remained to eventually be adopted by all of Italy. Entering Corfinio from the east, a plaque can be observed commemorating, and attributing the designation of the adopted name Italia to the peninsula by the Italic people of the region. These people were honored by Caesar as citizens of Rome.

Economy

Until a few decades ago, Abruzzo was a region of poverty in Southern Italy; over the past decades, however, it has developed to such an extent that it has escaped from the spiral of underdevelopment to become the 'first' region of the 'Italian Mezzogiorno'. This confirms its pivotal role in the national economic system
Economic system
An economic system is the combination of the various agencies, entities that provide the economic structure that defines the social community. These agencies are joined by lines of trade and exchange along which goods, money etc. are continuously flowing. An example of such a system for a closed...

. Since the 1950s, Abruzzo has had steady economic growth
Economic growth
In economics, economic growth is defined as the increasing capacity of the economy to satisfy the wants of goods and services of the members of society. Economic growth is enabled by increases in productivity, which lowers the inputs for a given amount of output. Lowered costs increase demand...

. In 1951, Abruzzo per capita income or GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 was 53% of that of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
Northern Italy is a wide cultural, historical and geographical definition, without any administrative usage, used to indicate the northern part of the Italian state, also referred as Settentrione or Alta Italia...

, the nation's richest region. By 1971, Abruzzo was at 65% and, by 1994, per capita income was at 76% of Northern Italy's per capita income, giving Abruzzo the highest per capita GDP of Southern Italy and surpassing the growth rate of every other region of Italy
Regions of Italy
The regions of Italy are the first-level administrative divisions of the state, constituting its first NUTS administrative level. There are twenty regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes....

. The construction of superhighways from Rome to Teramo
Teramo
Teramo is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Abruzzo, the capital of the province of Teramo.The city, from Rome, is situated between the highest mountains of the Apennines and the Adriatic coast...

 (A24
Autostrada A24 (Italy)
The Autostrada A24, or Autostrada dei Parchi , is a motorway connecting Rome to the Adriatic Sea. Commencing at the Grande Raccordo Anulare , the A24 runs broadly north-east past L'Aquila and through a 10km tunnel under the Gran Sasso before reaching Teramo.First planned in 1973 to connect Lazio...

) and Rome to Pescara
Pescara
Pescara is the capital city of the Province of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of Italy. As of January 1, 2007 it was the most populated city within Abruzzo at 123,059 residents, 400,000 with the surrounding metropolitan area...

 (A25
Autostrada A25 (Italy)
The Autostrada A25 Roma–Pescara is a motorway which allows travel from Rome to Pescara in Italy. Along with the A24 it is also named the Autostrada dei Parchi . It runs through beautiful scenery from the A24 near Torano, past the Fucine Lake and Avezzano, through the Appennines and the valley of...

) opened Abruzzo to easy access, state and private investment in the region increased, and Abruzzo attained higher per capita education levels and greater productivity growth than the rest of the South. As of 2003, Abruzzo's per capita GDP was 19,506 EUR or 84% of the national average of 23,181 EUR and well outpacing that of the South (15,808 EUR). , the region's average GDP per capita was approximately 20,100 EUR. The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake
2009 L'Aquila earthquake
The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake occurred in the region of Abruzzo, in central Italy. The main shock occurred at 3:32 local time on 6 April 2009, and was rated 5.8 on the Richter scale and 6.3 on the moment magnitude scale; its epicentre was near L'Aquila, the capital of Abruzzo, which together...

 on 6 April 2009 led to a sharp economic slowdown, whose recovery, according to experts, is still rather. However, according to statistics at the end of 2010, it seems that the economy of Abruzzo is in recovering, despite the negative data regarding employment, making the most hope for an economic future. In fact, at year-end 2010, the Abruzzo has registered a growth of 1.47% fourth placing the region among the Italian regions with the highest annual growth rates after the Lazio, the Lombardy
Lombardy
Lombardy is one of the 20 regions of Italy. The capital is Milan. One-sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy and about one fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in this region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest in the whole of Europe...

 and Calabria
Calabria
Calabria , in antiquity known as Bruttium, is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro....

. In 2011 Abruzzo confirms economic growth, +2.3% with a higher percentage among the regions of Southern Italy the region also confirms the richest region of Southern Italy with GDP higher per capita between the regions of southern Italy (21.574 euro).

Industry and agriculture

Abruzzo's industrial sector expanded rapidly, especially in mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the...

, transportation equipment and telecommunications. The structure of production in the region reflects the transformation of the economy from agriculture to industry and services. Although industry has developed strongly, it retains weak points due to the existence of only a few large businesses alongside a huge fabric of small and medium-sized businesses. Both pure and applied research
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

 are carried out in the region, where there are major institutes and factories involved in research in the fields of pharmaceutics
Pharmaceutics
Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with all facets of the process of turning a new chemical entity into a medication able to be safely and effectively used by patients in the community. Pharmaceutics is the science of dosage form design...

, biomedicine
Biomedicine
Biomedicine is a branch of medical science that applies biological and other natural-science principles to clinical practice,. Biomedicine, i.e. medical research, involves the study of physiological processes with methods from biology, chemistry and physics. Approaches range from understanding...

, electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

, aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 and nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those...

. The industrial infrastructure is spread throughout the region in industrial zones which have already been mentioned, the most important of which are Val Pescara, Val Sangro, Val Trigno, Val Vibrata and Conca del Fucino. A further activity worthy of note is seaside and mountain tourism, which is of considerable importance to the economy of the region. Agriculture, involving small holdings, has succeeded in modernising and offering high-quality products. The mostly small, agricultural holdings produce wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

, cereals, sugar beet
Sugar beet
Sugar beet, a cultivated plant of Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose tuber contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production. Sugar beets and other B...

, potatoes, olives, vegetables, fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 and dairy product
Dairy product
Dairy products are generally defined as foods produced from cow's or domestic buffalo's milk. They are usually high-energy-yielding food products. A production plant for such processing is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Raw milk for processing comes mainly from cows, and, to a lesser extent,...

s. Traditional products are saffron
Saffron
Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Crocus is a genus in the family Iridaceae. Each saffron crocus grows to and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are each the distal end of a carpel...

 and liquorice. Most famous in the world is Abruzzo's wine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a red Italian wine made from the Montepulciano wine grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy. The wine was classified as Denominazione di origine controllata in 1968 with a separate Denominazione di origine controllata e Garantita for wine produced around...

; in the late 20th and early 21st century, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo earned a reputation as being one of the most widely exported DOC classed wine in Italy.

Tourism and wildlife

In the past decade, tourism has increased, mostly among Italians and other Europeans. Abruzzo's wealth of castles and medieval towns, especially near the town of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
L'Aquila is a city and comune in central Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila. , it has a population of 73,150 inhabitants, but has a daily presence in the territory of 100,000 people for study, tertiary activities, jobs and tourism...

, has earned it in some quarters the nickname of "Abruzzoshire", by analogy with the "Chiantishire" nickname sometimes used to refer to the Chianti
Chianti
Chianti is a red Italian wine produced in Tuscany. It was historically associated with a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco ; however, the fiasco is only used by a few makers of the wine now; most Chianti is now bottled in more standard shaped wine bottles...

 area of Tuscany
Tuscany
Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

, but Abruzzo is still off the beaten path for most visitors to Italy. The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

newspaper described Abruzzo as "the king of agrotourism".

Abruzzo has seen a tremendous growth of tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 attracting visitors from all over the Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and also from the Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, the region over the years has become the fifth between the Italian regions with the most percentage of the average stay of clients in accommodation after the Calabria
Calabria
Calabria , in antiquity known as Bruttium, is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro....

, the Marche
Marche
The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona , and lowest in the province of Macerata...

, the Sardinia
Sardinia
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[],...

 and Trentino. In 2007, arrivals totaled 1,371,155 Italian and 189,651 foreign. A total of 7,374,646 arrivals were tourists figure that puts the region between the seventeenth Italian regions for number of tourists annually.

Tourism represents 20% of the region's revenue. In the mountainous inland areas are the ski resorts of Scanno, Ovindoli
Ovindoli
Ovindoli is a village and comune of the province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. Close to Rome, it is a popular resort for both summer and winter sports, including hiking, biking, equestrian activities and downhill and cross-country skiing.-Geography:Ovindoli lies in the...

, Tagliacozzo
Tagliacozzo
-History:Near the modern city was fought the Battle of Tagliacozzo between Conradin of Hohenstaufen and Charles I of Anjou.-Main sights:*The Palazzo Ducale , built by Roberto Orsini....

, Roccaraso
Roccaraso
Roccaraso is a town and comune of the province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.-External links:***...

, Campo Imperatore
Campo Imperatore
Campo Imperatore is a mountain grassland or alpine meadow formed by a high basin shaped plateau located in the Province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of Italy in the Gran Sasso massif. It is the largest plateau of the Apennine ridge...

, Campofelice, Rivisondoli
Rivisondoli
Rivisondoli is a village and comune in the province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It is a ski resort.-Geography:The village is placed in the plateau of Cinque Miglia and extended on the flank of Monte Calvario.-History:...

, Pescocostanzo
Pescocostanzo
Pescocostanzo is a comune and town in the Province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of Italy-External links:* * *...

 and Prati di Tivo
Prati di Tivo
Prati di Tivo is a frazione in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy....

. Other trails and facilities are in San Giacomo Monte-Piselli, Passo Lanciano, Prato Selva
Prato Selva
Prato Selva is a frazione in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy....

, Marsia, Campo Rotondo, Campo di Giove, Passo San Leonardo, Passo Godi, Pizzoferrato
Pizzoferrato
Pizzoferrato is a comune and town in the Province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Former WWE Champion Bruno Sammartino is from Pizzoferrato....

, and Gamberale.

The natural parks of the region include the Abruzzo National Park, the National Park of Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga the National Park Maiella and Sirente Velino which every year attract thousands of visitors due to their nature and rare species of wildlife such as Abruzzo chamois
Chamois
The chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra, is a goat-antelope species native to mountains in Europe, including the Carpathian Mountains of Romania, the European Alps, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, and the Caucasus. The chamois has also been introduced to the South Island of New Zealand...

; also the region boasts many natural reserves and areas protect.
One third of the region is designated as national or regional parkland. The following parks lie, wholly or partially, within Abruzzo:
  • Abruzzo National Park
    Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise
    Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise is an Italian national park founded in 1922. The majority of the park is located in the Abruzzo region though it is not constrained by regional boundaries and also includes territory in Lazio and Molise. The park headquarters are in Pescasseroli in the...

  • Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park
    Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park
    The Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park is a natural park in Italy, which was established in 1991. It has an area of 2,014 square kilometres...

  • Majella National Park
    Majella National Park
    The Majella National Park is a national park located in the provinces of Chieti, Pescara and L'Aquila, in the region Abruzzo, Italy....

  • Sirente Velino Regional Park
    Regional park
    Regional park is a term used for an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreational use or other reason, and under the administration of a form of local government.-Definition:...

  • Lago di Barrea (Barrea Lake Wetlands


The protected areas are environmentally important and are home to rare flora and fauna, such as the brown bear
Brown Bear
The brown bear is a large bear distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It can weigh from and its largest subspecies, the Kodiak Bear, rivals the polar bear as the largest member of the bear family and as the largest land-based predator.There are several recognized...

, the wolf
Gray Wolf
The gray wolf , also known as the wolf, is the largest extant wild member of the Canidae family...

 and the chamois
Chamois
The chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra, is a goat-antelope species native to mountains in Europe, including the Carpathian Mountains of Romania, the European Alps, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, and the Caucasus. The chamois has also been introduced to the South Island of New Zealand...

.

Very well developed summer tourism, coastal and beach, the most important tourist resorts are equipped Montesilvano
Montesilvano
Montesilvano is a town and comune of the province of Pescara in the Abruzzo region of Italy. The name Montesilvano is apparently derived from the Latin which means woody hill .-Geography:...

, Pineto
Pineto
Pineto is a town and comune in the province of Teramo, Abruzzo, central Italy. It is a 20th century seaside resort on the Adriatic coast, with sandy beaches shaded by pine trees that give their name to the town.-Geography:...

, Roseto degli Abruzzi
Roseto degli Abruzzi
Roseto degli Abruzzi, more commonly Roseto, is a town and comune of the province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It is a beach resort on the Adriatic Sea and has about 24,000 inhabitants. Geographically, Roseto is positioned on estuaries of the Vomano and Tordino Rivers. It is...

, Giulianova
Giulianova
Giulianova is a coastal town and comune in the province of Teramo of central Italy.-Geography:The town lies in the north of the Abruzzo region, between the Salinello and the Tordino rivers. Giulianova is split between the Paese, the historic town up in the hills, and the lido, the more recent...

, Alba Adriatica
Alba Adriatica
Alba Adriatica is a town and comune with 11,820 residents in the province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of central eastern Italy.It is known as one of the "seven sisters" of the northern Abruzzo coast, i.e...

, Tortoreto
Tortoreto
Tortoreto is a small town, pop. 7,836, on the Adriatic sea in Italy. It has two distinct parts. The old town is on a hill not far from the Adriatic and the new part, usually referred to as Tortoreto Lido, is seaside and located on SS 16. It can be reached by direct rail service or by flying to...

, Ortona
Ortona
Ortona is a coastal town and municipality of the Province of Chieti in the Italian region of Abruzzo, with some 23,000 inhabitants.Ortona was the site of fierce fighting between German and Canadian forces during the Italian campaign in World War II...

, Vasto
Vasto
Vasto is a town and comune on the Adriatic coast of the Province of Chieti in southern Abruzzo, Italy. The population is now just over 40,000.-History:According to tradition, the town was founded by Diomedes, the Greek hero...

, Martinsicuro
Martinsicuro
Martinsicuro is a town and comune in province of Teramo, Abruzzo, central Italy. It is located on the right of the mouth of Tronto River.-History:...

, Silvi Marina
Silvi Marina
Silvi is an Italian comune in the province of Teramo, about 15 km north of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It stretches from Silvi Marina, a small seaside resort on the Adriatic Coast, to Silvi Paese up in the hills....

 and the Costa dei Trabocchi. Many of these centers, tourist resorts have the privilege and prestige of being named the European Blue Flag
Blue flag
Blue flag or Blue Flag may refer to:*Blue Flag, the flag of Chelsea F.C.*Blue Flag beach, a beach or marina that meets certain quality standards*Larger Blue Flag or Iris versicolor, a type of iris...

 for water quality and services, placing fourth in the Italian region Abruzzo in this particular ranking only behind Liguria
Liguria
Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. Its capital is Genoa. It is a popular region with tourists for its beautiful beaches, picturesque little towns, and good food.-Geography:...

, Tuscany
Tuscany
Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

 and Marche
Marche
The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona , and lowest in the province of Macerata...

, with 15 Flags Blue in respect of the year 2011.
As for tourism, art-historical and cultural importance are the historical and cultural city of Chieti
Chieti
Chieti is a city and comune in Central Italy, 200 km northeast of Rome. It is the capital of the Province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region...

, Teramo
Teramo
Teramo is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Abruzzo, the capital of the province of Teramo.The city, from Rome, is situated between the highest mountains of the Apennines and the Adriatic coast...

, Vasto
Vasto
Vasto is a town and comune on the Adriatic coast of the Province of Chieti in southern Abruzzo, Italy. The population is now just over 40,000.-History:According to tradition, the town was founded by Diomedes, the Greek hero...

, Giulianova
Giulianova
Giulianova is a coastal town and comune in the province of Teramo of central Italy.-Geography:The town lies in the north of the Abruzzo region, between the Salinello and the Tordino rivers. Giulianova is split between the Paese, the historic town up in the hills, and the lido, the more recent...

, Sulmona
Sulmona
thumb|150px|Celestine V's hermitage and the remains of the Shrine of Hercules Curinus.thumb|150px|Palazzo SS. Annunziata and Museo Civicothumb|150px|Church of SS...

, L'Aquila
L'Aquila
L'Aquila is a city and comune in central Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila. , it has a population of 73,150 inhabitants, but has a daily presence in the territory of 100,000 people for study, tertiary activities, jobs and tourism...

 and above who can boast many monuments, museums, castles and churches of national importance; even Pescara
Pescara
Pescara is the capital city of the Province of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of Italy. As of January 1, 2007 it was the most populated city within Abruzzo at 123,059 residents, 400,000 with the surrounding metropolitan area...

 while being a modern city, boasting monuments, churches and museums of historical importance such as the birthplace Museum Gabriele D'Annunzio, in inland areas are mountainous ancient villages, castles, monasteries, shrines, monasteries, and churches. The majority of tourists come from the rest of Italy, France and Germany.
The variety of landscapes that the region can offer, is raising across the region leading tourist facilities equipped with every comfort for tourists.

Demographics

The population density, although it has increased over the last decades, is well below the national average. In 2008, there were in fact 123.4 inhabitants per km2 in Abruzzo, compared to a national average of 198.8. At the province level, the situation is quite varied: Pescara is the most densely populated province (260.1 inhabitants per km2 in 2008), whereas, at the other extreme, L'Aquila is the least densely populated one (61.3 inhabitants per km2 in 2008), although it has the largest area. After decades of emigration from the region, the main feature of the 1980s is the immigration from third world countries. The population increase is due to the positive net migration, as since 1991 more deaths than births were registered in Abruzzo (except for 1999, when their number was equal). In 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics
National Institute of Statistics
National Institute of Statistics may refer to:*National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia*National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia*National Institute of Statistics and Census of Costa Rica*National Institute of Statistics and Census of Nicaragua...

 ISTAT estimated that 59,749 foreign-born immigrants live in Abruzzo, equal to 4.5% of the total regional population.

The most serious demographic imbalance is between the mountainous areas of the interior and the coastal strip. The largest province, L'Aquila, is situated entirely in the interior and has the lowest population density. The movement of the population of Abruzzo from the mountains to the sea has led to the almost complete urbanisation of the entire coastal strip. The effects on the interior have been impoverishment and a demographic ageing, reflected by an activity rate in the province of L'Aquila which is the lowest of the provinces in Abruzzo – accompanied by geological degradation as a result of the absence of conservation measures. In the coastal strip, on the other hand, there is such a jumble of accommodation and activities that the environment has been changed with negative effects. The policy of providing incentives for development has resulted in the setting-up of industrial zones, some of which (Vasto, Avezzano, Carsoli, Gissi, Val Vibrata, Val Sangro) have made genuine progress, while others (Val Pescara, L'Aquila) have run into trouble after initial success. The zones of Sulmona and Guardiagrele have turned out to be more or less failures. Outside these zones, the main activities are agriculture and tourism.

Major Cities

L'Aquila
L'Aquila
L'Aquila is a city and comune in central Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila. , it has a population of 73,150 inhabitants, but has a daily presence in the territory of 100,000 people for study, tertiary activities, jobs and tourism...

 is both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila
Province of L'Aquila
thumb|left|200px|Map of the province.The Province of L'Aquila is the largest, most mountainous and least densely populated province of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It comprises about half the landmass of Abruzzo and occupies the western part of the region...

 and second largest city (pop. 73,000). L'Aquila was hit by an earthquake on 6 April 2009 which destroyed much of the city centre. The other provincial capitals are Pescara
Pescara
Pescara is the capital city of the Province of Pescara, in the Abruzzo region of Italy. As of January 1, 2007 it was the most populated city within Abruzzo at 123,059 residents, 400,000 with the surrounding metropolitan area...

, which is Abruzzo's largest city and major port (pop. 123,000); Teramo
Teramo
Teramo is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Abruzzo, the capital of the province of Teramo.The city, from Rome, is situated between the highest mountains of the Apennines and the Adriatic coast...

 (pop. 55,000) and Chieti
Chieti
Chieti is a city and comune in Central Italy, 200 km northeast of Rome. It is the capital of the Province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region...

 (pop. 55,000). Other large municipalities in Abruzzo include Avezzano
Avezzano
Avezzano is a town and comune in the Abruzzo region, province of L'Aquila. It is the main commercial, industrial and agricultural centre of the Marsica area, with high-tech industries such as a Micron Technology semi-conductor plant, and a large Telespazio satellite farm.-History:There are two...

 (pop.41,000), an industrial and high tech
High tech
High tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology currently available. It is often used in reference to micro-electronics, rather than other technologies. The adjective form is hyphenated: high-tech or high-technology...

nology center, Lanciano
Lanciano
Lanciano is a town and comune in the province of Chieti, part of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It has 36,570 inhabitants as of 2008.The city is also known for the first recorded alleged Catholic Eucharistic Miracle.-History:...

 (population 36,000), and Sulmona
Sulmona
thumb|150px|Celestine V's hermitage and the remains of the Shrine of Hercules Curinus.thumb|150px|Palazzo SS. Annunziata and Museo Civicothumb|150px|Church of SS...

 (population 25,000) are two important industrial and touristic centers.

Airports

  • Abruzzo International Airport
    Abruzzo International Airport
    -Mail flights:-Charter flights:-Statistics:-External links:*...

     is the only international airport in the region. Open to civilian traffic since 1996, has seen over the years more and more increase the number of transit passengers thanks to the airlines and low-cost flights. Today, the airport has a catchment area of over 400,000 passengers annually and connects the city of Pescara and the entire region with many Italian and European destinations.

  • L'Aquila-Preturo Airport
    L'Aquila-Preturo Airport
    L'Aquila-Preturo Airport , also known as Parchi Airport , is an airport serving L'Aquila, a city and comune of the Abruzzo region in central Italy. The airport is located west-northwest of L'Aquila.-Facilities:...

     is located in the nearby village of Courts and was recently renovated and modernized to accommodate flights presidential G8, specifically moved into the city after the earthquake in the Abruzzi. Soon the airport will also be open to civilian traffic.

Ports

In Abruzzo are 4 main ports:
  • Port of Pescara
    Port of Pescara
    The port of Pescara is an Italian port on the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the River Pescara in the city of Pescara. It is located at latitude 28.14 north and longitude 42 ° 14 ° 13 ', 78 East-History:...

  • Port of Ortona
  • Port of Vasto
    Vasto
    Vasto is a town and comune on the Adriatic coast of the Province of Chieti in southern Abruzzo, Italy. The population is now just over 40,000.-History:According to tradition, the town was founded by Diomedes, the Greek hero...

  • Port of Giulianova
    Giulianova
    Giulianova is a coastal town and comune in the province of Teramo of central Italy.-Geography:The town lies in the north of the Abruzzo region, between the Salinello and the Tordino rivers. Giulianova is split between the Paese, the historic town up in the hills, and the lido, the more recent...



The Port of Pescara
Port of Pescara
The port of Pescara is an Italian port on the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the River Pescara in the city of Pescara. It is located at latitude 28.14 north and longitude 42 ° 14 ° 13 ', 78 East-History:...

 over the years has become one of the most important ports of Italy and the Adriatic Sea, over 60 years suffered 'a major restoration and was born like a modern marina which has moorings and facilities to shipbuilding 'vanguard. For some years been honored with the Blue flag
Blue flag
Blue flag or Blue Flag may refer to:*Blue Flag, the flag of Chelsea F.C.*Blue Flag beach, a beach or marina that meets certain quality standards*Larger Blue Flag or Iris versicolor, a type of iris...

's European Union for the quality of services offered. Over the years, the port of Pescara has lost its commercial vocation at the expense of passenger traffic, traffic that is growing approximately three years while maintaining a thriving market fishing and of 'aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

.

Rail services

Regarding rail transport, there is a significant disparity between the Abruzzo coast – modern art -and that of inland areas, very poor in terms of modernity and quality of service and waiting decades of development interventions and modernization (see in particular the Rome-Pescara line). For some routes it has reached the situation where road transport is much faster than rail, which sometimes have schedules similar to those of over a century ago, and that often leads people to use buses instead of trains.

Existing railway lines:
  • Ferrovia Adriatica (through the whole of Italy from north to south, along the Adriatic Sea): The question that interests the Abruzzo region is included in the Towns of Martinsicuro and S. Unless, that delimit the borders with Marche and Molise regions, namely, the 113 km (70.22 mi) between the stations of intercurrent Alba Adriatica-Nereto-Controguerra and Broad-S. Salvo. The interchanges are made by the respective railway lines Giulianova Teramo and Pescara-Rome.
  • Train Rome – Sulmona – Pescara: Pescara-Rome railway line is along the railway line Bologna-Bari on the Adriatic other line is important because through the Tyrrhenian coast, passing through the provinces of Pescara, Chieti and L'Aquila and ends the path to Roma Tiburtina station. The railway which covers the Abruzzo Region, lies in 170 km (105.63 mi), ranging from municipalities to the province of Pescara Carsoli, and Oricola Pereto. The infrastructure in question is the following interchanges: Sulmona, Isernia, Terni-Sulmona, Avezzano-Roccasecca, Bologna and Bari.
  • Sulmona – Carpinone: the infrastructure in question is a continuation to the south of Terni-Sulmona, as part of the intermediate cross-Pescara Naples. After that Brenner is the highest railway station in Italy, whose tortuous path, characterized by steep slopes, passing through the station Rivisondoli-Pescocostanzo and wedges in the Abruzzo National Park and the Maiella. The line is the interchanges of railway lines Rome-Pescara and Sulmona – L'Aquila – Rieti – Terni. Reached Carpinone, divides west to east to Benevento and Caserta.
  • Sulmona – Terni: Trafficking in question connects the regions of Umbria, Lazio and Abruzzo, Molise and then along the line-Carpinone Sulmona. It therefore crosses the inner Abruzzo, finding interchanges Avezzano and Pescara-Rome-Roccasecca, in their respective provinces of L'Aquila, Terni and Rieti. It concerns a type of regional traffic in that, across the Tyrrhenian perpendicular colleague Abruzzo, Umbria, Lazio and Molise. The question of interest is included in the Abruzzo town of Sulmona and Tornimparte and more precisely in the stations 75 km (46.6 mi) intercurrent Sulmona and saddle horn.
  • Avezzano railroad – Roccasecca: infrastructure test starts on the track in the town of Avezzano, crosses the territory of Marsica, passes through the valley and Bush get into the Lazio region, in the town of Sora. Her journey ends in the town of Roccasecca which marks the end of Lazio and the entry in the Campania region towards Cassino. Therefore the only online exchange that meets the railway line is Pescara – Rome station Avezzano.
  • Giulianova – Teramo (a branch railway line Adriatic you forward towards the interior until Teramo) railway line Giulianova Teramo, the network is complementary to the Adriatic, fulfilling a liaison function between the capital and the coast. Therefore, the only rail interchange is characterized by the Adriatic railway line Bologna – Bari, Abruzzo is Martinsicuro rail-Broad-S. Salvo. With its 24 km (14.91 mi) journey infrastructure is the result, a SS80 along the path to the location of the industrial districts of Teramo, before merging the SS 16 that accesses the port Giulianova.
  • Sangritana (Lanciano – Castel di Sangro): The infrastructure in question are an important transition between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, as in Pescara station meets the respective points of connection of the FS Bologna – Bari and Pescara – Rome, while that of Sulmona, L'Aquila lines FS – Terni and Sulmona – Carpinone. This position transition, attributed to the infrastructure an important strategic military role in World War II, a stage when the bombing of the German armed forces air, marked the temporary suspension of the subject line of repair work. Like other regional railways direct Aquila, Sulmona and Roccasecca, through a circuitous route mountain typically characterized by steep slopes, although in terms of localization of production facilities is to signal the passage of the railway in the industrial area of Valle del Sangro .

Highways

Overview of the route east of the tunnel just before the Great Sassola road and motorway network in the Abruzzo region is relatively well developed, there are three highways that serve the region:
  • Highway A24 Roma – Aquila – Teramo, was built in the 70s and connects Rome with Lazio and more specifically to the Abruzzo Teramo via L'Aquila, performs an important liaison function of the region, both Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic, due to the presence of several knots of connection roads and highways. Numerous infrastructure connecting adjacent junction as directional Torano it branches in the A25 to Pescara, Teramo to Giulianova on SS80, SS81 to Chieti and on the A14 Bologna-Taranto, exit on the freeway Rieti Valley Jump -Terni, exit west on SS80 to L'Aquila Teramo, near Tivoli and the connection to the A1 motorway allows easy connections with Naples and Milan, the highway construction has contributed greatly to the economic development of the region .
  • Highway A25 Torano – Avezzano – Pescara allows the connection between Rome and Pescara, as of the release of Torano begins its journey where it intersects with the A24, flows in the Conca Fucino exceeds the Appennino Abruzzese coming to Peligna Valley and ends at 'exit Pescara-Villanova to join the A14.
  • Motorway A14 Bologna – Taranto said the A14 "Adriatica" includes 743 km (461.68 mi) of route, including the cities of Bologna and Taranto. Inaugurated in 1965 is now a major tourist infrastructure, as through the coastal towns of Emilia Romagna, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise and Puglia. Abruzzo is the infrastructure in question, including the toll of South Broad and Val Vibrata, which mark the border with the Marche and Molise. Regarding the links, the A14 meets the SS16 (which was necessarily walked before his execution), the SS652 Bottom Sangro Valley near Broad and SS80 in Giulianova.

Government and politics

Administrative divisions

The region is divided into 4 provinces:
Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Province of Chieti
Province of Chieti
The Province of Chieti is a province in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Chieti.It has an area of 2,588 km², and a total population of 381,993...

2,588 396,190 153.1
Province of L'Aquila
Province of L'Aquila
thumb|left|200px|Map of the province.The Province of L'Aquila is the largest, most mountainous and least densely populated province of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It comprises about half the landmass of Abruzzo and occupies the western part of the region...

5,034 308,876 61.3
Province of Pescara
Province of Pescara
The Province of Pescara is a province in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Pescara.It has an area of 1,225 km², and a total population of 295,463 . There are 46 comunes in the province. At May 31, 2005, the main communes by population are:For a complete list, see Comunes of...

1,225 318,701 260.1
Province of Teramo
Province of Teramo
The Province of Teramo is located in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Teramo. The province has an area of 1,948 km², a population of 296,063 , and is subdivided into 47 comunes , see Comunes of the Province of Teramo...

1,948 308,769 158.5


Culture

In the past, the region of Abruzzo was well known for the transumanza
Transumanza
The transumanza is the Italian term for transhumance, the traditional twice yearly migration of sheep and cows from the highlands to the lowlands, and vice versa. The word literally means "crossing the land"...

, the migratory movement of sheep principally south to the region of Puglia
Apulia
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its most southern portion, known as Salento peninsula, forms a high heel on the "boot" of Italy. The region comprises , and...

 during the cold winter months.

The regional accents of Abruzzo include Teramano, Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico and Abruzzese Occidentale. The first two form part of the Italiano meridionale-interno
Neapolitan language
Neapolitan is the language of the city and region of Naples , and Campania. On October 14, 2008 a law by the Region of Campania stated that the Neapolitan language had to be protected....

 dialect of southern Italy also known simply as "Neapolitan" due to the region having been part of the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
The Kingdom of Naples, comprising the southern part of the Italian peninsula, was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after secession of the island of Sicily as a result of the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. Known to contemporaries as the Kingdom of Sicily, it is dubbed Kingdom of...

 and the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, commonly known as the Two Sicilies even before formally coming into being, was the largest and wealthiest of the Italian states before Italian unification...

, while the Italian of L'Aquila Province is related to the Osco-Umbro dialect of central Italy
Central Italy
Central Italy is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics , a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency...

, including the one of Rome. It should be noted that Abruzzo's Italian dialects
Italian dialects
Dialects of Italian are regional varieties of the Italian language, more commonly and more accurately referred to as Regional Italian. The dialects have features, most notably phonological and lexical, percolating from the underlying substrate languages...

 are not particularly marked. In fact, Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 bases an intensive summer language program in Vasto
Vasto
Vasto is a town and comune on the Adriatic coast of the Province of Chieti in southern Abruzzo, Italy. The population is now just over 40,000.-History:According to tradition, the town was founded by Diomedes, the Greek hero...

, a resort town
Resort town
A resort town, sometimes called a resort city or resort destination, is a town or area where tourism or vacationing is a primary component of the local culture and economy...

 on Abruzzo's southern coast. There is, however, a small Albanian linguistic area
Anthropological linguistics
Anthropological linguistics is the study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology, cognition and language...

 at Penne, in the Province of Pescara.

Among Abruzzo many historic towns are: Sulmona
Sulmona
thumb|150px|Celestine V's hermitage and the remains of the Shrine of Hercules Curinus.thumb|150px|Palazzo SS. Annunziata and Museo Civicothumb|150px|Church of SS...

 at the foot of the Maiella massif and known for Italy's most famous ancient poet, Ovid; Scanno
Scanno, Italy
Scanno is a town and comune in the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.-Geography:There are alleys and narrow streets...

, a lakeside hill town; Atri
Atri, Italy
Atri is a comune in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. It has a population of over 11,500...

 a picturesque artistic center; and the hillside towns of Penne; Lanciano
Lanciano
Lanciano is a town and comune in the province of Chieti, part of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. It has 36,570 inhabitants as of 2008.The city is also known for the first recorded alleged Catholic Eucharistic Miracle.-History:...

 and Loreto Aprutino
Loreto Aprutino
Loreto Aprutino is a comune and town in the Province of Pescara in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.-History:The Roman town on this site was called Laurentum, because of the many bay laurels that grew in the area. The modern town grew up around a castle and Benedictine abbey in the 11th century...

.

Dialects

The dialects spoken in the Abruzzo region and can be divided into three main groups:
  • Sabine dialect, in the province of L'Aquila (central Italian dialects)
  • Abruzzo Adriatic dialect, in the province of Teramo, Pescara and Chieti, that is virtually abandoned in the province of Ascoli Piceno (southern Italian dialects)
  • Abruzzo western dialect, in the province of L'Aquila (southern Italian dialects)

Medieval and Renaissance hill towns

Abruzzo holds many of Italy's best-preserved medieval and Renaissance hill towns. The abrupt decline of Abruzzo's agricultural economy in the early to mid-20th century saved some of the region’s most beautiful hill towns from the onslaught of modern development. Many lie entirely within regional and national park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

s so their preservation is all but guaranteed. Among the most well preserved are Castel del Monte and Santo Stefano di Sessanio
Santo Stefano di Sessanio
Santo Stefano di Sessanio is a comune and hill town in the Province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Located in an Italian national park, the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park,in the highest region of the Apennines, this medieval hill town sits adjacent to the high plain of...

, which lie in the Gran Sasso National Park on the edge of the high plain of Campo Imperatore
Campo Imperatore
Campo Imperatore is a mountain grassland or alpine meadow formed by a high basin shaped plateau located in the Province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of Italy in the Gran Sasso massif. It is the largest plateau of the Apennine ridge...

 and nestled beneath the Apennines’ highest peaks; both hill towns, which were ruled by the Medicis for over a century-and-a-half, have relatively little tourism. Between the two towns sits Rocca di Calascio, the ruin of an ancient fortress popular with film makers. Also within the Gran Sasso National Park is Castelli
Castelli (Teramo)
Castelli is a comune in the province of Teramo, Abruzzo, Italy, included in the Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park.The medieval hill town lies beneath Mount Camicia on the eastern side of the Gran Sasso Massif...

, an ancient pottery center whose artisans produced ceramics for most of the royal house
Royal House
A royal house or royal dynasty consists of at least one, but usually more monarchs who are related to one another, as well as their non-reigning descendants and spouses. Monarchs of the same realm who are not related to one another are usually deemed to belong to different houses, and each house is...

s of Europe. Although still home to many artisans, Castelli has a modest tourist trade. Other medieval hill towns located fully within Abruzzo's park system
Park system
A park system, also known as an open space system, is a network of open spaces which are connected by public walkways, bridleways or cycleways. In modern landscape practice, the park system concept is being overtaken by the idea of planning greenways which run through urban and rural areas.One of...

 are Pacentro
Pacentro
Pacentro is a comune of 1279 inhabitants of the province of L'Aquila in Abruzzo, Italy. It is a well preserved historic medieval village located in the central part of Italy, several kilometers from the City of Sulmona about 170 km east of Rome...

 in the Parco Nazionale della Majella and Pescasseroli
Pescasseroli
Pescasseroli is a town and comune in the province of L'Aquila, in Southern Abruzzo, central Italy.A summer and winter resort, it is today the headquarters of the Abruzzo National Park. It is located in the heart of the Monti Marsicani....

 in the Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo. Pacentro, which features a 14th century castle with two intact towers, has been little touched by modernization.

Universities

There are three universities in the Abruzzo region:
  • University of L'Aquila
    University of L'Aquila
    The University of L'Aquila is a university located in L'Aquila, central Italy. It was founded in 1964 and is organized in nine faculties.Presents a scientific-technological character with many research groups. Its faculties occupy a high position between the Italian universities...

  • University of Chieti
    University of Chieti
    The G. d'Annunzio University is a university located in Chieti and Pescara, Italy. It was founded in 1960 and is organized in 11 Faculties. Student enrollment at the University is currently in excess of 23,000.-History:...

    (university G.D'Annunzio of Chieti and Pescara)
  • University of Teramo
    University of Teramo
    The University of Teramo is a university located in Teramo, Italy. The academic institution was established in 1993, detached from the University of Chieti in a moment of strong tension between supporters of “autonomy” and those wanting to maintain the traditional structure.The University of...


External links

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