Russian Federal Space Agency
Overview
 
The Russian Federal Space Agency ( Federal'noye kosmicheskoye agentstvo Rossii), commonly called Roscosmos (Роскосмос Roskosmos) and abbreviated as FKA (ФКА) and RKA (РКА), is the government agency responsible for the Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n space science
Space science
The term space science may mean:* The study of issues specifically related to space travel and space exploration, including space medicine.* Science performed in outer space ....

 program and general aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 research. It was previously the Russian Aviation and Space Agency ( Rossiyskoe aviatsionno-kosmicheskoe agentsvo, commonly known as "Rosaviakosmos").

Headquarters of Roscosmos are located in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

.
Encyclopedia
The Russian Federal Space Agency ( Federal'noye kosmicheskoye agentstvo Rossii), commonly called Roscosmos (Роскосмос Roskosmos) and abbreviated as FKA (ФКА) and RKA (РКА), is the government agency responsible for the Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n space science
Space science
The term space science may mean:* The study of issues specifically related to space travel and space exploration, including space medicine.* Science performed in outer space ....

 program and general aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 research. It was previously the Russian Aviation and Space Agency ( Rossiyskoe aviatsionno-kosmicheskoe agentsvo, commonly known as "Rosaviakosmos").

Headquarters of Roscosmos are located in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. Main Mission Control space flight operations center is located in a nearby city of Korolev
Korolyov (city)
Korolyov or Korolev is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration. It was originally founded as Kaliningrad in 1938 by Vasily Boldyrev, Naum Nosovsky, and Mikhail Loginov as the leading Soviet center for production of anti-tank...

. Cosmonauts Training Centre (GCTC) is in Star City
Star City, Russia
Star City is a common name of an area in Moscow Oblast, Russia, which has since the 1960s been home to the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center...

. Launch facilities used are Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
The Baikonur Cosmodrome , also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppe of Kazakhstan, about east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters above sea level...

 in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 (with most launches taking place there, both manned and unmanned) and Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is a Russian spaceport, located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk.-Overview:...

 in northern Russia used primarily for unmanned flights of military designations.

The current General Director, since 29 April 2011, is Vladimir Popovkin
Vladimir Popovkin
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Popovkin is the General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency and First Deputy Defense Minister of Russia. He is a retired General of the Army and former commander of the Russian Space Forces.- Biography :...

.

History

The Soviet space program
Soviet space program
The Soviet space program is the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991...

 did not have central executive agencies. Instead, its organizatorial architecture was multi-centered; it was the design bureaus and the council of designers that had the most say, not the political leadership. The creation of a central agency after the separation of Russia from the Soviet Union was therefore a new development. Russian Space Agency was formed on February 25, 1992 by a decree of President Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. On 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of...

. Yuri Koptev
Yuri Koptev
Yuri Nikolayevich Koptev is a former General Director of the Russian Space Agency Roscosmos, serving in that role from 1992 to 2004.Beginning in 1965, he worked as an engineer at NPO Lavochkin....

, who had previously worked with designing Mars landers at NPO Lavochkin, became the agency's—later renamed to Roskosmos—first director.

In the early years, the agency suffered from lack of authority as the powerful design bureaus fought to protect their own spheres of operation and to survive. For example, the decision to keep Mir in operation beyond 1999 was not taken by the agency; instead, it was made by the private shareholder board of the Energia design bureau. Another example is that the decision to develop the new Angara rocket
Angara rocket
The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles currently under development by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center...

 was rather a function of Khrunichev
Khrunichev
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets. The company's history dates back to 1916, when an automobile factory was established outside Moscow...

's ability to attract resources than a conscious long-term decision by the agency.

Crisis years

The 1990s saw serious financial problems because of the decreased cash flow, which encouraged Roskosmos to improvise and seek other ways to keep space programs running. This resulted in Roskosmos' leading role in commercial satellite launches and space tourism
Space tourism
Space Tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. A number of startup companies have sprung up in recent years, hoping to create a space tourism industry...

. While scientific missions, such as interplanetary probes or astronomy missions during these years played a very small role, Roskosmos managed to operate the space station Mir
Mir
Mir was a space station operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, at first by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, Mir was the first modular space station and had a greater mass than that of any previous spacecraft, holding the record for the...

 well past its planned lifespan, contribute to the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

, and continue to fly additional Soyuz
Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

 and Progress
Progress spacecraft
The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. The spacecraft is an unmanned resupply spacecraft during its flight but upon docking with a space station, it allows astronauts inside, hence it is classified manned by the manufacturer. It was derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, and is...

 missions.

In March 2004, director Yuri Koptev was replaced by Anatoly Perminov, who had previously served as the first commander of the Space Forces.

Improved situation in 2005–2006

The Russian economy boomed throughout 2005 from high prices for exports, such as oil and gas, the outlook for future funding in 2006 appeared more favorable. This resulted in the Russian Duma approving a budget of 305 billion ruble
Russian ruble
The ruble or rouble is the currency of the Russian Federation and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Formerly, the ruble was also the currency of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union prior to their breakups. Belarus and Transnistria also use currencies with...

s (about 11 billion USD) for the Space Agency from 2006 to 2015, with overall space expenditures in Russia total about 425 billion rubles for the same time period. The budget for 2006 was as high as 25 billion rubles (about 900 million USD), which is a 33% increase from the 2005 budget. Under the current 10 year budget approved, the budget of the Space Agency shall increase 5–10% per year, providing the space agency with a constant influx of money. In addition to the budget, Roskosmos plans to have over 130 billion rubles flowing into its budget by other means, such as industry investments and commercial space launches.

New director

On 29 April 2011, Perminov was replaced with Vladimir Popovkin
Vladimir Popovkin
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Popovkin is the General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency and First Deputy Defense Minister of Russia. He is a retired General of the Army and former commander of the Russian Space Forces.- Biography :...

 as the director of Roscosmos. The 65-year old Perminov was over the legal age for state officials, and had received some criticism after a failed GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 launch in December 2010. Popovkin is a former commander of the Russian Space Forces and First Deputy Defense Minister of Russia.

Budget

The federal space budget for the year 2009 was left unchanged despite the global economic crisis, standing at about 82 billion rubles ($2.4 billion). In 2011, the government is planning to spend 115 billion rubles ($3.8 bln) in the national space programs.

Current priorities of the Russian space program include the new Angara rocket family and development of new communications, navigation and remote Earth sensing spacecraft. The GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 global navigation satellite system has for many years been one of the top priorities and has been given its own budget line in the federal space budget. In 2007, GLONASS received 9.9 billion rubles ($360 million), and under the terms of a directive signed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in 2008, an additional $2.6 billion will be allocated for its development.

Problems

Due to International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

 involvements, up to 50% of Russia's space budget is spent on the manned space program. Some observers have pointed out that this has a detrimental effect on other aspects of space exploration, and that the other space powers spend much lesser proportions of their overall budgets on maintaining human presence in orbit.

Despite the considerably improved budget, attention of legislative and execute authorities, positive media coverage and broad support among the population, the Russian space program continues to face several problems. Wages in the space industry are low; the average age of employees is high (46 years in 2007), and much of the equipment is obsolete. On the positive side, many companies in the sector have been able to profit from contracts and partnerships with foreign companies; several new systems such as new rocket upper stages have been developed in recent years; investments have been made to production lines, and companies have started to pay more attention to educating a new generation of engineers and technicians.

The federal space plan for 2006–2015

The key elements of the current space plan, introduced in 2005, are:
  • Replacement of the Soyuz spacecraft
    Soyuz spacecraft
    Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

    : Prospective Piloted Transport System
    Prospective Piloted Transport System
    PPTS , unofficially called Rus, is a project being undertaken by the Russian Federal Space Agency to develop a new-generation manned spacecraft...

  • New rocket for manned flights: Rus-M
    Rus-M
    Rus-M was a proposed launcher design which was intended to become Russia's main launch vehicle for manned spaceflight after 2018, and an integral part of the Prospective Piloted Transport System which included a new manned spacecraft being developed to replace the Soyuz.Rus-M was being developed by...

  • Return to Moon: Luna Glob (launch of the first probe planned for 2012)
  • Return to Mars: Phobos-Grunt (launched 8 November 2011, failed)
  • Return to Venus: Venera D
  • Mars 500 simulation (completed in 2011)
  • Introduction of the Angara launcher (first launch expected in 2011)
  • Completion of the Russian segment of the International Space Station
    International Space Station
    The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

  • Completion of the GLONASS
    GLONASS
    GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

     group to 21 operational satellites by early 2011.
  • New Earth resources programs using the Resurs DK
    Resurs DK
    Resurs-DK1 is a commercial Earth observation satellite capable of transmitting high-resolution imagery to the ground stations as it passes overhead...

     platform: Resurs P (2009) and Smotr (2007) and a small platform Arkon
    Arkon
    Arkon is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics Universe. He is the warlord and ruler of the extra-dimensional world of Polemachus.-Fictional character biography:Arkon was born of noble lineage on the extra-dimensional world Polemachus...

     (2007)
  • Earthquake monitoring satellite Vulkan (2007)
  • New science missions: Koronas Foton (launched in January 2009), Spektr R (RadioAstron, 2007), Spektr RG
    Spectrum-X-Gamma
    Spektr-RG is an international high-energy astrophysics observatory, which is being built under the leadership of the Russian Space Research Institute...

     (Roentgen Gamma, 2009) and Spektr UV (Ultra Violet, 2010), Intergelizond (2011), Venera D (2016), Celsta (2018) and Terion (2018)
  • Resumption of Bion
    Bion
    Bion , Greek bucolic poet, was a native of the city of Smyrna and flourished about 100 BC. Most of his work is lost. There remain 17 fragments and the Epitaph of Adonis, a mythological poem on the death of Adonis and the lament of Aphrodite...

     missions with Bion M (2010)
  • New weather satellites Elektro L (launched in January, 2011) and Elektro P (2015)

ISS involvement

The Russian Space Agency is one of the partners in the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

 (ISS) program; it contributed the core space modules Zarya
Zarya
Zarya , also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB , was the first module of the International Space Station to be launched. The FGB provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance to the ISS during the initial stage of assembly...

 and Zvezda, which were both launched by Proton rockets and later were joined by NASA's Unity Module. The Rassvet module
Rassvet (ISS module)
Rassvet , also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 and formerly known as the Docking Cargo Module , is a component of the International Space Station . The module's design is similar to the Mir Docking Module launched on STS-74 in 1995. Rassvet is primarily used for cargo storage and as a docking...

 was launched aboard and will be primarily used for cargo storage and as a docking port for visiting spacecraft. The Nauka module will be the last component of the ISS and is expected to launch May 2012. Roskosmos is furthermore responsible for expedition crew launches by Soyuz-TMA
Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

 spacecraft and resupplies the space station with Progress
Progress spacecraft
The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. The spacecraft is an unmanned resupply spacecraft during its flight but upon docking with a space station, it allows astronauts inside, hence it is classified manned by the manufacturer. It was derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, and is...

 space transporters. After the initial ISS contract with NASA expired, RKA and NASA, with the approval of the US government, entered into a space contract running until 2011, according to which Roskosmos will sell NASA spots on Soyuz spacecraft for approximately $21 million per person each way (thus $42 million to and back from the ISS per person) as well as provide Progress transport flights ($50 million per Progress as outlined in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study
Exploration Systems Architecture Study
The Exploration Systems Architecture Study is the official title of a large-scale, system level study released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in November 2005 in response to American president George W...

 study http://www.mosnews.com/news/2006/01/06/nasabuys.shtml). RKA has announced that according to this arrangement, manned Soyuz
Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

 flights will be doubled to 4 per year and Progress
Progress spacecraft
The Progress is a Russian expendable freighter spacecraft. The spacecraft is an unmanned resupply spacecraft during its flight but upon docking with a space station, it allows astronauts inside, hence it is classified manned by the manufacturer. It was derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, and is...

 flights also doubled to 8 per year beginning in 2008.

RKA also provides space tourism
Space tourism
Space Tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. A number of startup companies have sprung up in recent years, hoping to create a space tourism industry...

 for fare-paying passengers to ISS through the Space Adventures
Space Adventures
Space Adventures, Ltd. is a Virginia, USA-based space tourism company founded in 1998 by Eric C. Anderson. , offerings include zero-gravity atmospheric flights, orbital spaceflights , and other spaceflight-related experiences including cosmonaut training, spacewalk training, and launch tours...

 company. As of 2009, six space tourists have contracted with Roskosmos and have flown into space, each for an estimated fee of at least $20 million (USD).

Science programs

RKA operates a number of programs for earth science, communication, and scientific research. Future projects include the Soyuz
Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

 successor, the Prospective Piloted Transport System
Prospective Piloted Transport System
PPTS , unofficially called Rus, is a project being undertaken by the Russian Federal Space Agency to develop a new-generation manned spacecraft...

, scientific robotic missions to one of the Mars
Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance...

 moons as well as an increase in Lunar orbit research satellites.
  • Luna-Glob
    Luna-Glob
    Luna-Glob is the name of a Moon-exploration program by the Russian Federal Space Agency based on plans dating back to 1997. Due to financial problems, however, the project was put on hold only to be revived a few years later. Initially scheduled for launch in 2012, the mission has been brought...

     Moon orbiter with penetrators
  • Venera-D
    Venera-D
    The Venera-D probe is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus, to be launched around 2016. Venera-D's prime purpose is to make remote-sensing observations around the planet Venus in a manner similar to that of the U.S. Magellan spacecraft in the 1990s, but with the use of more powerful radar....

     Venus lander
  • Phobos-Grunt Mars mission

Rockets

Roskosmos is using a launch family of several rockets, the most famous of them is the R-7
R-7 family
The R-7 family of rockets is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM. More R-7 rockets have been launched than any other family of large rockets....

, commonly known as the Soyuz rocket, capable of launching about 7.5 tons into low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
A low Earth orbit is generally defined as an orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km...

 (LEO). The Proton rocket (or UR-500K) has a lift capacity of over 20 tons to LEO. Smaller rockets include Cosmos-3M
Cosmos-3M
The Kosmos-3M is a Russian space launch vehicle. It is a liquid-fueled two-stage rocket, first launched in 1967 and with over 420 successful launches to its name. The Cosmos 3M uses nitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizer to lift roughly 1400 kg of payload into orbit...

, the German-Russian cooperation Rockot
Rockot
The Rokot , also transliterated as a the pun Rockot, is a Russian space launch vehicle that can launch a payload of 1,950 kilograms into a 200 kilometre high Earth orbit with 63° inclination. It is a derivative of the UR-100N intercontinental ballistic missile , supplied and operated by Eurockot...

 and other Stations.

Currently rocket development encompasses both a new rocket system, Angara, as well as enhancements of the Soyuz rocket, Soyuz-2 and Soyuz-2-3. Two modifications of the Soyuz, the Soyuz-2.1a and Soyuz-2.1b has already been successfully tested, enhancing the launch capacity to 8.5 tons to LEO.

New piloted spacecraft

One of RKA's projects that has made a large impact on the media in 2005 is Kliper
Kliper
Kliper is a partly reusable manned spacecraft, proposed by RSC Energia.Designed primarily to replace the Soyuz spacecraft, Kliper has been proposed in two versions: as a pure lifting body design and as spaceplane with small wings...

, a small lifting body
Lifting body
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift. In contrast to a flying wing, which is a wing with minimal or no conventional fuselage, a lifting body can be thought of as a fuselage with little or no conventional wing...

 reusable spacecraft. While Roskosmos has reached out to ESA and JAXA as well as others to share development costs of the project, it also has stated that it will go forward with the project even without support of other space agencies. This statement was backed by the above-described approval of its budget for 2006–2015, which includes the necessary funding of Kliper
Kliper
Kliper is a partly reusable manned spacecraft, proposed by RSC Energia.Designed primarily to replace the Soyuz spacecraft, Kliper has been proposed in two versions: as a pure lifting body design and as spaceplane with small wings...

. However, the Kliper program was cancelled, to be replaced by the new Prospective Piloted Transport System
Prospective Piloted Transport System
PPTS , unofficially called Rus, is a project being undertaken by the Russian Federal Space Agency to develop a new-generation manned spacecraft...

 proposal.

Launch control

The military counterpart of the RKA is the Military Space Forces (VKS). The VKS controls Russia's Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is a Russian spaceport, located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk.-Overview:...

 launch facility. The RKA and VKS share control of the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
The Baikonur Cosmodrome , also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppe of Kazakhstan, about east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters above sea level...

, where the RKA reimburses the VKS for the wages of many of the flight controllers during civilian launches. The RKA and VKS also share control of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. It has been announced that Russia is to build another spaceport in Vostochny
Vostochny
Vostochny Port is intermodal container port at the Eastern end of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the largest port in the Russian Far East. It is located in Vrangel , Primorsky Krai. A deep-water port on the Nakhodka Bay , it operates year round and is suitable for handling large tonnage ships...

. The Vostochny Cosmodrome
Vostochny Cosmodrome
The Vostochny Cosmodrome is a planned Russian spaceport, to be located at 51 degrees north in the Amur Oblast, in the Russian Far East. It is intended to reduce Russia's dependency on the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which is located in Kazakhstan...

 is scheduled to be finished by 2018.

Space industry of Russia

Many of the former Soviet Design Bureaus
OKB
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian acronym for "Опытное конструкторское бюро" - Opytnoe Konstructorskoe Byuro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau...

 transformed into private aerospace companies and some remained as state research centers.
Soviet OKB
OKB
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian acronym for "Опытное конструкторское бюро" - Opytnoe Konstructorskoe Byuro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau...

 (if applicable)
New organization Ownership Notable products
Korolev RKK Energia
S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
OAO S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia , also known as RKK Energiya, is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components...

private
NPO Lavochkin
NPO Mashinostroyeniya
NPO Energomash
NPO Energomash
NPO Energomash “V. P. Glushko” is a Russian manufacturer originated from design bureau, which focuses primarily on the development and production of liquid propellant rocket engines. NPO Energomash is based in Moscow, with satellite facilities in Samara, Perm, and St. Petersburg, and employs close...

Khrunichev state
TsSKB-Progress
Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center
The Progress State Research and Production Space Centre is a Russian "Federal State Unitary Enterprise" under the jurisdiction of Roscosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency responsible for space science and aerospace research...

state
NPO Molniya
NPO Molniya
NPO Molniya is a Russian scientific and production enterprise, founded on February 26, 1976 prior to and for the creation of Shuttle Buran. At present, NPO Molniya carrying works on the reusable launch systems.- External links :*...

NPO PM
NPO Polyot
MKB Raduga
MKB Raduga
MKB Raduga is a Russian aerospace company, concerned with the production of various missile systems and related technologies. It is headquartered in Dubna in the Moscow Oblast...

Kuznetsov
Khimavtomatika
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau , also KB Khimavtomatika is a Russian Design Bureau founded by the NKAP in 1941 and led by Semyon Kosberg until his death in 1965. Its origin dates back to a 1940 Moscow carburetor factory, evacuated to Berdsk in 1941, and then relocated to Voronezh in 1945,...

Makeyev
Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau
The Makeyev Design Bureau is a Russian missile design company located at in Miass, Russia. Opened in December 1947 as SKB-385, the company is the main designer of submarine-launched ballistic missiles in Russia. The organization was named in honor of Victor Makeyev. Its full official name is...

JSC Khartron
Khartron
JSC "Khartron" is a one of the leading design engineering bureaus of CIS , which develops and produces spacecraft control systems.- History and achievements :Khartron Corp...

private
Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology
Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology
Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology a Russian scientific research institute that was founded on May 13, 1946...

related Ukrainian
National Space Agency of Ukraine
The State Space Agency of Ukraine is the Ukrainian government agency responsible for space policy and programs....

 organizations:
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau , located in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, is a designer of satellites and rockets, and formerly of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles established by Mikhail Yangel. Yuzhnoye's OKB designation was OKB-586....

Makarov Yuzhmash
Yuzhmash
The A.M. Makarov Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant, or PA Yuzhmash is a Ukrainian manufacturer of space rockets, agricultural equipment, buses, trolley buses and trams, wind turbines, and satellites...


See also

  • Ministry of General Machine Building of the USSR
  • TsNIIMash
    TsNIIMash
    TsNIIMash is an initialism for the Central Research Institute of Machine Building , which is the institute of the Russian aeronautics and space agency and specializes in the development of long range ballistic missiles, air defense missiles, and propulsion units for defense sectors...

     (Russian: ЦНИИмаш) is the Central Research Institute of Machine Building, an institute of the Russian aeronautics and space formed in 1946
  • List of cosmonauts
  • List of Russian aerospace engineers
  • Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
    Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
    Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records encompasses the key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the modern Russian Federation....

  • International Space Olympics
    International Space Olympics
    The International Space Olympics are an annual competition for young people aged from 14 to 18, held in Korolev City Moscow, Russia. Competitions are in a variety of fields including Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science, and English Literature, in addition to a space related research...


External links

RKA home page in Russian
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