Rolls-Royce RB211
Overview
 
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines made by Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

 and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force
Pound-force
The pound force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.- Definitions :...

 (166 to 270 kilonewtons) thrust
Thrust
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system....

. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011
Lockheed L-1011
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 or TriStar, is a medium-to-long range, widebody passenger trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed...

 (TriStar), it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type. Although the costs of development forced Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited was a renowned British car and, from 1914 on, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Henry Royce on 15 March 1906 as the result of a partnership formed in 1904....

 into bankruptcy and nationalisation by the British government, the company survived and the RB211 became the first true three-spool engine, which also turned Rolls-Royce from a small player in the airline industry into a global competitor.

The RB211 was officially superseded in the 1990s by the Rolls-Royce Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of . Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330, A340, A380, Boeing 777, and 787, and variants are in...

 family of engines, the conceptual offspring of the RB211.
In 1966 American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 announced a requirement for a new short-medium range airliner with a focus on low-cost per-seat operations.
Encyclopedia
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines made by Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

 and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force
Pound-force
The pound force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.- Definitions :...

 (166 to 270 kilonewtons) thrust
Thrust
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system....

. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011
Lockheed L-1011
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 or TriStar, is a medium-to-long range, widebody passenger trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed...

 (TriStar), it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type. Although the costs of development forced Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited was a renowned British car and, from 1914 on, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Henry Royce on 15 March 1906 as the result of a partnership formed in 1904....

 into bankruptcy and nationalisation by the British government, the company survived and the RB211 became the first true three-spool engine, which also turned Rolls-Royce from a small player in the airline industry into a global competitor.

The RB211 was officially superseded in the 1990s by the Rolls-Royce Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of . Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330, A340, A380, Boeing 777, and 787, and variants are in...

 family of engines, the conceptual offspring of the RB211.

Background

In 1966 American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 announced a requirement for a new short-medium range airliner with a focus on low-cost per-seat operations. While they were looking for a twin-engined plane, the aircraft manufacturers needed more than one customer to justify developing a new airliner. Eastern Airlines were also interested, but needed greater range and needed to operate long routes over water; at the time this demanded three engines in order to provide redundancy. Other airlines were also in favour of three engines. Lockheed
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

 and Douglas
Douglas Aircraft Company
The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer, based in Long Beach, California. It was founded in 1921 by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. and later merged with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967 to form McDonnell Douglas...

 responded with designs, the L-1011 TriStar
Lockheed L-1011
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 or TriStar, is a medium-to-long range, widebody passenger trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed...

 and DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a...

 respectively. Both had three engines, transcontinental range and seated around 300 passengers in a widebody layout with two aisles.

Both planes also required new engines. Engines were undergoing a period of rapid advance due to the introduction of the high bypass concept, which provided for greater thrust, improved fuel economy and less noise than the earlier low-bypass designs. Rolls-Royce had been working on an engine of the required 45,000 lbf (200 kN) thrust class for an abortive attempt to introduce an updated Hawker Siddeley Trident
Hawker Siddeley Trident
The Hawker Siddeley HS 121 Trident was a British short/medium-range three-engined jet airliner designed by de Havilland and built by Hawker Siddeley in the 1960s and 1970s...

 as the RB178. This work was later developed for the 47,500 lbf (211 kN) thrust RB207 to be used on the Airbus A300
Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range widebody jet airliner. Launched in 1972 as the world's first twin-engined widebody, it was the first product of Airbus Industrie, a consortium of European aerospace companies, wholly owned today by EADS...

, before it was cancelled in favor of the RB211 programme.

Meanwhile Rolls-Royce was also working on a series of triple-spool designs, which promised to deliver higher efficiencies. In this configuration, three groups of turbine
Turbine
A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and...

s spin three separate concentric shafts to power three sections of the compressor
Gas compressor
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas...

 area running at different speeds. In addition to allowing each stage of the compressor to run at its optimal speed, the triple-spool design is also more compact and rigid, although more complex to build and maintain. Several designs were being worked on at the time, including a 10,000 lbf (44 kN) thrust design known as the RB203 intended to replace the Rolls-Royce Spey.

Finalisation of design

On 23 June 1967, Rolls-Royce offered Lockheed the RB211-06 for the L-1011. The new engine was to be rated at 33260 lbf (147,947.9 N) thrust and combined features of several engines then under development: the large high-power, high-bypass design from the RB207 and the triple-spool design of the RB203. To this they added one totally new piece of technology, a fan stage built of a new carbon fibre material called Hyfil developed at RAE Farnborough
Royal Aircraft Establishment
The Royal Aircraft Establishment , was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that eventually came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence , before finally losing its identity in mergers with other institutions.The first site was at Farnborough...

. The weight savings were considerable over a similar fan made of steel, and would have given the RB211 an advantage over its competitors in terms of power-to-weight ratio
Power-to-weight ratio
Power-to-weight ratio is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another. Power-to-weight ratio is a measurement of actual performance of any engine or power sources...

. Despite knowing that the timescale would be challenging for an engine incorporating these new features, Rolls-Royce committed to putting the RB211 into service in 1971.

Lockheed felt the new engine would offer a distinct advantage over the otherwise similar DC-10 product. However, Douglas had also requested proposals from Rolls for an engine to power its DC-10, and in October 1967 Rolls responded with a 35400 lbf (157,467 N) thrust version of the RB211 designated the RB211-10. There followed a period of intense negotiations between airframe manufacturers Lockheed and Douglas, potential engine suppliers Rolls-Royce and General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

 and Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

, as well as the major U.S. airlines. During this time prices were negotiated downwards, while the required thrust ratings were raised ever higher. By early 1968, Rolls was offering a 40600 lbf (180,597.8 N) thrust engine designated RB211-18. Finally, on 29 March 1968 Lockheed announced that it had received orders for 94 TriStars, and placed an order with Rolls-Royce for 150 sets of engines designated RB211-22.

Development and testing

The RB211's complexity required a lengthy development and testing period. By Autumn 1969 Rolls-Royce was struggling to meet the performance guarantees to which it had committed: the engine had insufficient thrust, was over-weight and its fuel consumption was too high. The situation deteriorated further when in May 1970 the new Hyfil (a Carbon (fiber) composite) fan stage, after passing every other test, shattered into pieces when a chicken was fired into it at high speed. Rolls had been developing a titanium
Titanium
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant transition metal with a silver color....

 blade as an insurance against difficulties with Hyfil, but this meant extra cost and more weight. It also brought its own technical problems when it was discovered that only one side of the titanium billet was of the right metallurgical quality for blade fabrication.

In September 1970, Rolls-Royce reported to the government that development costs for the RB211 had risen to £170.3 million - nearly double the original estimate; furthermore the estimated production costs now exceeded the £230,375 selling price of each engine. The project was in crisis.

Bankruptcy and aftermath

By January 1971 Rolls-Royce had become insolvent
Insolvency
Insolvency means the inability to pay one's debts as they fall due. Usually used to refer to a business, insolvency refers to the inability of a company to pay off its debts.Business insolvency is defined in two different ways:...

, and on 4 February 1971 was placed into receivership, seriously jeopardizing the L-1011 TriStar program. Because of its strategic importance, the company was nationalised
Nationalization
Nationalisation, also spelled nationalization, is the process of taking an industry or assets into government ownership by a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being...

 by the then-Conservative
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

 government of Edward Heath
Edward Heath
Sir Edward Richard George "Ted" Heath, KG, MBE, PC was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and as Leader of the Conservative Party ....

, allowing development of the RB211 to be completed.

Because Lockheed
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

 was itself in a vulnerable position, the government required that the US government guarantee the bank loans that Lockheed
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

 needed to complete the L-1011 project. Despite some opposition, the US government provided these guarantees. In May 1971, a new company called "Rolls-Royce (1971) Ltd." acquired the assets of Rolls-Royce from the Receiver, and shortly afterwards signed a new contract with Lockheed. This revised agreement cancelled penalties for late delivery, and increased the price of each engine by £110,000.

Kenneth Keith, the new chairman who had been appointed to rescue the company, persuaded Stanley Hooker
Stanley Hooker
Sir Stanley George Hooker was a jet engine engineer, first at Rolls-Royce where he worked on the earliest designs such as the Welland and Derwent, and later at Bristol Aero Engines where he helped bring the troubled Proteus and Olympus to market, and then designed the famous Pegasus.Stanley George...

 to come out of retirement and return to Rolls. As technical director he led a team of other retirees to fix the remaining problems on the RB211-22. The engine was finally certified on 14 April 1972, about a year later than originally planned, and the first TriStar entered service with Eastern Air Lines on 26 April 1972. Hooker was knighted for his role in 1974.

The RB211's initial reliability in service was not as good as had been expected due to the focus of the development program on meeting the engine's performance guarantees. Early deliveries were of the RB211-22C model, derated slightly from the later -22B. However, a programme of modifications during the first few years in service improved matters considerably, and the series has since matured into a highly reliable engine.

RB211-524 series

Although originally designed for the L-1011-1, Rolls-Royce knew that the RB211 could be developed to provide greater thrust. By redesigning the fan and the IP compressor, Hooker's team managed to increase the engine's thrust to 50000 lbf (222.4 kN). The new version was designated RB211-524, and would be able to power new variants of the L-1011, as well as the Boeing 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

.

Rolls-Royce had tried without success to sell the RB211 to Boeing in the 1960s, but the new -524 offered significant performance and efficiency improvements over the Pratt & Whitney JT9D
Pratt & Whitney JT9D
-Bibliography:* Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9-External links:*...

 which Boeing had originally selected to power the 747. In October 1973 Boeing agreed to offer the RB211-524 on the 747-200, and British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 became the first airline to order this combination which entered service in 1977. Rolls continued to develop the -524, increasing its thrust through 51500 lbf (229,083.4 N) with the -524C, then 53000 lbf (235.8 kN) in the -524D which was certificated in 1981. Notable airline customers included Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

, Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

, Cargolux
Cargolux
Cargolux Airlines International S.A., trading as Cargolux, is a cargo airline with its head office on the grounds of Luxembourg – Findel Airport in Sandweiler, Luxembourg. It is one of the largest scheduled all-cargo airlines in Europe with a global network...

 and South African Airways
South African Airways
South African Airways is the national flag carrier and largest airline of South Africa, with headquarters in Airways Park on the grounds of OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park, Ekurhuleni, Gauteng. The airline flies to 36 destinations worldwide from its hub at OR Tambo International...

. When Boeing launched the larger 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

 still more thrust was required, and Rolls responded with the -524G rated at 58000 lbf (258 kN) thrust and then the -524H with 60,600; these were the first versions to feature FADEC
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine Control is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an electronic engine controller or engine control unit , and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance...

. The -524H was also offered as a third engine choice on the Boeing 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

, and the first of these entered service with British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 in February 1990.

These would have been the final developments of the -524, but when Rolls developed the successor Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of . Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330, A340, A380, Boeing 777, and 787, and variants are in...

 engine, it found it could fit the Trent 700's improved HP system to the -524G and -524H. These variants were lighter and offered improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions; they were designated -524G-T and -524H-T respectively. It was also possible to upgrade existing -524G/H engines to the improved -T configuration, and a number of airlines did this.

The -524 became increasingly reliable as it was developed, and the -524H achieved 180-minute ETOPS approval on the 767 in 1993.

RB211-535 series

In the mid 1970s, Boeing was considering designs for a new twin-engined aircraft to replace its highly successful 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

. As the size of the proposed plane grew from 150 passengers towards 200, Rolls-Royce realised that the RB211 could be adapted by reducing the diameter of the fan and removing the first IP compressor stage to produce an engine with the necessary 37400 lbf (166,363.5 N) thrust. The new version was designated RB211-535. On 31 August 1978 Eastern Airlines and British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 announced orders for the new 757
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

, powered by the -535. Designated RB211-535C, the engine entered service in January 1983; this was the first time that Rolls-Royce had provided a launch engine on a Boeing aircraft.

However, in 1979 Pratt & Whitney launched its PW2000
Pratt & Whitney PW2000
|-See also:-External links:...

 engine, claiming 8% better fuel efficiency than the -535C for the PW2037 version. Boeing put Rolls-Royce under pressure to supply a more competitive engine for the 757, and using the more advanced -524 core as a basis, the company produced the 40100 lbf (178,373.7 N) thrust RB211-535E4 which entered service in October 1984. While still not quite as efficient as the PW2037, it was more reliable and quieter. It was also the first to use the wide chord
Wide chord
A wide chord fan engine is a term to describe a modern turbofan jet engine having a ducted fan with a specific blade geometry - In layman's terms, they would be described as having wider blades than other jet engines...

 fan which increases efficiency, reduces noise and gives added protection against foreign object damage. As a result, a relatively small number of -535C's were installed on production aircraft, the majority using the -535E.

Probably the most important single -535E order came in May 1988 when American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 ordered 50 757s powered by the -535E4 citing the engine's low noise as an important factor: this was the first time since the TriStar that Rolls-Royce had received a significant order from a US airline, and it led to the -535E4's subsequent market domination on the 757. Humorously (as reported in Air International) at the time of the announcement made by American, selection of the -535E4 was made public prior to the selection of the 757, though this was welcome news to both Rolls-Royce and Boeing.

After being certified for the 757, the E4 was offered on the Russian Tupolev Tu-204-120
Tupolev Tu-204
The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is considered to be broadly equivalent to the Boeing 757 and has competitive...

 airliner, entering service in 1992. This was the first time a Russian airliner had been supplied with western engines. The -535E4 was also proposed by Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 for re-engining the B-52H Stratofortress
B-52 Stratofortress
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force since the 1950s. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, who have continued to provide maintainence and upgrades to the aircraft in service...

, replacing the aircraft's eight TF33
Pratt & Whitney JT3D
|-See also:-External links:*...

s with four of the turbofans. Further upgrading of the -535E4 took place in the late 1990s to improve the engine's emissions performance, borrowing technology developed for the Trent 700.

The -535E4 is an extremely reliable engine, and achieved 180-minute ETOPS approval on the 757 in 1990.

Industrial RB211

When Rolls-Royce was developing the -22, it realised that it would be straightforward to develop a version of the engine for land-based power generation, and in 1974 the industrial RB211 was launched. When the -524 arrived shortly afterwards, its improvements were incorporated in the industrial RB211 which was designated RB211-24. The generator was gradually developed over the following years and is still marketed today as a range of generators producing 25.2-32MW. Many of its installations have been in the offshore oil and gas production industries.

Marine WR-21

An advanced 25 MW class WR-21
Rolls-Royce WR-21
The Rolls-Royce WR-21 is an advanced marine gas turbine engine, designed to power the latest naval surface combatants of the partner nations, and currently fitted to the Type 45 destroyer of the Royal Navy...

 Intercooled Recuperated (ICR) gas turbine was derived for marine propulsion.

RB211-22 series

  • Triple-spool high-bypass-ratio 5.0
  • Single-stage wide-chord fan
  • Seven-stage IP compressor
  • Six-stage HP compressor
  • Single annular combustor with 18 fuel burners
  • Single-stage HP turbine
  • Single-stage IP turbine
  • Three-stage LP turbine

RB211-524 series

  • Triple-spool high-bypass-ratio 4.3 - 4.1
  • Single-stage wide-chord fan
  • Seven-stage IP compressor
  • Six-stage HP compressor
  • Single annular combustor with 18 fuel burners (24 on the G/H-T)
  • Single-stage HP turbine
  • Single-stage IP turbine
  • Three-stage LP turbine

RB211-535 series

  • Triple-spool high-bypass-ratio 4.3 - 4.4
  • Single-stage wide-chord fan
  • Six-stage IP compressor
  • Six-stage HP compressor
  • Single annular combustor with 18 fuel burners (24 on later versions of E4)
  • Single-stage HP turbine
  • Single-stage IP turbine
  • Three-stage LP turbine


As well as a featuring a destaged IP compressor, the -535E4 was the first engine to incorporate a hollow wide chord, unsnubbered fan to improve efficiency. It also featured the use of more advanced materials, including titanium in the HP compressor and carbon composites in the nacelle
Nacelle
The nacelle is a cover housing that holds engines, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft. In some cases—for instance in the typical "Farman" type "pusher" aircraft, or the World War II-era P-38 Lightning—an aircraft's cockpit may also be housed in a nacelle, which essentially fills the...

. Later engines incorporate some features (e.g. FADEC
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine Control is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an electronic engine controller or engine control unit , and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance...

) from improved models of the -524.

Leading Particulars

RB211 Engine Family: Leading Particulars
Engine Static Thrust (lbf) Basic Engine Weight (lb) Length (in) Fan Diameter (in/m) Entry Into Service Applications
RB211-22B 42000 9195 119.4 84.8 / 2.15 1972 Lockheed L-1011-1, Lockheed L-1011-100
RB211-524B2 50000 9814 119.4 84.8 / 2.15 1977 Boeing 747-100, Boeing 747-200, Boeing 747SP
RB211-524B4 53000 9814 122.3 85.8 / 2.18 1981 Lockheed L-1011-250, Lockheed L-1011-500
RB211-524C2 51500 9859 119.4 84.8 / 2.15 1980 Boeing 747-200, Boeing 747SP
RB211-524D4 53000 9874 122.3 85.8 / 2.18 1981 Boeing 747-200, Boeing 747-300, Boeing 747SP
RB211-524D4-B 53000 9874 122.3 85.8 / 2.18 1981 Boeing 747-200, Boeing 747-300,
RB211-524G 58000 9670 125 86.3 / 2.19 1989 Boeing 747-400
RB211-524H 60600 9670 125 86.3 / 2.19 1990 Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-300
RB211-524G-T 58000 9470 125 86.3 / 2.19 1998 Boeing 747-400, Boeing 747-400F
RB211-524H-T 60600 9470 125 86.3 / 2.19 1998 Boeing 747-400, Boeing 747-400F, Boeing 767-300
RB211-535C 37400 7294 118.5 73.2 / 1.86 1983 Boeing 757-200
RB211-535E4 40100 7264 117.9 74.1 / 1.88 1984 Boeing 757-200, Boeing 757-300, Tupolev Tu-204
RB211-535E4B 43100 7264 117.9 74.1 / 1.88 1989 Boeing 757-200, Boeing 757-300, Tupolev Tu-204


See also

External links

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