Rostov-on-Don
Overview
 
The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais
Tanais
Tanais is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Strabo regarded it as the boundary between Europe and Asia.In antiquity, Tanais was also the name of a city in the Don river delta that reaches into the northeasternmost part of the Sea of Azov, which the Greeks called Lake Maeotis...

, of the Genoese
Genoa
Genoa |Ligurian]] Zena ; Latin and, archaically, English Genua) is a city and an important seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria....

 fort Tana, and of the Turk
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

ish fortress Azak. (See the article on Azov
Azov
-External links:** *...

 for detailed information on those settlements.)

Rostov-on-Don was founded on December 15, 1749, as a customs house was set up on the Temernik River
Temernik River
Temernik River is a small river in Rostov Oblast of Russia. It is a right tributary of the Don River, and is 35,5 km long, with a drainage basin of 293 km². Temernik is very polluted....

 (a tributary of the Don) to control the trade with Turkey.
Encyclopedia

History

The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais
Tanais
Tanais is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Strabo regarded it as the boundary between Europe and Asia.In antiquity, Tanais was also the name of a city in the Don river delta that reaches into the northeasternmost part of the Sea of Azov, which the Greeks called Lake Maeotis...

, of the Genoese
Genoa
Genoa |Ligurian]] Zena ; Latin and, archaically, English Genua) is a city and an important seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria....

 fort Tana, and of the Turk
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

ish fortress Azak. (See the article on Azov
Azov
-External links:** *...

 for detailed information on those settlements.)

Rostov-on-Don was founded on December 15, 1749, as a customs house was set up on the Temernik River
Temernik River
Temernik River is a small river in Rostov Oblast of Russia. It is a right tributary of the Don River, and is 35,5 km long, with a drainage basin of 293 km². Temernik is very polluted....

 (a tributary of the Don) to control the trade with Turkey. The custom house was built according to the edict of the Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great. Not far from the customhouse grew the fortress. It was named after Russian metropolitan
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

, Saint Dimitry of Rostov
Dimitry of Rostov
Saint Dimitry of Rostov was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Feofan Prokopovich. He is representative of the strong Ukrainian influence upon the Russian Orthodox Church at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries...

, a newly-glorified bishop from the old Northern town Rostov the Great. Later the name was changed to Rostov (in 1806) and then to Rostov-on-Don. As Azov gradually declined, a settlement near the new fortress superseded it in importance as a chief commercial centre of the region. In 1756 the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" set up there, establishing a settlement on the high bank of the Don known as the "Kupecheskaya Sloboda" ("The merchants' settlement"). In 1796 this settlement received town rights and was renamed Rostov-on-Don, in order to distinguish it from its ancient namesake.
Rostov's favorable geographical position on the crossing of trade routes promoted the rapid economic development of the city. The Don River that the city is named for is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with regions to the north, and Rostov-on-Don is an important river port in both passenger-oriented and industrial shipping. Rostov became a busy trading port, which was visited by Russian, Italian, Greek, Turkish, as well as other foreign merchants. As the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia, it was a bone of contention between the Whites
White movement
The White movement and its military arm the White Army - known as the White Guard or the Whites - was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces.The movement comprised one of the politico-military Russian forces who fought...

 and the Reds
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 during the Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

. By 1928, the regional government was moved from the old Cossack capital Novocherkassk
Novocherkassk
Novocherkassk is a city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Tuzlov River and on the Aksay River. Population: 169,039 ; 170,822 ; 178,000 ; 123,000 ; 81,000 ; 52,000 ....

 to Rostov, which also engulfed the nearby Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

n town of Nor Nakhijevan (Nakhijevan, Proletarsky district now).

After the construction of the Volga-Don Shipping Canal
Volga-Don Canal
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points. The length of the waterway is 101 km ....

 in 1952 Rostov became a port of five seas: the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

, the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
The Sea of Azov , known in Classical Antiquity as Lake Maeotis, is a sea on the south of Eastern Europe. It is linked by the narrow Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea to the south and is bounded on the north by Ukraine mainland, on the east by Russia, and on the west by the Ukraine's Crimean...

, the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

, the White Sea
White Sea
The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, and the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast. The whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of...

, and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

.

The population of Rostov-on-Don was 15,000 in 1850 and 110,000 in the early 1900s. In the neighborhood there developed another town, founded in 1779 by the Crimean Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

, who were granted shelter in the South of Russia. It was Nakhichevan-on-Don. A wheat field was the border between two towns. Nowadays the central square of Rostov-on-Don, Theatre Square, is situated directly on the place of the former town border. In 1928 two cities were united and Nakhichevan became part of Rostov. In Armenian "Nakhichevan" means "the first halt". Thousands of descendants of the Crimean Armenians still live in Rostov.

In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov's principal landmarks - St Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St George Cathedral in Nakhichevan (1783–1807).

Much of the city was reduced to rubble by the German
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 forces who occupied it twice during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 (known locally as the Great Patriotic War
Great Patriotic War (term)
The term Great Patriotic War , Velíkaya Otéchestvennaya voyná,) is used in Russia and some other states of the former Soviet Union to describe the portion of World War II from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945, against Nazi Germany and its allies in the many fronts of Soviet-German war.-History:The term...

) - in 1941 and 1942. The first occupation was in the autumn of 1941 (November 21). It lasted seven days. In the plans of Hitler's generals Rostov was a city of special importance, a strategic railway junction and a river port, a gateway to the Caucasus, rich in minerals, especially in oil. The city was badly damaged by bombing. The best units of the German panzer army were driven out of Rostov. But in the summer of 1942 (24 July) the German army managed to occupy the city for the second time. The second occupation lasted seven months (until 14 February). It took ten years to raise the city from the ruins and restore it even further.

Nowadays, the most conspicuous feature of the downtown is the enormous Cathedral of Virgin's Nativity (1860–87), designed by Konstantin Thon
Konstantin Thon
Konstantin Andreyevich Thon, also spelled Ton was an official architect of Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas I. His major works include the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow....

.

Rostov has rich cultural traditions. The names of dozens of well-known figures of art, literature and science are connected with the city: they either lived or worked in Rostov or nearby. They are the poets, writers A.P. Chekhov
Anton Chekhov
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian physician, dramatist and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history. His career as a dramatist produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics...

, M.A. Sholokhov, Zakrutkin, Fadeev, Safronov, Kalinin, A.S. Pushkin, A.M. Gorky
Maxim Gorky
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov , primarily known as Maxim Gorky , was a Russian and Soviet author, a founder of the Socialist Realism literary method and a political activist.-Early years:...

, S.A. Yesenin, A.N. Tolstoy, the architect E. Vuchetich, the scientists D.I. Mendeleyev, A.S. Popov, L.P. Pavlov, Solzhenitsyn and Zhdanov, the actress Maretskaya, the composers Zaslavsky, Nazaretov, the great Russian commander A.V. Suvorov and many others. Here Moussorgsky gave his concerts and Maxim Gorky, being a youth, worked as a docker. The great Russian actor Mikhail Shchepkin
Mikhail Shchepkin
Mikhail Semyonovich Shchepkin was the most famous Russian actor of the 19th century.As his father was a serf, Shchepkin's freedom had to be bought by his admirers in 1821. Three years later, he joined the Maly Theatre in Moscow, which he would dominate for the next 40 years—it became known as the...

 performed in the theatre and the celebrated explorer of the Arctic Sea George Sedov
Georgy Sedov
Georgy Yakovlevich Sedov was a Russian Arctic explorer.Born in the village of Krivaya Kosa of Taganrog district in a fisherman's family. In 1898, Sedov finished navigation courses in Rostov-on-Don and acquired the rank of long voyage navigator...

 dreamt about his expeditions. It is also important to mention the doctors N.Bogoraz and S.Fedosov, the Armenian writer and enlightener M.Nalbandyan
Mikael Nalbandian
Mikael Nalbandian was an Armenian writer who dominated 19th century Armenian literature, author of the Armenian national anthem text.-Biography:...

, the outstanding Armenian painters Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan was an Armenian painter.He was born into an Armenian family in Nor Nakhijevan . In 1895, aged 15, he completed the Nakhichevan school and from 1897 to 1904 studied at the Moscow School of Arts, including in the workshops of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin...

 and Ashot Melkonian. After visiting Rostov in 1831, A.S. Pushkin published his poem "The Don". The monument to A.S. Pushkin on Pushkin Boulevard is dedicated to remind those events.

Rostov-on-Don has experienced considerable economic growth in recent years, as the economy of Russia
Economy of Russia
The economy of Russia is the eleventh largest economy in the world by nominal value and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity . Russia has an abundance of natural gas, oil, coal, and precious metals...

 recovers nationwide. Numerous start-up companies have established headquarters in the city, the median income is increasing, and the city is being transformed from a place thrown back in time by the dissolution of the Soviet Union into a modern, industrial and technology-rich hub.

Symbols

In December 1996 Rostov Duma (Rostov Municipality) adopted the main symbols of Rostov-on-Don: the coat-of-arms, the flag and the mayor's decoration.

Coat of arms

For the first time the coat-of-arms of Rostov was designed in 1811 and was approved by the tsar. But in 1904 some changes were made in it. Now there is only one picture left of that coat-of-arms painted in oil; it is kept in the Regional Local Lore Museum but nobody knows if it is exact or not.

In June 1996 Rostov Duma decided to adopt the variant of the coat-of-arms where the tower represents the St. Dimitry Rostovsky Fortress. The ancient Russian arms remind about the role Rostov played in the defense of Russian borders. The coat-of-arms is located now on the mayor's decoration, all other cases of its use are considered by the Duma.

Flag

The Flag was approved by the Duma on September 20, 1864. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries the home guard regiments, which defended the Southern borders of Russia, were formed under this flag.

The Flag of Rostov is kept in the building of the City Municipality and protected by the glass case. Its length is 1370 mm and the width - 850 mm. The Flag is taken out of the building only on the Victory Day and City's Day by guard of honour.

Mayor's decoration

The decoration has an oval shape and was introduced in 1870. On its front side in the center there is the city coat-of-arms; at the top - the inscription "Rostov-on-Don" and at the bottom - "Mayor of the City". On its reverse side the day of adoption is written: "April 9, 1996".

The mayor's decoration should be worn over the suit on a big chain. It is done of precious or semi-precious white metal. It should be returned to the Duma when the Mayor retires.

Emblem of the Don Army Region

The Emblem of the Don Army Region was established in July, 5 (18), 1878. The flag of the All Great Don Army was established in May, 1918 on the Circle of the Don Saving. It consists of three length-wise stripes of blue, yellow and red of equal width. The decision of the Circle said: "Three nationalities live on the Don land and make native population of the Don region: Don Cossacks, Kalmyks and Russian peasant. Their national colours were blue (Cossacks), yellow (Kalmyks) and scarlet (Russian).

Awards

  • 1970, December - an Order of Lenin.
  • 1982 - an Order of the Great Patriotic War of the 1st Degree.
  • 2008 - an Honourable Status of “The City of Military Glory”

Administrative divisions

The city is divided into eight city districts: Voroshilovsky, Zheleznodorozhny, Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Pervomaysky, Proletarsky, and Sovetsky. Another city district (Liventsovsky) is being built. Its central avenue will be named after the famous Russian novelist, dramatist, and historian Alexander Solzhenitsyn.

Education

As per January 2007 Rostov-on-Don has 48 higher educational establishments, including 13 universities, 9 academies, 34 secondary schools of vocational training (including 24 colleges, 5 technical schools, 5 specialized schools), 40 elementary schools of vocational training (including 24 lyceums, 16 professional colleges), as well as 159 schools of general education.

The largest educational establishments of the city are:
  • Southern Federal University
    Southern Federal University
    Southern Federal University , abbreviated as SFedU and formely known as Rostov State University , is a public university in Rostov Oblast, Russia with campuses in Rostov-on-Don and Taganrog.-History:...

  • Don State Technical University
  • Rostov State University of Economy
  • The Railway Engineers' University
  • Rostov State University of Economy
  • Rostov State University of Civil Engineering
  • Rostov State Medical University
    Rostov State Medical University
    Rostov State Medical University is a Russia Government University of higher professional education and ministry on health and social medicine...

  • Rostov State Conservatory named after Sergei Rachmaninoff
    Sergei Rachmaninoff
    Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music...

  • Branch of the Moscow State Academy named after F.F. Ushakov
  • Rostov Eparchy Religious College
  • Rostov Institute of Advocacy of Entrepreneurs
  • Rostov Institute of Foreign Languages
  • Rostov International Institute of Economy and Management
  • Rostov Juridical Institute of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
  • Rostov Institute of Physical Training and Sports (branch of the Cuban State University of Physical Training, Sports and Tourism)
  • Rostov Social & Economic Institute
  • Rostov branch of Moscow Institute of Economy, Management and Law
  • South-Russian Institute of the Humanities
  • North-Caucasian Academy of Public Service
  • North-Caucasian Institute of Anthropology and Applied Psychology
  • The Modern University for the Humanities
    Modern University for the Humanities
    The Modern University for the Humanities , established in 1992, is a state-accredited higher educational institution in Moscow, Russia offering primarily distance-based undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate studies and vocational education....

  • Russian State University of Trade & Economy
  • Institute of Management, Business and Law,
  • Rostov Institute of Law of the Russian Juridical Academy of the Russian Federation
  • Rostov State Academy of Architecture and Arts,
  • Rostov College of Arts named after M.B. Grekov.


Along with the higher educational institutions a French cultural center (Alliance francaise) http://www.afrostov.com, a British Council and German Goethe Institut, DAAD and Bosch foundation, Korean Cultural Center can also be found in Rostov.

Libraries

As per January 2007 Rostov-on-Don has 43 active libraries, the largest of which are:
  • The Don State Public Library,
  • Central Library named after Maxim Gorky,
  • Regional Children’s Library named after V.M. Velichkina
  • Rostov Regional Special Library for the Blind,
  • Scientific Library of the Medical University,
  • Central State Children’s Library named after Lenin
  • Children’s Library named after A.S. Pushkin
  • Children’s Library named after Mayakovskiy


The South-Russian Don State Public Library is the richest and the largest in the Northern Caucasus.

Theaters

As per the year 2007 Rostov-on-Don has the following theatres:
  • Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky,
  • Rostov State Puppet Theater,
  • Rostov Regional Academic Theater of the Youth,
  • Rostov Musical Theater


In the Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky works Mikhail Bushnov, who is the national artist of the USSR and an honorary citizen of Rostov-on-Don.

There is also Philharmonic, the Jazz Center named after Kim Nazaretov, many music schools and art studios in Rostov-on-Don.

Museums

Rostov museums, as per January 2007:
  • Museum of Local Lore,
  • the Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts,
  • Museum of Fine Arts on Dmitrovskaya,
  • Museum of Russian & Armenian Friendship
  • A Railway Museum and Pioneer / Children's Railway


The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of Arts include some genuine works by such masters of Russian painting as Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan, Aivazovsky as well as of modern Rostov artists. The Rostov Regional Local Lore Museum gives its visitors a good idea of Rostov and its surroundings - the history, culture, nature and the traditions and life of the Cossacks.

Cinemas

There are eight cinemas in Rostov-on-Don, as of January 2010:
  • ”Kinomaks-Don” (8 halls with the total capacity of 1230 seats, including 3D cinema hall),
  • ”Kinomaks-Pobeda” (with the capacity of 800 seats),
  • ”Plaza Cinema” (former “Pleven”, including 2 halls with the capacity of 540 and 240 seats),
  • ”Charlie Severny” (4 halls with the capacity of 180 seats each one)
  • ”Charlie Zapadny” (3 halls with the total capacity of 672 seats, including 3D cinema halls).
  • ”Rostov” (1 hall with the capacity of 630 seats),
  • ”Dom Kino” (1 hall with the capacity of 154 seats)
  • ”Luxor” (9 halls with the total capacity of 1227 seats, including 3D cinema hall)


One can also find the State Don Public Library cinema hall, “Zeitnot” auto-cinema, as well as “Chester-Pub” mobile cinema hall.

Besides, there are seven stadiums, a Palace of Sports, a circus, a zoo, as well as many parks (including botanical garden) in Rostov.

Today Rostov-on-Don is the site of the North Caucasian Science Center. There are many research institutes in Rostov.

Famous people

  • Irina Allegrova
    Irina Allegrova
    Irina Aleksandrovna Allegrova is a Russian singer of Russian and Armenian descent.-Biography:Irina Allegrova was born in Rostov-on-Don in 1952. Her Armenian father Alexander Sarkisov took the last name Allegrov as a pseudonym when he was just 17 and Irina was born under the name Allegrova. Her...

     (1952), pop singer
  • Yuri Bashmet
    Yuri Bashmet
    Yuri Abramovich Bashmet is a Russian conductor and violist.Direct patrilineal descendant of Besht.-Biography:Yuri Bashmet was born on 24 January 1953 in Rostov-on-Don in the family of Abram Borisovich Bashmet and Maya Zinovyeva Bashmet . "Father's mother, Tsilya Efimovna, studied singing at the...

     (1953), musician
  • Andrei Chikatilo
    Andrei Chikatilo
    Andrei Romanovich Chikatilo was a Ukrainian-born Soviet serial killer, nicknamed the Butcher of Rostov, The Red Ripper or The Rostov Ripper who murdered a minimum of 52 women and children between 1978 and 1990...

     (1936-1994), serial killer
  • Natalia Duritskaya
    Natalia Duritskaya
    Natalia Duritskaya — Russian painter, member of the Union of Artists of Russia.- Biography :Duritskaya was born in Taganrog on 16 July 1960, and was a student of Leonid Stukanov and Yuri Fesenko. From 1978 to 1982 she studied at the M.B. Grekov Rostov artistic school in , Rostov-on-Don...

     (1960), Russian painter
  • Yakov Frenkel
    Yakov Frenkel
    Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, was a Soviet physicist renowned for his works in the field of solid-state physics. He is also known as Jacov Frenkel....

     (1894–1952), solid-state physicist
  • Svyatoslav Fyodorov
    Svyatoslav Fyodorov
    Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov was a Russian ophthalmologist, eye microsurgeon, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and politician...

     (1927–2000), ophthalmologist
  • Yevgeniya Glushenko
    Yevgeniya Glushenko
    Evgeniya Konstantinovna Glushenko in Rostov-na-Donu is a Russian actress, best known for her role as Vera in a compelling Soviet melodrama Vlyublyon po sobstvennomu zhelaniyu...

     (1952), actress
  • Alexander Kaidanovsky (1946–1995), Soviet and Russian actor, producer, script writer
  • Vera Panova
    Vera Panova
    -Early life:Vera was born into the family of an impoverished merchant in Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Her father, Fyodor Ivanovich Panov, built canoes and yachts as a hobby, and founded two yachting clubs in Rostov. When she was five her father drowned in the Don River. After her father's death, her...

     (1905–1973), Soviet writer
  • Alexander Pechersky
    Alexander Pechersky
    Alexander Aronovich Pechersky was the chief organizer and leader of the most successful uprising and mass-escape of Jews from a Nazi extermination camp during World War II; this occurred at the Sobibor extermination camp on 14 October 1943.-Early life:...

     (1909–1990), a ringleader of the rebellion in the camp of Sobibor
    Sobibór extermination camp
    Sobibor was a Nazi German extermination camp located on the outskirts of the town of Sobibór, Lublin Voivodeship of occupied Poland as part of Operation Reinhard; the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor...

  • Martiros Saryan
    Martiros Saryan
    Martiros Saryan was an Armenian painter.He was born into an Armenian family in Nor Nakhijevan . In 1895, aged 15, he completed the Nakhichevan school and from 1897 to 1904 studied at the Moscow School of Arts, including in the workshops of Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin...

     (1880–1972), landscape painter, graphic artist and a theatre artist
  • Sabina Spielrein
    Sabina Spielrein
    Sabina Naftulovna Spielrein , born 7 November 1885, died 12 August 1942] , was one of the first female psychoanalysts. She studied under Carl Gustav Jung, with whom she was rumored to have had a romantic relationship...

     (1885–1942), psychoanalyst
  • Evgeny Shvarts
    Evgeny Shvarts
    Evgeny Lvovich Shvarts was a Soviet writer and playwright whose works include twenty-five plays and screenplays for three films .- Life :...

     (1896–1958), Russian writer and playwright
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
    Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
    Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was aRussian and Soviet novelist, dramatist, and historian. Through his often-suppressed writings, he helped to raise global awareness of the Gulag, the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system – particularly in The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of...

     (1918–2008), writer
  • Sergey Vladimirovich Rodionov
    Sergey Vladimirovich Rodionov
    Sergey Rodionov , is one of the most important electroacoustic music composers in Russia...

    , composer

The Greater Rostov

Ministry of Regional Development of Russia has prepared a program to create eight “Super Cities”, i.e. agglomerated centers with the multimillion population. The project applies to the Rostov Oblast as well. “The Greater Rostov” metropolitan area will include the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk
Novocherkassk
Novocherkassk is a city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Tuzlov River and on the Aksay River. Population: 169,039 ; 170,822 ; 178,000 ; 123,000 ; 81,000 ; 52,000 ....

, Taganrog
Taganrog
Taganrog is a seaport city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of Taganrog Bay , several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River. Population: -History of Taganrog:...

, Aksay, Bataysk
Bataysk
Bataysk is a city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Rostov-on-Don. Population: Bataysk has gained international attention since unveiling a "monument that shows a man's hand gripping a nubile female breast", which officials say "will bring family happiness to men who touch...

 and Azov
Azov
-External links:** *...

.

Center of the Federal District

Starting from May 13, 2000 the Plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in the Southern Federal District is allocated in Rostov. The federal district is not a part of an administrative and territorial division of the Russian Federation.

North Caucasus Military District

The headquarters of the North Caucasus Military District
North Caucasus Military District
The North Caucasus Military District was a military district of the Russian Ground Forces, which became in 2010 the Southern Military District and lately also includes the Black Sea Fleet and Caspian Flotilla....

 are situated in Rostov-on-Don.

Religion

The Administration of Rostov and Novocherkassk Eparchy
Eparchy
Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word , authentically Latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as 'rule over something,' like province, prefecture, or territory, to have the jurisdiction over, it has specific meanings both in politics, history and in the hierarchy of the Eastern Christian...

 of the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church or, alternatively, the Moscow Patriarchate The ROC is often said to be the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world; including all the autocephalous churches under its umbrella, its adherents number over 150 million worldwide—about half of the 300 million...

 is located in Rostov.

There are a Roman Catholic church of the Lord's Supper, an Old Believers'
Old Believers
In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers separated after 1666 from the official Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon between 1652–66...

 temple, a synagogue, a mosque, Armenian and Greek churches, Diamond Way
Diamond Way Buddhism
Diamond Way Buddhism is a lay organization within the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. The first Diamond Way Buddhist centre was founded in 1972 by Hannah and Ole Nydahl...

 Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu
Karma Kagyu
Karma Kagyu , or Kamtsang Kagyu, is probably the largest and certainly the most widely practiced lineage within the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The lineage has long-standing monasteries in Tibet, China, Russia, Mongolia, India, Nepal, and Bhutan, and current...

 Tradition.

Interurban transport

Rostov-on-Don is a major transport junction.

Rostov-on-Don Airport
Rostov-on-Don Airport
Rostov-on-Don Airport Aeroport Rostov-na-Donu is an international airport located 9 km east of the city of Rostov-on-Don, in southern Russia...

 has domestic flights, as well as flights to and from former C.I.S., Europe, Africa and Asia. The international river port is specialized in processing freights (mineral and construction, packing), timber and metal. There are also the main ("Rostov-Glavny
Rostov-Glavny
Rostov-Glavniy is a railway station in Rostov-on-Don, one of the major stations on the North Caucasus Railway. This station also includes commuter rail station Rostov-Prigorodniy opened in 1962 and rebuilt in 2009.- History :...

") & the suburban ("Rostov-Prigorodny") railway stations, as well as the main & the suburban bus stations available. The railway line “St.Petersburg-Rostov-Caucasus” crosses the territory of Rostov-on-Don. One can also find the navigable way, which goes from the center of Russia towards the Black and the Mediterranean Seas; and the air line “St.Petersburg-Moscow-Caucasus”.

The administration of a North Caucasus Railway is based in Rostov.

Starting from 2011 construction of the Southern Hub is planned. It will be the biggest airport in the South of Russia. The airport will be constructed at the territory of the former military aerodrome of Bataysk.

Several highways of federal and regional significance cross Rostov. The M-4 “Don” route passes Rostov right on the eastern side of it, crossing the Don river in Aksay city area. There is another route, called “Rostov-Novoshakhtinsk”, which starts from the Northern housing block area of the city and goes further northwards, connecting with the M-4 “Don” route between Shakhty and Novoshakhtinsk.

Urban transport

As per January 2007 there are 72 bus routes, 9 trolleybus routes and 54 route-taxi routes in Rostov-on-Don.

TV

The beginning of Rostov-on-Don television dates to 1956, when construction of the Rostov TV-center started. The construction was finished by April 26, 1958. The first trial TV programs appeared on TV on April 30, 1958. Rostovites could see the first colour TV in 1974.

Radio

The history of Rostov radio dates back to October 17, 1975.

There are 14 FM radio stations in Rostov (as of 2009).

Communication service

The first automatic telephone exchange in Russia with the capacity of 6 thousand numbers was let out to Rostov-on-Don into operation in 1929. Standard numbers of Rostov-on-Don include 7 digitals (starting from 2004). The city dialing code is "863". Starting from 2009 all city numbers begin with "2" or "3".

Association football

Present:
  • football club «Rostov
    FC Rostov
    FC Rostov is a Russian football club based in Rostov-on-Don, Rostov Oblast. The club are currently members of the Russian Premier League and play at the Olimp – 2 stadium.-History:...

    » (Russian Premier League
    Russian Premier League
    The Russian Premier League , currently called SOGAZ Russian Football Championship due to sponsorship reasons, is the top division of Russian football. There are 16 teams in the competition...

    )
  • football club «SKA Rostov-on-Don
    FC SKA Rostov-on-Don
    FC SKA Rostov-on-Don is a Russian association football club based in Rostov-on-Don. The club's rich history includes becoming runners-up of the Soviet Top League in 1966 and winning the Soviet Cup in 1981.-History:...

    » (Second division, «South» zone
    Russian Second Division
    The Russian Second Division is the third level of Russian professional football.In 1998–2010, it was run by the Professional Football League....

    )

Handball

Women's handball team Rostov-Don
Rostov-Don
Rostov-Don — female handball club from Rostov-on-Don. The club was established in 1965, until 2002 it was called Rostselmash.- Achievements :* The winner of the USSR championship — 1990, 1991...

 plays in the Russian Handball Championship. The men's team is known as TIBL-Group.

Environmental protection

Nowadays there are several ecological organizations in Rostov and one of them is "And Quiet Flows the Don
And Quiet Flows the Don
And Quiet Flows the Don or Quietly Flows the Don is the first part of the great Don epic Tikhiy Don , written by Michail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov. It originally appeared in serialized form between 1928 and 1940...

", named after M.A. Sholokhov's famous novel about the Cossacks, that has been working recent years trying to make the environmental situation in Southern Russia better and healthier.

One of the group's main tasks is to analyze the state of the environment and make the information public. Besides this the group takes actual measures. For example, they have reforested 25 hectares of land on the left bank of the river Don. The Cossack group plans to clean up polluted rivers in the region and has enlisted the help of Peace Corps volunteers to identify potential allies in Russia and abroad.

International relations

Twin towns/sister cities

Rostov-on-Don is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 Dortmund
Dortmund
Dortmund is a city in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. Its population of 585,045 makes it the 7th largest city in Germany and the 34th largest in the European Union....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Gera
Gera
Gera, the third-largest city in the German state of Thuringia , lies in east Thuringia on the river Weiße Elster, approximately 60 kilometres to the south of the city of Leipzig and 80 kilometres to the east of Erfurt...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Pleven
Pleven
Pleven is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria. Located in the northern part of the country, it is the administrative centre of Pleven Province, as well as of the subordinate Pleven municipality...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 Le Mans
Le Mans
Le Mans is a city in France, located on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department and the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Le Mans. Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region.Its inhabitants are called Manceaux...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Mobile
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Yerevan
Yerevan
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country...

, Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

Kajaani
Kajaani
Kajaani is a town and municipality in Finland.It is the capital of the Kainuu region. It is located southeast of Oulujärvi , which drains to the Gulf of Bothnia along the Oulujoki . There are inhabitants and city surface area is of which is water. The population density is . The town is...

, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 Cheongju
Cheongju
Cheongju is the capital city of Chungcheongbuk-do , South Korea. The city is divided into two wards , Heungdeok-gu and Sangdang-gu .-History:...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 Volos
Volos
Volos is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greek mainland, about 326 km north of Athens and 215 km south of Thessaloniki...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 Antalya
Antalya
Antalya is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. With a population 1,001,318 as of 2010. It is the eighth most populous city in Turkey and country's biggest international sea resort.- History :...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 Donetsk
Donetsk
Donetsk , is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin region...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Odessa
Odessa
Odessa or Odesa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 .The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement,...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...


Consulates of foreign countries/Visa service centers


External links

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