Russian constitutional referendum, 1993
A referendum was held in Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 on 12 December, 1993. It was initiated by President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. On 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of...

 after the fall of the Supreme Soviet. This was in a direct violation of the corresponding law № 241-1 (passed on 16 October 1990) «On the referendums of the Russian SFSR». This law states that referendums can be initiated by a Congress of People's Deputies or its Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet of Russia
The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR , later Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation was the supreme government institution of the Russian SFSR in 1938–1990; in 1990–1993 it was a permanent parliament, elected by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation.The Supreme Soviet of...

 (article 9), by their own initiative or by request of at least of 1 million of citisen eligible to vote at referendum or by request of no less than 1/3 of total number of People's Deputies (article 10).

This law requires at least 50% voices of citizen eligible to vote to as a qualifying majority (article 35).

Yeltsin's aim was to significantly expand the Presidential powers with a new Constitution, rendering the Parliament effectively powerless.


Answer Votes % of vote
For 32,937,630 58.48%
Against 25,250,125 41.52%
Total 100%


The total number of registered voters: 106,170,835

The number of people who participated in voting: 58,187,755, which is 54.81 %.

Falsification claims

In May 1994 the results of investigation done by expert group of A. A. Sobyanin (А. А. Собянин) were published. Their results implied massive falsifications: only less than 46% of eligible citizens took part in the referendum. Thus, the legitimacy of the current Constitution is disputed by some experts.
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