Rolls-Royce Trent
Overview
 
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engine
Aircraft engine
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines...

s manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

. All are developments of the RB211
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

 with thrust ratings of 53000 to 95000 lbf (235.8 to 422.6 kN). Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

, A340
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

, A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

, Boeing 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

, and 787, and variants are in development for the forthcoming A350 XWB
Airbus A350
The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

. The Trent has also been adapted for marine and industrial applications.

First run in August 1990 as the model Trent 700, the Trent has achieved significant commercial success, having been selected as the launch engine for both of the 787's two variants, the A380 and A350.
Encyclopedia
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engine
Aircraft engine
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines...

s manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

. All are developments of the RB211
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

 with thrust ratings of 53000 to 95000 lbf (235.8 to 422.6 kN). Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

, A340
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

, A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

, Boeing 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

, and 787, and variants are in development for the forthcoming A350 XWB
Airbus A350
The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

. The Trent has also been adapted for marine and industrial applications.

First run in August 1990 as the model Trent 700, the Trent has achieved significant commercial success, having been selected as the launch engine for both of the 787's two variants, the A380 and A350. Its overall share of the markets in which it competes is around 40%. Sales of the Trent family of engines have made Rolls-Royce the second biggest supplier of large civil turbofans after General Electric
GE-Aviation
GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, Ohio . GE Aviation is the top supplier of aircraft engines in the world, and offers engines for the majority of commercial aircraft. GE Aviation is part of the General Electric conglomerate, which is one of the world's...

, relegating rival Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

 to third position.

Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

 is currently the largest operator of Trents with five variants in service or on order.

Origin

When Rolls-Royce was privatised in April 1987, its share of the large civil turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 market was only 8 percent. Despite increasing sales success with the RB211
Rolls-Royce RB211
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 , it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type...

, General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

 and Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

 still dominated the market. At that time, the aircraft manufacturers were proposing new planes that would require unprecedented levels of thrust. Furthermore the Boeing 777 and Airbus A330 were to be twin-engined, and their airline customers were demanding that they be capable of operating in the Extended-range Twin-engine Operations (ETOPS) environment at the time of their initial introduction into service.

Rolls-Royce decided that to succeed in the large engine market of the future, it would have to offer engines for every large civil airliner. In view of the enormous development costs required to bring a new engine to market, the only way to do this would be to have a family of engines based on a common core. The three-shaft design of the RB211 was an ideal basis for the new family as it provided flexibility, allowing the high-pressure (HP), intermediate-pressure (IP) and low-pressure (LP) systems to be individually scaled. Freed from the restrictions of state ownership, Rolls decided to launch a new family of engines which was formally announced at the 1988 Farnborough Airshow. Reviving a name last used thirty years previously, the new engine was named the Trent
River Trent
The River Trent is one of the major rivers of England. Its source is in Staffordshire on the southern edge of Biddulph Moor. It flows through the Midlands until it joins the River Ouse at Trent Falls to form the Humber Estuary, which empties into the North Sea below Hull and Immingham.The Trent...

. The Trent name had been used for two previous Rolls-Royce engines. The first Trent was the world's first turboprop
Turboprop
A turboprop engine is a type of turbine engine which drives an aircraft propeller using a reduction gear.The gas turbine is designed specifically for this application, with almost all of its output being used to drive the propeller...

 engine. The name was reused again in the 1960s for the RB203 bypass turbofan which was designed to replace the Spey. Rated at 9980 lbf (44.4 kN) it was the first three-spool engine, and forerunner of the RB211 series, although it never entered service.

Rolls-Royce has obtained significant sums of 'launch investment' from the British government for the Trent programmes, including £
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

200 million approved in 1997 for Trent 8104, 500 and 600 and £250 million for Trent 600 and 900 in 2001. No aid was sought for Trent 1000. Launch investment is repaid to the government by a royalty on each engine sold

Design

Like its RB211 predecessor, the Trent uses a three-spool design rather than the more common two-spool configuration. Although inherently more complex, it results in a shorter, more rigid engine which suffers less performance degradation in service than an equivalent twin-spool.

Although all the engines in the Trent family share a similar layout, their three-spool configuration allows each engine module to be individually scaled to meet a wide range of performance and thrust requirements. For example, the large 116 inches (294.6 cm) diameter fan of the Trent 900 keeps the mean jet velocity at take-off at a relatively low level to help meet the stringent noise levels required by the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

's customers. Similarly, core size changes enable the (HP) turbine rotor inlet temperature to be kept as low as possible, thereby minimising maintenance costs. The overall pressure ratio of the Trent 800 is higher than the 700's despite sharing the same HP system and IP turbine; this was achieved by increasing the capacity of the IP compressor and the LP turbine.

The core turbomachinery is brand new, giving better performance, noise and pollution levels than the RB211. So significant were the improvements that Rolls-Royce fitted the Trent 700's improved HP system to the RB211-524G and -524H, creating -524G-T and -524H-T respectively.

When the RB211 programme originally started, it was intended that none of the compression system would require variable stators, unlike the American competition. Unfortunately, it was found that, because of the shallow working line on the Intermediate Pressure Compressor (IPC), at least one row of variable stators was required on the IPC, to improve its surge margin at throttled conditions. This feature has been retained throughout the RB211 and Trent series. Although the original intent was not met, Rolls-Royce eliminated the need for many rows of variable stators, with all its inherent complexity, thereby saving weight, cost and improving reliability.

On 17 January 2008, a British Airways Boeing 777-236ER, operating as BA038
British Airways Flight 38
British Airways Flight 38 was a scheduled flight from Beijing Capital International Airport which crash landed just short of the runway at its destination, London Heathrow Airport, on 17 January 2008 after an flight. There were no fatalities, but 47 people sustained injuries...

 from Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 to London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, crash-landed at Heathrow after both Trent 800 engines lost power during the aircraft's final approach. The subsequent investigation found that the cause was ice released from the fuel system which accumulated on the fuel-oil heat exchanger leading to a restriction of fuel flow to the engines. This resulted in Airworthiness Directives mandating the replacement of the heat exchanger. This order was extended to the 500 and 700 series engines after a similar loss of power was observed on one engine of an Airbus A330 in one incident, and both engines in another. The modification involves replacing a face plate with many small protruding tubes with one that is flat.

Trent 600 – First proposal

The initial variant, the Trent 600, was to power the McDonnell Douglas MD-11
McDonnell Douglas MD-11
The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is a three-engine medium- to long-range widebody jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Based on the DC-10, it features a stretched fuselage, increased wingspan with winglets, refined airfoils on the wing and smaller...

 with British Caledonian
British Caledonian
British Caledonian was a private, British independentindependent from government-owned corporations airline, operating out of Gatwick Airport in the 1970s and 1980s...

 as the engine's launch customer. However, British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 cancelled the MD-11 order when it acquired British Caledonian
British Caledonian
British Caledonian was a private, British independentindependent from government-owned corporations airline, operating out of Gatwick Airport in the 1970s and 1980s...

 in 1987. With the collapse in 1991 of Air Europe
Air Europe
Air Europe was a wholly privately owned, independentindependent from government-owned corporations British airline, established in 1978 under the working title Inter European Airways. It adopted the Air Europe name the following year...

 in the aftermath of the 1990-91 Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

, the only other Trent-powered MD-11 customer was lost. As the MD-11 was itself suffering poor sales due to its failure to meet its performance targets, the Trent 600 was downgraded to a demonstrator programme, engine development being switched to the Trent 700 for the Airbus A330.

Trent 700

In April 1989, Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

 became the first customer to specify an Airbus aircraft powered by Rolls-Royce engines when it ordered ten A330s powered by the Trent 700. The following month Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines was an American airline that existed from 1925 until it was bought out by and merged with American Airlines in 2001. It was a major domestic airline in the United States and the main U.S.-based competitor of Pan American World Airways on intercontinental routes from 1946...

 followed suit with an order for twenty A330s.

The Trent 700 first ran in August 1990, and certification was achieved in January 1994. 90 minutes ETOPS approval was achieved in March 1995, and this was extended to 120 minutes in December 1995 and 180 minutes in May 1996.

Trent 800

At the same time, Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 was investigating an enlarged development of its 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

 model dubbed the 767X, for which Rolls-Royce proposed the Trent 760. By 1990 Boeing abandoned its planned 767X and instead decided to launch a new, larger aircraft family designated 777 with a thrust requirement of 80000 lbf (355.9 kN) or more. The Trent 700's 2.47 m (97.2 in) diameter fan would not be big enough to meet this requirement, so Rolls proposed a new version with a 2.8 m (110.2 in) fan diameter, designated Trent 800.

Testing of the Trent 800 began in September 1993, and certification was achieved in January 1995. The first Boeing 777 with Trent 800 engines flew in May 1995, and entered service with Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

 in April 1996.

Initially Rolls-Royce had difficulty selling the engine; British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

, traditionally a Rolls-Royce customer, submitted a large order for the competing General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

 GE90
General Electric GE90
General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings ranging from 74,000 to 115,000 lbf . It was first introduced in November 1995 on British Airways' 777s, and is available only on the 777...

 engine. The breakthrough came when the it won orders from Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

, previously a staunch Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

 customer, for its 34 Boeing 777s. The Trent 800 has a 41% share of the engine market on the 777 variants for which it is available.

Trent 8104

In 1998 Boeing proposed new longer range variants of the 777X. Taking advantage of the Trent 800's growth capability, Rolls-Royce designed and built an improved engine designated Trent 8104, which was later scaled upwards to the even larger 8115. This development was the first engine to break through 100000 lbf (444.8 kN) thrust and subsequently the first to reach 110000 lbf (489.3 kN). However, GE Aviation former president James McNerney
James McNerney
W. James McNerney, Jr, is an American business executive. He is the current CEO of Boeing Company.- Education :...

 (now Boeing CEO) successfully offered the aircraft manufacturer up to $500 million in money to develop the 777X in exchange for exclusivity in powering the family. Boeing agreed in July 1999 to such a deal with the GE90-110B and GE90-115B to be the sole engines on the long-range 777s. This resulted in the 8104 becoming just a demonstrator programme, despite setting further industry firsts for thrust levels achieved and the first to demonstrate the use of a fully swept wide chord fan.

Trent 500

In 1995, Airbus began considering an engine for two new long-range derivatives of its four-engine A340 aircraft, designated A340-500/-600. In April 1996, Airbus signed an agreement with General Electric
GE-Aviation
GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, Ohio . GE Aviation is the top supplier of aircraft engines in the world, and offers engines for the majority of commercial aircraft. GE Aviation is part of the General Electric conglomerate, which is one of the world's...

 to develop a suitable engine, but decided not to proceed when GE demanded an exclusivity deal on the A340. After a contest with Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

, Airbus announced on 15 June 1997 at the Paris Air Show
Paris Air Show
The Paris Air Show is the world's oldest and largest air show. Established in 1909, it is currently held every odd year at Le Bourget Airport in north Paris, France...

 that it had selected the Trent 500 to power the A340-500 and -600. Two year later, in May 1999, the Trent 500 first ran and certification was achieved in December 2000. It entered service on the A340-600 with Virgin Atlantic Airways
Virgin Atlantic Airways
Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited is a British airline owned by Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group and Singapore Airlines...

 in July 2002 and on the ultra-long range A340-500 with Emirates in December 2003.

As of January 2009 a total of 15 customers had placed firm orders for 139 A340s powered by Trent 500s; Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

 is the largest operator with 21 currently in service.

Trent 900

In the early 1990s, Airbus had begun development of a larger successor to the Boeing 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, an aircraft designated A3XX, which was later to be formally launched as the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

. By 1996, its definition had progressed to the extent that Rolls-Royce was able to announce that it would develop the Trent 900 to power the A380. In October 2000, the Trent 900 became the A380's launch engine when Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

 specified the engine for its order for 10 A380s; this was quickly followed by Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

 in February 2001.

The Trent 900 made first ran on May 17, 2004 on Airbus' A340-300 testbed, replacing the port inner CFM56-5
CFM International CFM56
The CFM International CFM56 series is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by CFM International , with a thrust range of . CFMI is a 50–50 joint-owned company of SNECMA, France and GE Aviation , USA. Both companies are responsible for producing components and each has its own...

 engine, and its final certification was granted by the European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...

 (EASA) on 29 October 2004 and the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 (FAA) on 4 December 2006. Rolls-Royce announced in October 2007 that production of the Trent 900 had been re-started after a twelve month suspension caused by delays to the A380.

On 27 September 2007, British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 announced the selection of the Trent 900 to power 12 A380 aircraft, helping to take the engine's share of the A380 engine market to 52% at the end of February 2009.

On 4 November 2010, a Trent 900 experienced an uncontained failure
Turbine engine failure
A turbine engine failure refers to an incident wherein a turbine engine in an aircraft unexpectedly stops producing power because of a part malfunction, in the absence of circumstances such as fuel exhaustion.-Nature of failures:...

 on Qantas Flight 32
Qantas Flight 32
Qantas Flight 32 was a Qantas passenger flight that on 4 November 2010 suffered an uncontained engine failure and was forced to make an emergency landing at Singapore Changi Airport. The failure was the first of its kind for the four-engined Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger aircraft...

 over Singapore. After investigation, Rolls-Royce announced the problem was specific to the Trent 900, and in particular unrelated to failure of a Trent 1000 under test. However, others have noted that although the specific part may be only found in the 900, in both cases the intermediate pressure turbine and lubrication system are suspect.

Trent 600 – Second proposal

In July 2000, Rolls-Royce signed an agreement with Boeing to offer the Trent 600 engine on developments of 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

 and 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

 aircraft. The 767 variant was to be a new longer-range version of the Boeing 767-400ER to be powered by the Trent 600 and Engine Alliance GP7172, although in the end this aircraft was never launched. When Boeing finally launched the 747-8
Boeing 747-8
The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Officially announced in 2005, the 747-8 is the fourth-generation Boeing 747 version, with lengthened fuselage, redesigned wings and improved efficiency...

 in 2005 it announced that the General Electric
GE-Aviation
GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, Ohio . GE Aviation is the top supplier of aircraft engines in the world, and offers engines for the majority of commercial aircraft. GE Aviation is part of the General Electric conglomerate, which is one of the world's...

 GEnx
General Electric GEnx
The General Electric GEnx is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8...

 would be the only engine available for the 747-8.

Trent 1000

On 6 April 2004 Boeing announced that it had selected two engine partners for its new 787, Rolls-Royce and General Electric. Initially, Boeing toyed with the idea of sole sourcing the powerplant for the 787, with GE being the most likely candidate. However, potential customers demanded choices and Boeing relented. For the first time in commercial aviation, both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either a GE or Rolls-Royce engine at any time as long as the pylon is also modified.

In June 2004, the first public engine selection was made by Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, the airline operates scheduled passenger flights to 26 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations in 15 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, and is...

, who chose the Trent 1000 for its two firm orders. In the largest 787 order, that of Japan's All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

, Rolls-Royce was selected as the engine supplier on October 13, 2004. The deal is valued at $1 billion (£
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

560 million) and covers 30 787-3s and 20 787-8s. The Trent 1000 will be the launch engine on all three current 787 models, the -8 with ANA and the -9 with Air New Zealand. On 7 July 2007, Rolls Royce secured its largest ever order from an aircraft leasing company when ILFC
International Lease Finance Corporation
The International Lease Finance Corporation is an aircraft lessor headquartered in Century City, Los Angeles, California.It is the world's largest aircraft lessor by value, though ILFC's rival, General Electric's GECAS unit, has more aircraft...

 placed an order worth $1.3 billion at list prices for Trent 1000s to power 40 of the 787s which it has on order, and on 27 September 2007 British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 announced the selection of the Trent 1000 to power 24 Boeing 787 aircraft. Trent 1000's share of the 787 engine market was 40% at the end of August 2008.

The first run of the Trent 1000 was on 14 February 2006, with first flight on Rolls-Royce's own flying testbed (a modified Boeing 747-200) successfully performed on June 18, 2007 from TSTC Waco Airport
TSTC Waco Airport
TSTC Waco Airport is an airport located within city limits, northeast of central Waco, Texas. Before 1968, it was known as James Connally Air Force Base....

 in Waco, TX. The engine received joint certification from the FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 and EASA
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...

 on 7 August 2007 (written 7/8/7 outside the US). Entry into service has been delayed by more than two years to the last quarter of 2010 following a series of delays to the Boeing 787 programme. The Trent 1000, along with the General Electric GEnx
General Electric GEnx
The General Electric GEnx is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8...

, is distinguished from other turbofans with the use of noise-reducing chevrons on the engine nacelle when in use.

Trent 1500

A Trent 500 replacement engine, known unofficially as the Trent 1500, was proposed for the Airbus A340-500/600 to help them compete with the Boeing 777-200LR/300ER. However, the announcement of the A350 XWB, which covers the A340 market, will most likely prevent the Trent 1500 from ever becoming a reality.

The Trent 1500 would retain the 2.47 metre fan diameter of the current Trent 500 engine, as well as the nacelle, but incorporates the smaller, more advanced, Trent 1000/XWB gas generator and LP turbine, suitably modified.

Trent XWB

By 2004, Airbus was facing pressure from customers to develop a competitor for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, and in October 2005 formally launched the new aircraft designated A350, which was to be essentially an updated A330. Rolls-Royce offered a variant of the Trent 1000, dubbed Trent 1700 which would have been similar to the Trent 1000, but with a throttle-push to 75000 lbf (333.6 kN) static thrust. Unlike the Trent 1000, the Trent 1700 would have been a conventional bleed-air
Bleed air
Bleed air in gas turbine engines is compressed air taken from within the engine, after the compressor stage and before the fuel is injected in the burners. While in theory bleed air could be drawn in any gas turbine engine, its usage is generally restricted to jet engines used in aircraft...

 engine, and would be developed in partnership with Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
is an international corporation based in Japan. It has headquarters in both Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo.The company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki and has no connection with the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa....

. After a lukewarm response from the airlines, Airbus reviewed their A350 proposal, and on 17 July 2006 announced that they would be offering instead an all-new aircraft, the A350 XWB (Xtra Wide-Body), with a fuselage diameter slightly greater than that of Boeing's 787, to compete with both the 787 and the 777.

Rolls-Royce has reached an agreement with Airbus to supply a new variant, currently called the Trent XWB, for all versions of the Airbus A350 XWB. Originally announced with a static thrust range of 75000–95000 lbf (333.6–422.6 kN), by September 2007 Airbus had revised their requirements down to 75000–93000 lbf (333.6–413.7 kN). Certification is planned for 2011, with the 84000 lbf (373.7 kN) Trent XWB-83's entry into service on the A350 XWB-900 expected in 2013. This will be followed by the 75000 lbf (333.6 kN) Trent XWB-74 in 2014 on the A350 XWB-800, and finally the 93000 lbf (413.7 kN) Trent XWB-92 on the A350 XWB-1000 in 2017. The engines for the largest A350 has been uprated to 97,000lbf to meet new performance requirements to better compete with the Boeing 777-300ER. General Electric has yet to confirm that it will offer a GEnx
General Electric GEnx
The General Electric GEnx is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8...

 variant for the A350 XWB. Flight International magazine has suggested that the GE/Pratt and Whitney Engine Alliance GP7000 may be the second engine option for the aircraft, at least on the smaller variants.

On 18 June 2007, Rolls-Royce announced that it had signed its biggest ever contract with Qatar Airways
Qatar Airways
Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. , operating as Qatar Airways, is the flag carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar Airways Tower in Doha, it operates a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 100 international destinations from its base in Doha, using a fleet of over 100 aircraft...

 for the Trent XWB to power 80 A350 XWBs on order from Airbus worth 5.6 billion at list prices. On 11 November 2007, another large contract was announced at the Dubai Airshow
Dubai Airshow
The Dubai Airshow is a biennial show held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is organized by "Fairs & Exhibitions Ltd" since the year 1989; in cooperation with the Government of Dubai, the Department of Civil Aviation and Dubai International Airport in collaboration with the UAE Union Defense...

 from Emirates Airline
Emirates Airline
Emirates is the airline based in the Emirate of Dubai part of the United Arab Emirates . Based at Dubai International Airport it is the largest airline in the Middle East, operating over 2,400 flights per week, from its hub at Terminal 3, to 111 cities in 62 countries across six continents...

 for Trent XWBs to power 50 A350-900 and 20 A350-1000 aircraft with 50 option rights. Due to be delivered from 2014, the order is potentially worth up to $8.4 billion dollars at list prices, including options. By the end of February 2009, Rolls-Royce had secured orders for engines to power a total of 420 A350 aircraft. By November this figure was up to 500 aircraft.
The first engine test was made in June 2010 in an engine testbed. On October 18, 2011 Airbus stated that they have completed installation of the first Trent XWB on an A380 flying testbed (Serial MSN001) in preparation for test flights.

MT30

The MT30 is a derivative of the Trent 800, (with a Trent 500 gearbox fitted), producing 36 MW for maritime applications. The current version is a turboshaft
Turboshaft
A turboshaft engine is a form of gas turbine which is optimized to produce free turbine shaft power, rather than jet thrust...

 engine, producing 36 MW, using the Trent 800 core to drive a power turbine which takes power to an electrical generator or to mechanical drives such as waterjets or propellers. It will power the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

's Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers.

Industrial Trent 60 Gas Turbine

This derivative is designed for power generation and mechanical drive, much like the Marine Trent. It delivers up to 58 MW of electricity at 42.8% efficiency. It comes in two key versions DLE and WLE. The WLE is water injected, allowing it to produce 58 MW in ISA conditions instead of 52 MW. It shares components with the Trent 700 and 800. In power generation roles the heat from the exhaust, some 420 C° can be used to heat water and drive steam turbines, improving efficiency of the package.

Applications

  • Airbus A330
    Airbus A330
    The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

  • Airbus A340
    Airbus A340
    The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

     (-500 and -600 series only)
  • Airbus A350
    Airbus A350
    The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

  • Airbus A380
    Airbus A380
    The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

  • Boeing 777
    Boeing 777
    The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

     (-200, -200ER and -300 series only)
  • Boeing 787 Dreamliner

Trent 8104/8115

Originally designed for the 777-200LR and 777-300ER (both part of the Boeing 777X project), this engine comes in two thrust ratings, 104000 lbf (462.6 kN) and 114000 lbf (507.1 kN), and has been tested up to 117000 lbf (520.4 kN). As Boeing's thrust requirements increased, Rolls-Royce began developing the 115000 lbf (511.5 kN) 8115 which was to be an enlarged version of the 8104, with a 3.05 m (120.1 in) fan and a core scaled up 2.5 percent from the 8104. It featured swept-back fan blades and a host of new technologies such as contra-rotating spools.

The 8115 was never built, as Boeing signed a contract with General Electric to be the sole supplier of engines for the 777X aircraft, owing to GEs willingness to risk-share on the airframe part of the project, and sales of the aircraft to GECAS.

Trent XWB

The Trent XWB family is designed to power the Airbus A350
Airbus A350
The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

. The engine has been optimised for the 84000 lbf (373.7 kN) A350-900, with a derated 75000 lbf (333.6 kN) version for the A350-800. The 97000 lbf (431.5 kN) version for the A350-1000 will maintain the same core and 3.0 m fan size; the additional thrust will be achieved by running the fan at higher speeds which will require stronger blades and a strengthened casing. In addition, the core's operating temperatures will be increased using new technology currently under development, taking advantage of this model's later launch date.
  • Three-shaft high bypass ratio: 9.3
  • Take-off thrust: 75000–93000 lbf (333.6–413.7 kN) (flat-rated to ISA+15C)
  • Fan diameter: 3.0 m (118 in)
  • Fan: single stage, swept, low hub:tip ratio
  • Airflow: approx. 1440 kg (3,174.7 lb) per second
  • Overall pressure ratio >=52:1 (Top-of-Climb)
  • IP compressor: 8 stage axial
  • HP compressor: 6 stage axial
  • Combustor:
  • HP turbine: single-stage, aircooled
  • IP turbine: two-stage, aircooled (extra stage relative to previous marks of Trent)
  • LP turbine: 6-stage, uncooled

Trent series specification table

Trent Engine Family: Leading Particulars
Engine Static Thrust (lbf) Basic Engine Weight (lb) Thrust to Weight Ratio Length (in) Fan Diameter (in) Entry Into Service Applications
Trent 553 53,000 10,400 5.1 154 97.4 2003 Airbus A340-500
Trent 556 56,000 10,400 5.4 154 97.4 2002 Airbus A340-500
Airbus A340-600
Trent 560 60,000 10,400 5.76 154 97.4 2002 Airbus A340-600
Trent 600 65,000 10,400 6.3 154 97.4 Not Used Not Used
Trent 768 67,500 10,550 6.4 154 97.4 1996 Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-300
Trent 772 71,100 10,550 6.7 154 97.4 1995 Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-300
Trent 772B 71,100 10,550 6.7 154 97.4 1995 Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-300
Trent 875 75,000 13,100 5.7 172 110 1996 Boeing 777-200
Trent 877 77,000 13,100 5.9 172 110 1996 Boeing 777-200
Trent 884 84,000 13,100 6.4 172 110 1997 Boeing 777-200ER
Trent 890 90,000 13,100 6.9 172 110 1998 Boeing 777-200ER
Trent 892 92,000 13,100 7.0 172 110 1997 Boeing 777-200ER
Boeing 777-300
Trent 895 93,400 13,100 7.1 172 110 2000 Boeing 777-200ER
Trent 8104 104,000 14,400 7.2 172 110 Not Used LW2011-211ER
Trent 8115 115,000 Unknown Unknown 172 120 Not Used LW2011-284LR
Trent 970 75,152 13,842 5.4 179 116 2007 Airbus A380-841
Trent 970B 78,304 13,842 5.6 179 116 TBA Airbus A380-841
Trent 972 76,752 13,842 5.5 179 116 TBA Airbus A380-842
Trent 972B 80,231 13,842 5.8 179 116 TBA Airbus A380-842
Trent 977 80,781 13,842 5.8 179 116 TBA Airbus A380-843F
Trent 977B 83,835 13,842 6.0 179 116 TBA Airbus A380-843F
Trent 980-84 84,098 13,842 6.0 179 116 TBA Airbus A380-941
Trent 1000-A 63,800 11,924 5.4 160 112 2008 Boeing 787-8
Trent 1000-C 69,800 11,924 5.9 160 112 2008 Boeing 787-8
Boeing 787-9
Trent 1000-D 69,800 11,924 5.9 160 112 2008 Boeing 787-8
Boeing 787-9
Trent 1000-E 53,200 11,924 4.5 160 112 2010 Boeing 787-3
Trent 1000-H 58,000 11,924 4.9 160 112 2008 Boeing 787-3
Boeing 787-8
Trent 1000-J 73,800 11,924 6.2 160 112 2010 Boeing 787-9
Trent 1000-K 73,800 11,924 6.2 160 112 2010 Boeing 787-9
Trent XWB-75 75,000/79000 ? ? ? 118 2014 Airbus A350-800 XWB
Trent XWB-84 84,000 ? ? ? 118 2013 Airbus A350-900 XWB
Trent XWB-93 93,000 ? ? ? 118 2015 Airbus A350-1000 XWB

See also

Footnotes

Notes
1.All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

, the sole customer of the 787-3, has cancelled its order, leaving the -8 and -9 the only two variants under development.
2.Engine interchangeability makes the 787 a more flexible asset to airlines, allowing them to change from one manufacturer's engine to the other's in light of any future engine developments which conform more closely to their operating profile. The cost of such a change would require a significant operating cost difference between the two engine types to make it economical. A difference that does not exist with the engines today.
3.Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

has 58 Trent 800 powered 777s and 5 Trent 500 powered A340-500s; it also has a further 19 Trent 700 powered A330-300s, 19 Trent 900 powered A380-800s and 20 Trent XWB powered A350 XWB-900s on order. http://www.rolls-royce.com/media/showPR.jsp?PR_ID=40508 Should it select the Trent 1000 for its order of 20 787-9s, it will become the first airline to operate 6 different versions of the Trent.


References

External links

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