Samuel Kneeland (naturalist)
Samuel Kneeland was a naturalist
Naturalist may refer to:* Practitioner of natural history* Conservationist* Advocate of naturalism * Naturalist , autobiography-See also:* The American Naturalist, periodical* Naturalism...

 of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...



He graduated from Harvard
Harvard College
Harvard College, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is one of two schools within Harvard University granting undergraduate degrees...

 in 1840, and got a medical degree there in 1843. At Harvard, he received the Boylston Prize for his thesis on “Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever,” and again, in 1844, for his essay on “Hydrotherapy.” Subsequently he spent two years in professional studies in Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, and then began the practice of his profession in Boston, meanwhile serving as demonstrator of anatomy in Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School is the graduate medical school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts....

 1845-1847, and serving as physician to the Boston Dispensary. He then passed some time in Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, and also visited the Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Lake Superior is the largest of the five traditionally-demarcated Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded to the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of Minnesota, and to the south by the U.S. states of Wisconsin and Michigan. It is the largest freshwater lake in the...

 copper region.

During the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, he entered the army as acting assistant surgeon from Massachusetts, and was assigned to duty with General Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Burnside
Ambrose Everett Burnside was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator...

. He accompanied the expedition to New Bern
Battle of New Bern
The Battle of New Bern was fought on 14 March 1862, near the city of New Bern, North Carolina, as part of the Burnside Expedition of the American Civil War. The US Army's Coast Division, led by Brigadier General Ambrose E...

, North Carolina, in March 1862, and after its capture was assigned to duty at the Craven Street Hospital there, and at the hospital in Beaufort, North Carolina
Beaufort, North Carolina
Beaufort is a town in Carteret County, North Carolina, United States. Established in 1709, it is the third-oldest town in North Carolina.The population was 4,189 at the 2008 census and it is the county seat of Carteret County...

. In October 1862, he was commissioned surgeon of the 45th Massachusetts Regiment, and served in that capacity in New Berne until the regiment was discharged in July 1863. He then entered the corps of surgeons of volunteers, and was placed in charge, successively, of the university hospital in New Orleans, and of the marine hospital in Mobile
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

. In 1866, he was mustered out of the service with the brevet rank of lieutenant colonel.

He returned to Boston, and became associated in the work of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

, where he held the office of instructor 1867-1869, and then professor of zoology
Zoology |zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...

 and physiology
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

 1869-1878, also acting as secretary of the corporation in 1866-1878, and as secretary of the faculty 1871-1878.

In 1878, Kneeland returned to literary work and lecturing, in Boston and later the Philippine Islands. He traveled extensively in search of information concerning earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

s and volcanic
2. Bedrock3. Conduit 4. Base5. Sill6. Dike7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano8. Flank| 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano10. Throat11. Parasitic cone12. Lava flow13. Vent14. Crater15...

 phenomena, making visits to the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaii in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll...

 and to Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

 in 1874, at the time of its millennial celebration, for this purpose.

He was a member of numerous scientific societies, and held the office of secretary to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is an independent policy research center that conducts multidisciplinary studies of complex and emerging problems. The Academy’s elected members are leaders in the academic disciplines, the arts, business, and public affairs.James Bowdoin, John Adams, and...

, and to the Boston Society of Natural History
Boston Society of Natural History
The Boston Society of Natural History in Boston, Massachusetts, was an organization dedicated to the study and promotion of natural history. It published a scholarly journal and established a museum. In its first few decades, the society occupied several successive locations in Boston's Financial...



Charles Hamilton Smith
Charles Hamilton Smith
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hamilton Smith was an English artist, naturalist, antiquary, illustrator, soldier and spy.-Military service:...

 a naturalist from England was a believer in polygenism
Polygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages . This is opposite to the idea of monogenism, which posits a single origin of humanity.- Origins :...

. He believed that races had been created separately. He published the book The Natural History of the Human Species in 1848. In the book he maintained that there had always been three fundamentally distinct human types: The caucasian, the Mongolian and the negro. He also referred to the polygenist Samuel George Morton
Samuel George Morton
Samuel George Morton was an American physician and natural scientist. Morton, reared a Quaker but became Episcopalian in midlife, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1820. After earning an advanced degree from Edinburgh University in...

's work in America. Smith’s book was re-printed in America, Samuel Kneeland wrote an 84 page introduction to the American edition of the book where he laid out evidence which supports polygenist creationism and that the bible is entirely compatible with multiple Adam
Adam is a figure in the Book of Genesis. According to the creation myth of Abrahamic religions, he is the first human. In the Genesis creation narratives, he was created by Yahweh-Elohim , and the first woman, Eve was formed from his rib...



In addition to editing The Annual of Scientific Discovery (1886–89), a translation of Andry's Diseases of the Heart (1847), and Smith's History of the Human Species, he wrote Science and Mechanism (1854); The Wonders of the Yosemite Valley and of California (1871); An American in Iceland (1876); Volcanoes and Earthquakes (1888). He contributed largely to medical literature, and was the author of many articles, mostly on zoological and medical subjects, in the American Cyclopædia.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.