Selective breeding
Overview
Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants
Plant breeding
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular...

 and animals
Animal breeding
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation of the genetic value of domestic livestock...

 for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is sometimes done by a professional breeder
Breeder
A breeder is a person who practices the vocation of mating carefully selected specimens of the same breed to reproduce specific, consistently replicable qualities and characteristics....

. Bred animals are known as breed
Breed
A breed is a group of domestic animals or plants with a homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics that distinguish it from other animals or plants of the same species. Despite the centrality of the idea of "breeds" to animal husbandry, there is no scientifically accepted...

s, while bred plants are known as varieties
Variety (biology)
In botanical nomenclature, variety is a taxonomic rank below that of species: as such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name....

, cultigen
Cultigen
A cultigen is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. These "man-made" or anthropogenic plants are, for the most part, plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry...

s, or cultivar
Cultivar
A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

s. The cross of animals results in what is called a crossbreed
Crossbreed
A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an animal with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. Crossbreeding refers to the process of breeding such an animal, often with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or producing...

, and crossbred plants are called hybrids. The term selective breeding is synonymous with artificial selection
Artificial selection
Artificial selection describes intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits. The term was utilized by Charles Darwin in contrast to natural selection, in which the differential reproduction of organisms with certain traits is attributed to improved survival or reproductive...

.

In animal breeding techniques such as inbreeding
Inbreeding
Inbreeding is the reproduction from the mating of two genetically related parents. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population, which is...

, linebreeding, and outcrossing
Outcrossing
Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. It increases genetic diversity, thus reducing the probability of all individuals being subject to disease or reducing genetic abnormalities...

 are utilized.
Encyclopedia
Selective breeding is the process of breeding plants
Plant breeding
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular...

 and animals
Animal breeding
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that addresses the evaluation of the genetic value of domestic livestock...

 for particular genetic traits. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is sometimes done by a professional breeder
Breeder
A breeder is a person who practices the vocation of mating carefully selected specimens of the same breed to reproduce specific, consistently replicable qualities and characteristics....

. Bred animals are known as breed
Breed
A breed is a group of domestic animals or plants with a homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics that distinguish it from other animals or plants of the same species. Despite the centrality of the idea of "breeds" to animal husbandry, there is no scientifically accepted...

s, while bred plants are known as varieties
Variety (biology)
In botanical nomenclature, variety is a taxonomic rank below that of species: as such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name....

, cultigen
Cultigen
A cultigen is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. These "man-made" or anthropogenic plants are, for the most part, plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry...

s, or cultivar
Cultivar
A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

s. The cross of animals results in what is called a crossbreed
Crossbreed
A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an animal with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. Crossbreeding refers to the process of breeding such an animal, often with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or producing...

, and crossbred plants are called hybrids. The term selective breeding is synonymous with artificial selection
Artificial selection
Artificial selection describes intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits. The term was utilized by Charles Darwin in contrast to natural selection, in which the differential reproduction of organisms with certain traits is attributed to improved survival or reproductive...

.

In animal breeding techniques such as inbreeding
Inbreeding
Inbreeding is the reproduction from the mating of two genetically related parents. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population, which is...

, linebreeding, and outcrossing
Outcrossing
Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. It increases genetic diversity, thus reducing the probability of all individuals being subject to disease or reducing genetic abnormalities...

 are utilized. In plant breeding, similar methods are used. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin FRS was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.He published his theory...

 discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his book, Origin of Species. The first chapter of the book discusses selective breeding and domestication
Domestication
Domestication or taming is the process whereby a population of animals or plants, through a process of selection, becomes accustomed to human provision and control. In the Convention on Biological Diversity a domesticated species is defined as a 'species in which the evolutionary process has been...

 of such animals as pigeons, dog
Dog
The domestic dog is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in...

s and cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

. Selective breeding was used by Darwin as a springboard to introduce the theory of natural selection
Natural selection
Natural selection is the nonrandom process by which biologic traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism of evolution....

, and to support it.

Animal breeding

Animals with homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics are known as particular breeds, and they are bred through culling
Culling
Culling is the process of removing animals from a group based on specific criteria. This is done either to reinforce certain desirable characteristics or to remove certain undesirable characteristics from the group...

 particular traits and selecting for others. Purebred
Purebred
Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding...

 animals have a single, recognizable breed, and purebreds with recorded lineage are called pedigree
Pedigree chart
A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses....

d. Crossbreed
Crossbreed
A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an animal with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. Crossbreeding refers to the process of breeding such an animal, often with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or producing...

s are a mix of two purebreds, whereas mixed breed
Mixed breed
A mixed breed is a domesticated animal descended from multiple breeds of the same species, often breeding without any human intervention, recordkeeping, or selective breeding...

s are a mix of several breeds, often unknown. Animal breeding begins with breeding stock, a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred stock for a certain purpose, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and, it is presumed, superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, to breed chickens, a typical breeder intends to receive eggs, meat, and new, young birds for further reproduction. Thus, the breeder has to study different breeds and types of chickens and analyze what can be expected from a certain set of characteristics before he or she starts breeding them. Therefore, when purchasing initial breeding stock, the breeder seeks a group of birds that will most closely fit the purpose intended.

Purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits, that animals will pass to the next generation. By "breeding the best to the best," employing a certain degree of inbreeding
Inbreeding
Inbreeding is the reproduction from the mating of two genetically related parents. Inbreeding results in increased homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population, which is...

, considerable culling, and selection for "superior" qualities, one could develop a bloodline superior in certain respects to the original base stock. Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry
Breed registry
A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. Animals are usually registered by their breeders when they are still young...

, the organization that maintains pedigree
Pedigree chart
A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses....

s and/or stud books. However, single-trait breeding, breeding for only one trait over all others, can be problematic. In one case mentioned by animal behaviorist Temple Grandin
Temple Grandin
Temple Grandin is an American doctor of animal science and professor at Colorado State University, bestselling author, and consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior...

, rooster
Rooster
A rooster, also known as a cockerel, cock or chanticleer, is a male chicken with the female being called a hen. Immature male chickens of less than a year's age are called cockerels...

s bred for fast growth or heavy muscles did not know how to perform typical rooster courtship dances, which alienated the roosters from hens and led the roosters to kill the hens after reproducing with them.

The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity. However, on the other hand, indiscriminate breeding of crossbred or hybrid animals may also result in degradation of quality.

Plant breeding

Plant breeding has been used for thousands of years, and began with the domestication of wild plants into uniform and predictable agricultural cultigen
Cultigen
A cultigen is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. These "man-made" or anthropogenic plants are, for the most part, plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry...

s. High-yielding varieties have been particularly important in agriculture.

Selective plant breeding is also used in research to produce transgenic animals that breed "true" (i.e., are homozygous) for artificially inserted or deleted
Gene knockout
A gene knockout is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative . Also known as knockout organisms or simply knockouts, they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced, but which has an unknown or incompletely known function...

 genes.

Selective breeding in aquaculture

Selective breeding in aquaculture holds high potential for the genetic improvement of fish and shellfish. Unlike terrestrial livestock, the potential benefits of selective breeding in aquaculture were not realized until recently. This is because high mortality led to the selection of only a few broodstock, causing inbreeding depression, which then forced the use of wild broodstock. This was evident in selective breeding programs for growth rate, which resulted in slow growth and high mortality.

Control of the reproduction cycle was one of the main reasons as it is a requisite for selective breeding programmes. Artificial reproduction was not achieved because of the difficulties in hatching or feeding some farmed species such as eel and yellowtail farming.
A suspected reason associated with the late realisation of success in selective breeding programs in aquaculture was the education of the concerned people – researchers, advisory personnel and fish farmers. The education of fish biologists paid less attention to quantitative genetics and breeding plans.

Another was the failure of documentation of the genetic gains in successive generations. This in turn led to failure in quantifying economic benefits that successful selective breeding programs produce. Documentation of the genetic changes was considered important as they help in fine tuning further selection schemes.

Quality traits in aquaculture

Aquaculture species are reared for particular traits such as growth rate, survival rate, meat quality, resistance to diseases, age at sexual maturation, fecundity, shell traits like shell size, shell colour, etc.
  • Growth rate – growth rate is normally measured as either body weight or body length. (Gjedrem 1985). This trait is of great economic importance for all aquaculture species as faster growth rate speeds up the turnover of production (Gjedrem 1983). Improved growth rates show that farmed animals utilize their feed more efficiently through a correlated response (Gjedrem 1985).
  • Survival rate – survival rate may take into account the degrees of resistance to diseases (Gjedrem 1985). This may also see the stress response as fish under stress are highly vulnerable to diseases (Gjedrem 1983). The stress fish experience could be of biological, chemical or environmental influence.
  • Meat quality – the quality of fish is of great economic importance in the market. Fish quality usually takes into account size, meatiness, and percentage of fat, colour of flesh, taste, shape of the body, ideal oil and omega-3 content (Gjedrem 1985).
  • Age at sexual maturation- The age of maturity in aquaculture species is another very important for farmers as during early maturation the species divert all their energy to gonad production affecting growth and meat production and are more susceptible to health problems (Gjerde 1986).
  • Fecundity – As the fecundity in fish and shellfish is usually high it is not considered as a major trait for improvement. However, selective breeding practices may consider the size of the egg and correlate it with survival and early growth rate (Gjedrem 1985).

Finfish response to selection

Salmonids

Gjedrem (1979) showed that selection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) led to an increase in body weight by 30% per generation. A comparative study on the performance of select Atlantic salmon with wild fish was conducted by AKVAFORSK Genetics Centre in Norway. The traits, for which the selection was done included growth rate, feed consumption, protein retention, energy retention, and feed conversion efficiency. Selected fish had a twice better growth rate, a 40% higher feed intake, and an increased protein and energy retention. This led to an overall 20% better Fed Conversion Efficiency as compared to the wild stock (Thodeson et al.1999).
Atlantic salmon have also been selected for resistance to bacterial and viral diseases. Selection was done to check resistance to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV). The results showed 66.6% mortality for low-resistant species whereas the high-resistant species showed 29.3% mortality compared to wild species (Storset et al. 2007).

Rainbow trout (S. gairdneri) was reported to show large improvements in growth rate after 7-10 generations of selection (Donaldson and Olson 1957). Kincaid et al. (1977) showed that growth gains by 30% could be achieved by selectively breeding rainbow trout for three generations. A 7% increase in growth was recorded per generation for rainbow trout by Kause et al. (2005).
In Japan, high resistance to IPNV in rainbow trout has been achieved by selectively breeding the stock. Resistant strains were found to have an average mortality of 4.3% whereas 96.1% mortality was observed in a highly sensitive strain (Okamoto et al. 1993).
Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) increase in weight was found to be more than 60% after four generations of selective breeding (Hershberger et al. 1990). In Chile, Neira et al. (2006) conducted experiments on early spawning dates in coho salmon. After selectively breeding the fish for four generation, spawning dates were 13 – 15 days earlier.

Cyprinids

Selective breeding programs for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) include improvement in growth, shape and resistance to disease. Experiments carried out in the USSR used crossings of broodstocks to increase genetic diversity and then selected the species for traits like growth rate, exterior traits and viability, and/or adaptation to environmental conditions like variations in temperature. Kirpichnikov et al. (1974) and Babouchkine (1987) selected carp for fast growth and tolerance to cold, the Ropsha carp. The results showed a 30-40% to 77.4% improvement of cold tolerance but did not provide any data for growth rate. An increase in growth rate was observed in the second generation in Vietnam (Tran and Nguyen 1993). Moav and Wohlfarth (1976) showed positive results when selecting for slower growth for three generations compared to selecting for faster growth. Schaperclaus (1962) showed resistance to the dropsy disease wherein selected lines suffered low mortality (11.5%) compared to unselected (57%).

Channel Catfish

Growth was seen to increase by 12 – 20% in selectively bred Iictalurus punctatus (Bondari, 1983). More recently, the overall response of Channel Catfish response to selection for improved growth rate was found to be approximately 80%, i.e., an average of 13% per generation (Dunham 2006).

Shellfish response to selection

Oysters

Selection for live weight of Pacific oysters showed improvements ranging from 0.4% to 25.6% compared to the wild stock (Langdon et al. 2003). Sydney-rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) showed a 4% increase after one generation and a 15% increase after two generations (Nell et al. 1996, 1999). Chilean oysters (Ostrea chilensis), selected for improvement in live weight and shell length showed a 10-13% gain in one generation.
Bonamia ostrea is a protistan parasite that causes catastrophic losses (nearly 98%) in European flat oyster Ostrea edulis L. This protistan parasite is endemic to three oyster-regions in Europe. Selective breeding programs show that O. edulis susceptibility to the infection differs across oyster strains in Europe. A study carried out by Culloty et al. (2001) showed that ‘Rossmore’ oysters in Cork harbour, Ireland had better resistance compared to other Irish strains. A selective breeding program at Cork harbour uses broodstock from 3– to 4-year-old survivors and is further controlled until a viable percentage reaches market size (Culloty et al. 2004). Over the years ‘Rossmore’ oysters have shown to develop lower prevalence to B. ostreae infection and percentage mortality.
Ragone Calvo et al. (2003) selectively bred the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, for resistance against co-occurring parasites Haplosporidium nelson (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo). They achieved dual resistance to the disease in four generations of artificial selection. The oysters showed higher growth and survival rates and low susceptibility to the infections. At the end of the experiment, artificially selected C. virginica showed a 34-48% higher survival rate.

Penaeid shrimps

Selection for growth in Penaeid shrimps yielded successful results. A selective breeding program for Litopenaeus stylirostris saw an 18% increase in growth after the fourth generation and 21% growth after the fifth generation (Goyard et al. 1999). Marsupenaeus japonicas showed a 10.7% increase in growth after the first generation (Hetzel et al. 2000).
Argue et al. (2002) conducted a selective breeding program on the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei at The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, USA from 1995 to 1998. They reported significant responses to selection compared to the unselected control shrimps. After one generation, a 21% increase was observed in growth and 18.4% increase in survival to TSV.
The Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) causes mortalities of 70% or more in shrimps. C.I. Oceanos S.A. in Colombia selected the survivors of the disease form infected ponds and used them as parents for the next generation. They achieved satisfying results in two or three generations wherein survival rates approached levels before the outbreak of the disease (Cock et al. 2009).
The resulting heavy losses (up to 90%) caused by Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) caused a number of shrimp farming industries started to selectively breed shrimps resistant to this disease. Successful outcomes led to development of Super Shrimp, a selected line of L. stylirostris that is resistant to IHHNV infection (Tang et al. 2000). Tang et al. (2000) confirmed this by showing no mortalities in IHHNV- challenged Super Shrimp post larvae and juveniles.

Aquatic species versus terrestrial livestock

Selective breeding programs for aquatic species provide better outcomes compared to terrestrial livestock. This higher response to selection of aquatic farmed species can be attributed to the following:
  • High fecundity in both sexes fish and shellfish enabling higher selection intensity.

  • Large phenotypic and genetic variation in the selected traits.


Selective breeding in aquaculture provide remarkable economic benefits to the industry, the primary one being that it reduces production costs due to faster turnover rates. This is because of faster growth rates, decreased maintenance rates, increased energy and protein retention, and better feed efficiency (Gjedrem and Baranski 2009). Applying such genetic improvement program to aquaculture species will increase productivity to meet the increasing demands of growing populations.

See also

  • Artificial selection
    Artificial selection
    Artificial selection describes intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits. The term was utilized by Charles Darwin in contrast to natural selection, in which the differential reproduction of organisms with certain traits is attributed to improved survival or reproductive...

  • Breed registry
    Breed registry
    A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. Animals are usually registered by their breeders when they are still young...

  • Breeding
    Breeding
    Breeding is the reproduction, that is, producing of offspring, usually animals or plants:* Breeding in the wild, the natural process of reproduction in the animal kingdom* Animal husbandry, through selected specimens such as dogs, horses, and rabbits...

  • Breeding back
    Breeding back
    Breeding back can be described as either a natural or a human attempt to assemble or re-assemble the genes of an extinct species, subspecies or domesticated breed, which may still be present in the larger gene pool of the overall species or those of multiple interbreedable species.Breeding back is...

  • Experimental evolution
    Experimental evolution
    In evolutionary and experimental biology, the field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing hypotheses and theories of evolution by use of controlled experiments. Evolution may be observed in the laboratory as populations adapt to new environmental conditions and/or change by such...

  • Genomics of domestication
    Genomics of domestication
    Genomics is the study of the structure, content, and evolution of genomes, or the entire genetic information of organisms. Domestication is the process by which humans alter the morphology and genes of targeted organisms in order to select for desirable traits.-Background:Since Domestication...

  • Marker assisted selection
    Marker assisted selection
    Marker assisted selection or marker aided selection ' is a process whereby a marker is used for indirect selection of a genetic determinant or determinants of a trait of interest...

  • Mutation breeding
    Mutation breeding
    Mutation breeding is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars. Plants created using mutagenesis are sometimes called mutagenic plants or mutagenic seeds...

  • Natural selection
    Natural selection
    Natural selection is the nonrandom process by which biologic traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism of evolution....

  • Quantitative genetics
    Quantitative genetics
    Quantitative genetics is the study of continuous traits and their underlying mechanisms. It is effectively an extension of simple Mendelian inheritance in that the combined effects of one or more genes and the environments in which they are expressed give rise to continuous distributions of...

  • Culling
    Culling
    Culling is the process of removing animals from a group based on specific criteria. This is done either to reinforce certain desirable characteristics or to remove certain undesirable characteristics from the group...


Sources

Argue, B. J., arce, S, M., Lotz, J. M & Moss, S.M. 2002. Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura syndrome Virus. Aquaculture, 204: 447 -460.

Babouchkine, Y.P., 1987. La sélection d’une carpe résistant à l’hiver. In: Tiews, K. (Ed.), Proceedings ofWorld Symposium on Selection,Hybridization, and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, Bordeaux 27–30 May 1986, vol. 1. HeenemannVerlagsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin, pp. 447–454.

Bondari, K. 1983. Response to bidirectional selection for body weight in channel catfish. Aquaculture 33:73–81.

Cock, J., Gitterle, T., Salazar, M & Rye, Morten. (2009). Breeding for disease resistance of Penaeid shrimps. Aquaculture 286: 1 – 11.

Culloty, S.C., Cronin, M.A., Mulcahy, M.F., 2001. An investigation into the relative resistance of Irish flat oysters Ostrea edulis L. to the parasite Bonamia ostreae (Pichot et al., 1980). Aquaculture 199, 229–244.

Culloty, S.C., Cronin, M.A & Mulchany, M.F. 2004. Potential resistance of a number of populations of the oyster Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Aquaculture, 237:41-58.

Darwin, C. 2004. The Origin of Species. London: CRW Publishing Limited. ISBN 1904633781.

Donaldson, L.R. and Olson, P.R., 1957. Development of rainbow trout broodstock by selective breeding. Transactions of the Americans Fisheries Society, 85: 93-101.

Gjerde, B. 1986. Growth and Reproduction in Fish and shellfish. Aquaculture, 57:37-55.

Gjedrem, T., 1979. Selection for growth rate and domestication in Atlantic salmon. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie, 96: 56-59.

Gjedrem, T. 1983. Genetic variation in quantitative traits and selective Breeding in fish and shellfish. Aquaculture, 33:51-72.

Gjedrem, T. 1985. Improvement of Productivity through Breeding Schemes. Geo Journal, 10(3): 233-241.

Gjedrem, T., 1997. Selective breeding to improve aquaculture production. World Aquaculture, 28, 33–45.

Gjedrem, G & Baranski, M. 2009. Selective breeding in Aquaculture: An Introduction. 1st Edition. Springer.

Goyard, E., Patrois, J., Reignon, J.-M., Vanaa, V., Dufour, R & Be´dier, E. 1999. IFREMER’s shrimp genetics program. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 2(6): 26–28.

Grandin, T & Johnson, C. 2005. [69-71 Animals in Translation]. New York, New York: Scribner. ISBN 0743247698.

Hershberger, W.K., Myers, J.M., Iwamoto, R.N., Mcauley, W.C & Saxton, A.M. 1990. Genetic Changes in the Growth of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Marine Net-Pens, Produced by Ten Years of Selection. Aquaculture, 85:187-197.

Hetzel, D.J.S., Crocos, P.J., Davis, G.P., Moore, S.S., Preston, N.C., 2000. Response to selection and heritability for growth in the Kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus. Aquaculture 181, 215–223.

Kause, A., Ritola, O., Paananen, T., Wahlroos, H & Mäntysaari, E.A. 2005. Genetic trends in growth, sexual maturity and skeletal deformations, and rate of inbreeding in a breeding programme for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 247: 177–187.

Kincaid, A.L.. Bridges, W.R. and Von Limbach, B., 1977. Three generations of selection for growth rate in fall-spawning rainbow trout. Transactions of the Americans Fisheries Society, 106: 621-628.

Kirpichnikov, V.S., IIYAsov, J.I., Shart, L.A., Vikhman, A.A., Ganchenko, M.V., Ostashevsky, A.L., Simonov, V.M., Tikhonov, G.F & Tjurin, V.V. 1993. Selection of Krasnodar common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for resistance to dropsy: principal results and prospects. Aquaculture, 111:7-20.

Langdon, C., Evans, F., Jacobson, D & Blouin, M. 2003. Yields of cultures Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas Thunberg improved after one generation of selection. Aquaculture, 220:227-244.

Moav, R.,Wohlfarth, G.W., 1976. Two way selection for growth rate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Genetics 82, 83–101.

Neira, R., Díaz, N., Gall, G., Gallardo, J., Lhorente, J &. Alert, A. 2006. Genetic improvement in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). II: selection response for early spawning date, Aquaculture,257: 1–9.

Nell, J.A., Sheridan, A.K., Smith, I.R., 1996. Progress in a Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley), breeding program. Aquaculture, 144, 295– 302.

Nell, J.A., Smith, I.R., Sheridan, A.K., 1999. Third generation evaluation of Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughley) breeding lines. Aquaculture, 170, 195– 203.

Okamoto, N., Tayama, T., Kawanobe, M., Fujiki, N., Yasuda, Y & Sano, T. 1993. Resistance of a rainbow trout strain to infectious pancreatic necrosis. Aquaculture, 117: 71-76

Ragone Calvo, L.M., Calvo,G.W & Burreson, E. M. 2003. Dual disease resistance in a selectively bred eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, strain tested in Chesapeake Bay. Aquaculture, 220:69-87.

Schäperclaus,W. 1962. Traité de pisciculture en étang. Vigot Frères, Paris

Storset A, Strand C, Wetten M, Kjøglum S & Ramstad A. 2007. Response to selection for resistance against infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 272: 62–68.

Tang, K. F. J., Durand, S. V., White, B. L., Redman, R. M., Pantoja, C. R & Lightner, D.V. 2000. Postlarvae and juveniles of a selected line of Penaeus stylirostris are resistant to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection. Aquaculture, 190: 203-210.

Thodeson, J., Gisdale-Helland, B., Helland, S.J & Gjerde, B. 1999. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization of offspring from wild and selected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Aquaculture 180, 237–246.

Tran, M.T., Nguyen, C.T. 1993. Selection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Vietnam. Aquaculture 111: 301–302.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK