Boeing 777
Overview
 

The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body
Wide-body aircraft
A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a widebody aircraft or twin-aisle aircraft. The typical fuselage diameter is . In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers...

 twin-engine jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

. It is the world's largest twinjet
Twinjet
A twinjet or twin jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. Such configuration of an aircraft is the most popular today for commercial airliners, for fighters, and many other kinds, because while offering safety from a single engine failure, it is also acceptably fuel-efficient.-Aircraft...

 and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

 from 5235 to 9380 nmi (9,695.2 to 17,371.8 km), depending on model. Its distinguishing features include the largest-diameter turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines of any aircraft, six wheels on each main landing gear, a circular fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 cross-section, and blade-shaped tail cone.
Encyclopedia

The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body
Wide-body aircraft
A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a widebody aircraft or twin-aisle aircraft. The typical fuselage diameter is . In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers...

 twin-engine jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

 manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

. It is the world's largest twinjet
Twinjet
A twinjet or twin jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. Such configuration of an aircraft is the most popular today for commercial airliners, for fighters, and many other kinds, because while offering safety from a single engine failure, it is also acceptably fuel-efficient.-Aircraft...

 and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

 from 5235 to 9380 nmi (9,695.2 to 17,371.8 km), depending on model. Its distinguishing features include the largest-diameter turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

 engines of any aircraft, six wheels on each main landing gear, a circular fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 cross-section, and blade-shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between the 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

 and 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

. As Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer mediated controls; it is also the first entirely computer-designed commercial aircraft.

The 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths. The original 777-200 model first entered service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997; the stretched 777-300, which is 33.3 ft (10.1 m) longer, began service in 1998. The longer-range 777-300ER and 777-200LR variants entered service in 2004 and 2006, respectively, while a freighter
Cargo airline
Cargo airlines are airlines dedicated to the transport of cargo. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines.-Logistics:...

 version, the 777F, debuted in 2009. Both longer-range versions and the freighter feature General Electric GE90
General Electric GE90
General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings ranging from 74,000 to 115,000 lbf . It was first introduced in November 1995 on British Airways' 777s, and is available only on the 777...

 engines, as well as extended and raked wingtips. Other models are equipped with either the GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000
Pratt & Whitney PW4000
|-See also:-External links:* * *...

, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800
Rolls-Royce Trent 800
|-See also:-External links:*...

 engines. The 777-200LR is the world's longest-range airliner and holds the record for longest distance flown by an unrefueled commercial aircraft, with the demonstrated capability to fly more than halfway around the world.

United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 first placed the 777 into commercial airline service in 1995. As of July 2011, 60 customers have placed orders for 1,242 aircraft of all variants, with 949 delivered. The most common variant used worldwide is the 777-200ER, with 415 aircraft delivered, and Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 87 aircraft. The airliner has had one hull-loss accident
Aviation accidents and incidents
An aviation accident is defined in the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which a...

, attributed to a Trent 800 engine fuel component, with no passenger fatalities as of 2011.

Through the 2000s, the 777 has emerged as one of its manufacturer's best-selling models. Because of rising fuel costs, airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient
Fuel efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is...

 alternative to other wide-body jets and have increasingly used the aircraft on long-haul, transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

, A340
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

, and the upcoming A350. The subsequently developed 787 Dreamliner also shares design features with the 777.

Background

In the early 1970s, the Boeing 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a...

, and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar became the first generation of wide-body passenger airliners to enter service. In 1978, Boeing unveiled three new models: the twin-engine 757
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

 to replace the venerable 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

, the twin-engine 767 to challenge the Airbus A300
Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range widebody jet airliner. Launched in 1972 as the world's first twin-engined widebody, it was the first product of Airbus Industrie, a consortium of European aerospace companies, wholly owned today by EADS...

, and a trijet
Trijet
A Trijet is an aircraft powered by three jet engines. Early twin-jet designs were limited by the FAA's "60-minute rule", whereby the flight path of twin-engined jetliners was restricted to within 60 minutes' flying time from a suitable airport, in case of engine failure. In 1964 this rule was...

 777 concept to compete with the DC-10 and L-1011. The mid-size 757 and 767 launched to market success, due in part to 1980s extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (ETOPS) regulations governing transoceanic twinjet operations. These regulations allowed twin-engine airliners to make ocean crossings at up to three hours' distance from emergency diversionary airport
Diversion airport
Diversion airports are suitable airports capable of handling a particular ETOPS rated aircraft during an emergency landing and whose flying distance at the point of emergency shall not exceed the ETOPS diversion period of that particular aircraft....

s. Under ETOPS rules, airlines began operating the 767 on long-distance overseas routes that did not require the capacity of larger airliners. The trijet 777 was later dropped, following marketing studies that favored the 757 and 767 variants. Boeing was left with a size and range gap in its product line between the 767-300ER and the 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

.

By the late 1980s, DC-10 and L-1011 models were approaching retirement, prompting manufacturers to develop replacement designs. McDonnell Douglas was working on the MD-11
McDonnell Douglas MD-11
The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is a three-engine medium- to long-range widebody jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Based on the DC-10, it features a stretched fuselage, increased wingspan with winglets, refined airfoils on the wing and smaller...

, a stretched and upgraded version of the DC-10, while Airbus was developing the A330 and A340. In 1986, Boeing unveiled proposals for an enlarged 767, tentatively named 767-X, to target the replacement market for first-generation wide-bodies like the DC-10, and to complement existing 767 and 747 models in the company lineup. The initial proposal featured a longer fuselage and larger wings than the existing 767, along with winglet
Winglet
Wingtip devices are usually intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft. There are several types of wingtip devices, and though they function in different manners, the intended effect is always to reduce the aircraft's drag by partial recovery of the tip vortex energy...

s. Later plans expanded the fuselage cross-section but retained the existing 767 flight deck
Cockpit
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin...

, nose, and other elements.

Airline customers were unimpressed with the 767-X proposals, and instead wanted an even wider fuselage cross-section, fully flexible interior configurations, short- to intercontinental-range capability, and an operating cost
Operating cost
Operating costs can be described as the expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or to the operation of a device, component, piece of equipment or facility.-Business operating costs:...

 lower than any 767 stretch. Airline planners' requirements for larger aircraft had become increasingly specific, adding to the heightened competition among aircraft manufacturers. By 1988, Boeing realized that the only answer was a new design, which would become the 777 twinjet. The company opted for the twin-engine configuration given past design successes, projected engine developments, and reduced-cost benefits. On December 8, 1989, Boeing began issuing offers to airlines for the 777.

Design effort

The design phase for Boeing's new twinjet was different from the company's previous commercial jetliners. For the first time, eight major airlines – All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

, American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

, British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

, Cathay Pacific Airways
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

, Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines
is an airline headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is the flag carrier of Japan and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport , as well as Nagoya's Chūbu Centrair International Airport and Osaka's Kansai International Airport...

, Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

, and United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 – had a role in the development of the airliner. This was a departure from industry practice, where manufacturers typically designed aircraft with minimal customer input. The eight airlines that contributed to the design process became known within Boeing as the "Working Together" group. At the first group meeting in January 1990, a 23-page questionnaire was distributed to the airlines, asking each what it wanted in the new design. By March 1990, Boeing and the airlines had decided upon a basic design configuration: a cabin cross-section close to the 747's, capacity up to 325 passengers, flexible interiors, a glass cockpit
Glass cockpit
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, as opposed to the traditional style of analog dials and gauges...

, fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface. The movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires , and flight control computers determine how to move the actuators at each control...

 controls, and 10 percent better seat-mile costs
Available seat miles
An available seat mile is the fundamental unit of production for a passenger-carrying airline. A unit in this case is one seat, available for sale, flown one mile. For example, an aircraft with 300 seats available for sale flying 1,000 statute miles would generate 300,000 ASMs for that particular...

 than the A330 and MD-11. Boeing also selected its Everett factory
Boeing Everett Factory
The Boeing Everett Factory, in Everett, Washington, is an airplane assembly building owned by Boeing. Located on the northeast corner of Paine Field, it is the largest building in the world by volume at 13,385,378 m3 and covers 399,480 m2...

 in Washington, home of 747 production, as the final assembly site for the 777.

On October 14, 1990, United Airlines became the 777's launch customer when it placed an order for 34 Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

-powered aircraft valued at US$11 billion with options
Option (aircraft purchasing)
An option, when purchasing aircraft, allows an airline to purchase additional aircraft in the future at an agreed price and date.When placing orders for new aircraft, airlines commonly obtain options from the aircraft manufacturer, for example Airbus or Boeing...

 on an additional 34. The development phase coincided with United's replacement program for its aging DC-10s. United required that the new aircraft be capable of flying three different routes: Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 to Hawaii, Chicago to Europe, and non-stop from Denver, a hot and high
Hot and high
In aviation, hot and high is a condition of low air density due to high ambient temperature and high airport elevation. Air density decreases with increasing temperature and altitude. Lower air density reduces the amount of lift generated by the wings or the rotors of an aircraft, which may hamper...

 airport, to Hawaii. ETOPS certification was also a priority for United, given the overwater portion of United's Hawaii routes. In January 1993, a team of United developers joined other airline teams and Boeing designers at the Everett factory. The 240 design teams, with up to 40 members each, addressed almost 1,500 design issues with individual aircraft components. The fuselage diameter was increased to suit Cathay Pacific, the baseline model grew longer for All Nippon Airways, and British Airways' input led to added built-in testing and interior flexibility, along with higher operating weight options for the basic aircraft.

The 777 was the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely on computer. Each design drawing was created on a three-dimensional CAD
Computer-aided design
Computer-aided design , also known as computer-aided design and drafting , is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer...

 software system known as CATIA
CATIA
CATIA is a multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite developed by the French company Dassault Systemes...

 (Computer-Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application), sourced from Dassault Systemes
Dassault Systemes
Dassault Systèmes S.A. is a leading company specializing in 3D and PLM software.Dassault Systèmes develops and markets PLM application software and services that support industrial processes and provide a 3D vision of the entire lifecycle of products from conception to maintenance to recycling...

 and IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

. This allowed a virtual aircraft to be assembled, in simulation, to check for interferences and to verify proper fit of the many thousands of parts, thus reducing costly rework. Boeing developed their own high-performance visualization system, FlyThru, later called IVT (Integrated Visualization Tool) to support large-scale collaborative engineering design reviews, production illustrations, and other uses of the CAD data outside of engineering. Boeing was initially not convinced of CATIA's abilities and built a physical mock-up
Mockup
In manufacturing and design, a mockup, or mock-up, is a scale or full-size model of a design or device, used for teaching, demonstration, design evaluation, promotion, and other purposes...

 of the nose section
Boeing fuselage Section 41
Section 41 is the forward portion of a Boeing aircraft, from the nose to aft of the cockpit. In some models it includes the forward door and may extend to the first class cabin. Along with the wings, it is one of the most complex parts of an aircraft, and includes the largest share of an...

 to verify its results. The test was so successful that additional mock-ups were canceled.

Production and testing

The production process included substantial international content, with an unprecedented level of global subcontracting for a Boeing jetliner, exceeded only by the later 787. International contributors included Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
, or MHI, is a Japanese company. It is one of the core companies of Mitsubishi Group.-History:In 1870 Yataro Iwasaki, the founder of Mitsubishi took a lease of Government-owned Nagasaki Shipyard. He named it Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works, and started the shipbuilding business on a full scale...

 and Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
is an international corporation based in Japan. It has headquarters in both Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo.The company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki and has no connection with the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa....

 (fuselage panels), Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd. (center wing section), Hawker de Havilland (elevators
Elevator (aircraft)
Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's orientation by changing the pitch of the aircraft, and so also the angle of attack of the wing. In simplified terms, they make the aircraft nose-up or nose-down...

), and Aerospace Technologies of Australia
Government Aircraft Factories
Government Aircraft Factories was the name of an aircraft manufacturer owned by the Government of Australia based at Fishermans Bend, a suburb of Melbourne in Victoria. It had its origins in the lead-up to World War II, during which it was known as the Department of Aircraft Production...

 (rudder). An agreement between Boeing and the Japan Aircraft Development Corporation, representing Japanese aerospace contractors, made the latter risk-sharing partners for 20 percent of the entire development program. The initial 777-200 model was launched with propulsion options from three manufacturers, General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

, Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

, and Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce Group plc is a global power systems company headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s second-largest maker of aircraft engines , and also has major businesses in the marine propulsion and energy sectors. Through its defence-related activities...

, giving the airlines their choice of engines from competing firms. Each manufacturer had agreed to develop an engine in the 77000 lbf (342.5 kN) and higher thrust class (a measure of jet engine output) to power the world's largest twinjet.

To accommodate production of its new airliner, Boeing doubled the size of the Everett factory at the cost of nearly US$1.5 billion to provide space for two new assembly line
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods...

s. New production methodologies were developed, including a turn machine that could rotate fuselage subassemblies 180 degrees, giving workers access to upper body sections. Major assembly of the first aircraft began on January 4, 1993. By the start of production, the program had amassed 118 firm orders, with options for 95 more from 10 airlines. Total investment in the program was estimated at over US$4 billion from Boeing, with an additional US$2 billion from suppliers.

On April 9, 1994, the first 777, line number WA001, was rolled out in a series of 15 ceremonies held during the day to accommodate the 100,000 invited guests. The first flight took place on June 12, 1994, under the command of chief test pilot John E. Cashman. This marked the start of an 11-month flight test program that was intended to be more extensive than that of any previous Boeing model. Nine aircraft fitted with General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce engines were flight tested at locations ranging from the desert airfield at Edwards Air Force Base
Edwards Air Force Base
Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County, Los Angeles County, and San Bernardino County, California, in the Antelope Valley. It is southwest of the central business district of North Edwards, California and due east of Rosamond.It is named in...

 in California to frigid conditions in Alaska, mainly Fairbanks' FAI. To satisfy ETOPS requirements, eight 180-minute single-engine test flights were performed. The first aircraft built was used by Boeing's nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing or Non-destructive testing is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage....

 campaign from 1994 to 1996, and provided data for the −200ER and −300 programs. At the successful conclusion of flight testing, the 777 was awarded simultaneous airworthiness certification by the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 (FAA) and Joint Aviation Authorities
Joint Aviation Authorities
The Joint Aviation Authorities, or JAA, was an associated body of the ECAC representing the civil aviation regulatory authorities of a number of European States who had agreed to co-operate in developing and implementing common safety regulatory standards and procedures...

 (JAA) on April 19, 1995.

Entry into service

Boeing delivered the first 777 to United Airlines on May 15, 1995. The FAA awarded 180-minute ETOPS clearance ("ETOPS-180") for the Pratt & Whitney PW4084-engined aircraft on May 30, 1995, making it the first airliner to carry an ETOPS-180 rating at its entry into service. Longer ETOPS clearance of 207 minutes was approved the following October. The first commercial flight took place on June 7, 1995 from London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe...

 to Dulles International Airport
Washington Dulles International Airport
Washington Dulles International Airport is a public airport in Dulles, Virginia, 26 miles west of downtown Washington, D.C. The airport serves the Baltimore-Washington-Northern Virginia metropolitan area centered on the District of Columbia. It is named after John Foster Dulles, Secretary of...

 near Washington, D.C.

On November 12, 1995, Boeing delivered the first model with General Electric GE90-77B engines to British Airways, which placed the aircraft into service five days later. Initial service was affected by gearbox bearing wear issues, which caused the airline to temporarily withdraw its 777 fleet from transatlantic
Transatlantic flight
Transatlantic flight is the flight of an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean. A transatlantic flight may proceed east-to-west, originating in Europe or Africa and terminating in North America or South America, or it may go in the reverse direction, west-to-east...

 service in 1997. British Airways' aircraft returned to full service later that year, and General Electric subsequently announced engine upgrades.

The first Rolls-Royce Trent 877-powered aircraft was delivered to Thai Airways International
Thai Airways International
Thai Airways International Public Company Limited is the national flag carrier and largest airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline's headquarters are located in Chatuchak District, Bangkok, and operates out of Suvarnabhumi Airport. Thai is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Thai is a...

 on March 31, 1996, completing the introduction of the three powerplants initially developed for the airliner. Each engine-aircraft combination had secured ETOPS-180 certification from the point of entry into service. By June 1997, orders for the 777 numbered 323 from 25 airlines, including satisfied launch customers that had ordered additional aircraft. Operations performance data established the consistent capabilities of the twinjet over long-haul transoceanic routes, leading to additional sales. By 1998, dispatch
Dispatch (logistics)
Dispatch is a procedure for assigning employees or vehicles to customers. Industries that dispatch include taxicabs, couriers, emergency services, as well as home and commercial services such as maid services, plumbing, HVAC, pest control and electricians.With vehicle dispatching, clients are...

 reliability
Reliability engineering
Reliability engineering is an engineering field, that deals with the study, evaluation, and life-cycle management of reliability: the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. It is often measured as a probability of...

 figures had reached a 99.96 percent rate of takeoff
Takeoff
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle goes from the ground to flying in the air.For horizontal takeoff aircraft this usually involves starting with a transition from moving along the ground on a runway. For balloons, helicopters and some specialized fixed-wing aircraft , no...

 without delay due to technical issues, and the growing number of fleet hours approached 900,000.

Initial derivatives

After the original model, Boeing developed the 777-200ER, an increased gross weight variant with greater range and payload capability. The −200ER first flew on October 7, 1996, received FAA and JAA certification on January 17, 1997, and entered service with British Airways on February 9, 1997. Offering greater long-haul performance, the variant became the most widely ordered version of the aircraft through the early 2000s. On April 2, 1997, a Malaysia Airlines
Malaysia Airlines
Malaysian Airline System Berhad , DBA Malaysia Airlines , is the government-owned flag carrier of Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operates flights from its home base, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, and its eastern hub in Kota Kinabalu. It has its headquarters on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz...

 −200ER named "Super Ranger" broke the great circle
Great circle
A great circle, also known as a Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere, as opposed to a general circle of a sphere where the plane is not required to pass through the center...

 "distance without landing" record for an airliner by flying eastward from Boeing Field
Boeing Field
Boeing Field, officially King County International Airport , is a two-runway airport owned and run by King County, Washington, USA. In promotional literature, the airport is frequently referred to as KCIA, but this is not the airport identifier. The airport has some passenger service, but is mostly...

, Seattle to Kuala Lumpur, a distance of 10823 nautical miles (20,044.2 km), in 21 hours and 23 minutes.

Following the introduction of the −200ER, Boeing turned its attention to a stretched version of the airliner. On October 16, 1997, the 777-300 made its first flight. At 242.4 ft (73.9 m) in length, the −300 became the longest airliner yet produced (until the A340-600
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

), and had a 20 percent greater overall capacity than the standard length model. The −300 was awarded type certification simultaneously from the FAA and JAA on May 4, 1998, and entered service with launch customer Cathay Pacific on May 27, 1998.

From the start of the development program, Boeing had considered building ultra-long-range
Non-stop flight
A non-stop flight, especially in the aviation industry, refers to any flight by an aircraft which does not involve any intermediate stops. A "direct flight" is not the same as a "non-stop flight"...

 variants. Early plans centered on a 777-100X proposal, which would have been a shortened version of the −200 with reduced weight and increased range, similar to the 747SP
Boeing 747SP
The Boeing 747SP is a modified version of the Boeing 747 jet airliner which was designed for ultra-long-range flights. The SP stands for "Special Performance". Compared with its predecessor, the 747-100, the 747SP retains its wide-body, four-engine layout, along with its double-deck design, but...

. However, the −100X would have carried fewer passengers than the −200 while having similar operating costs, leading to a higher cost per seat. By the late 1990s, design plans shifted to longer-range versions of existing models. A more-powerful engine in the 100000 lbf (444.8 kN) and higher thrust class was required, leading to active discussions between Boeing and the engine manufacturers. General Electric offered to develop the GE90-115B engine, while Rolls-Royce proposed developing the Trent 8104 engine. In 1999, Boeing announced an agreement with General Electric, beating out rival proposals. As part of the deal with General Electric, Boeing agreed that GE90 engines would be the only powerplants offered for new versions of the 777.

Longer-range models

On February 29, 2000, Boeing launched its next-generation twinjet program, initially called 777-X, and began issuing offers to airlines. Development of the long-range models was slowed by the airline industry downturn, which lasted through the early 2000s. The first model to emerge from the program, the 777-300ER, was launched with an order for ten aircraft from Air France
Air France
Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

, along with additional commitments. On February 24, 2003, the −300ER made its first flight, and the FAA and EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...

, successor to the JAA) certified the model on March 16, 2004. The first delivery to Air France took place on April 29, 2004. The −300ER, which combined the −300's added capacity with the −200ER's range, became the top-selling 777 variant in the late 2000s, gaining orders as airlines replaced comparable four-engine models with twinjets because of their lower operating costs.

The second model to originate from the next-generation program, the 777-200LR, rolled out on February 15, 2005, and completed its first flight on March 8, 2005. The −200LR was certified by both the FAA and EASA on February 2, 2006, and the first delivery to Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

 occurred on February 26, 2006. On November 10, 2005, the first −200LR set a record for the longest non-stop flight of a passenger airliner by flying 11664 nautical miles (21,601.7 km) eastward from Hong Kong to London. Lasting 22 hours and 42 minutes, the flight surpassed the −200LR's standard design range and was logged into the Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records , is a reference book published annually, containing a collection of world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world...

.

The next-generation freighter model, the 777F, rolled out on May 23, 2008. The maiden flight of the 777F, which used the structural design and engine specifications of the −200LR along with fuel tanks derived from the −300ER, occurred on July 14, 2008. FAA and EASA type certification for the freighter was received on February 6, 2009, and the first delivery to launch customer Air France took place on February 19, 2009.

Further developments

Initially second to the 747 as Boeing's most profitable
Profit (economics)
In economics, the term profit has two related but distinct meanings. Normal profit represents the total opportunity costs of a venture to an entrepreneur or investor, whilst economic profit In economics, the term profit has two related but distinct meanings. Normal profit represents the total...

 jetliner, the 777 has since become the company's most lucrative model. In 2000, program sales accounted for an estimated US$400 million of Boeing's pretax earnings
Earnings before taxes
Earnings before taxes is the money retained by the firm before deducting the money to be paid for taxes. E.B.T includes the money paid for interest. Thus, it can be calculated by subtracting the interest from EBIT ....

, US$50 million more than the 747. By 2004, the airliner comprised the bulk of wide-body revenue
Revenue
In business, revenue is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover....

s for the Boeing Commercial Airplanes division
Division (business)
A division of a business entity is a portion of that business that operates under a different name. It is the equivalent of a corporation or limited liability company obtaining a fictitious name or "doing business as" certificate and operating a business under that fictitious name...

. In 2007, orders for next-generation 777 models approached 350 aircraft, and in November of that year, Boeing announced that all production slots were sold out to 2012. The program backlog of 356 orders was valued at US$95 billion at list prices in 2008.
In the late 2000s, the 777 faced the possibility of increased competition from Airbus' planned A350 XWB and internally from proposed variants of the 787, both airliners that promise fuel efficiency improvements. As a consequence, the 777-300ER received an engine and aerodynamics improvement package for reduced drag and weight. In 2010, the variant further received a 5000 lb (2,268 kg) maximum zero-fuel weight
Maximum Zero-Fuel Weight
The Zero Fuel Weight of an airplane is the total weight of the airplane and all its contents, minus the total weight of the fuel on board....

 increase, equivalent to a higher payload of 20–25 passengers; its GE90-115B1 engines received a 1–2.5 percent thrust enhancement for increased takeoff weights at higher-altitude airports. More design changes were targeted for late 2012, including possible extension of the wingspan, and more major changes were being considered, including a composite wing, new powerplant, and different fuselage lengths. Emirates has been reported as working closely with Boeing on the project, and may be the aircraft's launch customer.

In September 2011, Boeing and General Electric released more details on the new 777 version. Wingspan is expected to increase from the current 212 ft 7 in (64.8 m) to 234 ft (71.3m). In addition, gross weight is tentatively slated to decrease slightly from the current 775,000 lb (351,500 kg) to 753,000 lb (342,270 kg) for the −9X model. General Electric has announced studies on a slightly smaller engine, dubbed the GE9X, to power the proposed variant. It will feature a fan diameter decrease from the 135 in (343 cm) of the GE90-115B to 128 in (325 cm) and a thrust decrease of 15,800 lbf to a new rating of 99,500 lbf per engine. Current estimates place entry into service around 2019.

Boeing revealed plans to increase 777 production from 5 aircraft per month in 2010 to 7 aircraft per month by mid-2011, and 8.3 per month by early 2013. Complete assembly of each 777-300ER requires 49 days. In late 2011, the FAA assigned a common type rating
Type rating
A type rating is an allowance to fly a certain aircraft type that requires additional training beyond the scope of initial license and aircraft class training. What aircraft require a type rating is decided by the local aviation authority...

 to the 787 and 777, allowing pilots qualified on either aircraft to operate both models, due to related design features. Assembly of the 1,000th 777, a −300ER model for Emirates, began in November 2011. According to industry reports, the aircraft may eventually be replaced by a new product family, the Boeing Yellowstone 3
Boeing Yellowstone Project
Yellowstone is a Boeing Commercial Airplanes project to replace its entire civil aircraft portfolio with advanced technology aircraft. New technologies to be introduced include composite aerostructures, more electrical systems , and more fuel-efficient turbofan engines Yellowstone is a Boeing...

, which would draw upon technologies from the 787.

Design

Boeing introduced a number of advanced technologies with the 777 design, including fully digital fly-by-wire controls, fully software-configurable avionics
Avionics
Avionics are electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles...

, Honeywell
Honeywell
Honeywell International, Inc. is a major conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments....

 LCD
Liquid crystal display
A liquid crystal display is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals . LCs do not emit light directly....

 glass cockpit flight displays, and the first use of a fiber optic avionics network on a commercial airliner. Boeing made use of work done on the cancelled Boeing 7J7 regional jet, which utilized similar versions of the chosen technologies. In 2003, Boeing began offering the option of cockpit electronic flight bag
Electronic flight bag
Electronic Flight Bag is an electronic information management device that helps flight crews perform flight management tasks more easily and efficiently with less paper...

 computer displays.

Fly-by-wire

In designing the 777 as its first fly-by-wire commercial aircraft, Boeing decided to retain conventional control yokes
Yoke (aircraft)
A yoke, alternatively known as control column, is a device used for piloting in most fixed-wing aircraft.- Principle :The aviator uses the yoke to control the attitude of the plane, usually in both pitch and roll. Rotating the control wheel controls the ailerons and the roll axis...

 rather than change to sidestick
Side-stick
A side-stick or sidestick controller is an aircraft control column that is located on the side console of the pilot, usually on the righthand side, or outboard on a two-seat flightdeck...

 controllers as used in many fly-by-wire fighter aircraft and in many Airbus airliners. Along with traditional yoke and rudder
Aircraft flight control systems
A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight...

 controls, the cockpit features a simplified layout that retains similarities to previous Boeing models. The fly-by-wire system also incorporates flight envelope protection
Flight envelope protection
right|thumb| 327 px| [[China Airlines Flight 006]] damaged by going outside its [[flight envelope]] to gain control after a drop in twenty seconds of 3,000 m...

, a system that guides pilot inputs within a computer-calculated framework of operating parameters, acting to prevent stalls
Stall (flight)
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases. This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded...

 and overly stressful maneuvers. This system can be overridden by the pilot in command if deemed necessary.

Airframe and systems

The 777's wings feature a supercritical airfoil
Supercritical airfoil
A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered aft section, and greater leading edge radius compared with traditional airfoil shapes...

 design that is swept back at 31.6 degrees and optimized for cruising at Mach 0.83 (revised upward after flight tests to Mach 0.84). The wings are designed with increased thickness and a longer span
Wingspan
The wingspan of an airplane or a bird, is the distance from one wingtip to the other wingtip. For example, the Boeing 777 has a wingspan of about ; and a Wandering Albatross caught in 1965 had a wingspan of , the official record for a living bird.The term wingspan, more technically extent, is...

 than previous airliners, resulting in greater payload and range, improved takeoff performance, and a higher cruising altitude. Folding wing
Folding wing
A folding wing is a design feature of aircraft to save space in the airfield, and time, and is typical of naval aircraft that operate from the limited deck space of aircraft carriers. The folding allows the aircraft to occupy less space in a confined hangar because the folded wing normally rises...

tips were offered when the aircraft was launched, to appeal to airlines who might use gates made to accommodate smaller aircraft, but no airline purchased this option.

The airframe
Airframe
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure. It is typically considered to include fuselage, wings and undercarriage and exclude the propulsion system...

 incorporates the use of composite material
Composite material
Composite materials, often shortened to composites or called composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or...

s, which comprise nine percent of its original structural weight. Elements made from composite material include the cabin floor and rudder. The main fuselage cross-section is circular and tapers rearward into a blade-shaped tail cone with a port-facing auxiliary power unit
Auxiliary power unit
An auxiliary power unit is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion. They are commonly found on large aircraft, as well as some large land vehicles.-Function:...

. The aircraft also features the largest landing gear
Undercarriage
The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land...

 and the biggest tires ever used in a commercial jetliner. Each tire of a 777-300ER six-wheel main landing gear can carry a load of 59490 lb (26,984.2 kg), heavier than other wide-bodies such as the 747-400. The aircraft has triple redundant hydraulic systems with only one system required for landing. A ram air turbine
Ram air turbine
A ram air turbine is a small turbine that is connected to a hydraulic pump, or electrical generator, installed in an aircraft and used as a power source...

 –a small retractable propeller which can provide emergency power– is also fitted in the wing root
Wing root
The wing root is the part of the wing on a fixed-wing aircraft that is closest to the fuselage. On a simple monoplane configuration, this is usually easy to identify...

 fairing.

Interior

The 777 interior, also known as the Boeing Signature Interior, features curved panels, larger overhead bins, and indirect lighting. Seating options range from six abreast in first class
First class (aviation)
First class is a luxury travel class on some airliners that exceeds business class, premium economy, and economy class. On a passenger jetliner, first class refers to a limited number of seats or cabins located in the front of the aircraft which are notable for their comfort, service, and privacy...

 up to 10 across in economy
Economy class
__FORCETOC__Economy class, also called coach class , steerage, or standard class, is the lowest class of seating in air travel, rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel....

. At 15 inches (38.1 cm) by 10 inches (25.4 cm), the windows were the largest of any current commercial airliner until the 787. The cabin also features "Flexibility Zones", which entails deliberate placement of water, electrical, pneumatic, and other hook-ups throughout the interior space, allowing airlines to move seats, galleys, and lavatories quickly when adjusting cabin arrangements. Several aircraft have also been fitted with VIP
VIP
VIP and V.I.P. is a three-letter acronym that may refer to:-In general:* Vacuum insulated panel* Values, Influence, and Peers, an anti-crime campaign in Ontario elementary schools* Variable Information Printing, a form of on-demand printing...

 interiors for non-airline use. Boeing engineers designed a new hydraulically damped toilet seat cover hinge that closes slowly.

In 2003, Boeing introduced overhead crew rests as an option on the 777. Located above the main cabin and connected via staircases, the forward flight crew rest contains two seats and two bunks, while the aft cabin crew rest features multiple bunks. The Signature Interior has since been adapted for other Boeing wide-body and narrow-body aircraft, including 737NG
Boeing 737 Next Generation
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as Boeing 737NG, is the name given to the -600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 after the introduction of the -300/-400/-500 Classic series. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners...

, 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

, 757-300
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

, and newer 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

 models, including all 767-400ER models. The 747–8
Boeing 747-8
The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Officially announced in 2005, the 747-8 is the fourth-generation Boeing 747 version, with lengthened fuselage, redesigned wings and improved efficiency...

 and 767-400ER have also adopted the larger, more rounded windows of the 777.

On July 7, 2011, it was reported that Boeing is considering to replace the Signature Interior on the 777 with a new interior similar to that on the 787, as part of a move towards a 'common cabin experience' across all Boeing platforms.

Variants

Boeing 777 variants
ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization , pronounced , , is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth...

 code
Model(s)
B772 777-200/200ER
B77L 777-200LR/777F
B773 777-300
B77W 777-300ER

Boeing uses two characteristics, fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

 length
Length
In geometric measurements, length most commonly refers to the longest dimension of an object.In certain contexts, the term "length" is reserved for a certain dimension of an object along which the length is measured. For example it is possible to cut a length of a wire which is shorter than wire...

 and range
Range (aircraft)
The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft....

, to define their 777 models. Fuselage length affects the number of passengers and amount of cargo that can be carried; the 777-200 and derivatives are the base size, and the aircraft was stretched into the 777-300 in 1998. In terms of range, the aircraft has been categorized into three segments based on design criteria; these were initially defined as the following:
  • A-market: up to 4200 nautical miles (7,778.4 km),
  • B-market: 6600 nautical miles (12,223.2 km), and
  • C-market: 7800 nautical miles (14,445.6 km).

When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number (777) and the variant designator (−200 or −300) into a truncated form (e.g. "772" or "773"). The International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization , pronounced , , is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth...

 (ICAO) aircraft type designator system adds a preceding manufacturer letter (e.g. "B772" or "B773"). Subsequent to the capacity number, designations may or may not append the range identifier (e.g. 777-300ER as "773ER", "773B", "77W", or "B77W"). These notations may be found in aircraft manuals or airline timetables.

777-200

The 777-200 was the initial A-market model. The first −200 was delivered to United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 on May 15, 1995. With a maximum range of 5235 nautical miles (9,695.2 km), the −200 was chiefly aimed at U.S. domestic airline
Domestic airport
A domestic airport is an airport which handles only domestic flights or flights within the same country. Domestic airports don't have customs and immigration facilities and are therefore incapable of handling flights to or from a foreign airport....

 operators. Nine different −200 customers have taken delivery of 88 aircraft, with 68 in airline service as of July 2011. The competing aircraft from Airbus is the A330-300
Airbus A330
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of EADS. Versions of the A330 have a range of and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry of cargo....

.

777-200ER

The 777-200ER ("ER" for Extended Range), the B-market version of the −200, was originally known as the 777-200IGW for its increased gross weight. The −200ER features additional fuel capacity and an increased maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) over the −200. Aimed at international airlines operating transatlantic
Transatlantic flight
Transatlantic flight is the flight of an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean. A transatlantic flight may proceed east-to-west, originating in Europe or Africa and terminating in North America or South America, or it may go in the reverse direction, west-to-east...

 routes, the −200ER's maximum range is 7700 nautical miles (14,260.4 km). In addition to breaking the eastbound great circle
Great circle
A great circle, also known as a Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere, as opposed to a general circle of a sphere where the plane is not required to pass through the center...

 "distance without landing" record, the −200ER also holds the record for the longest ETOPS-related emergency flight diversion
Diversion airport
Diversion airports are suitable airports capable of handling a particular ETOPS rated aircraft during an emergency landing and whose flying distance at the point of emergency shall not exceed the ETOPS diversion period of that particular aircraft....

 (177 minutes under one engine), on a United Airlines flight carrying 255 passengers on March 17, 2003, over the Pacific Ocean.

The first −200ER was delivered to British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 on February 6, 1997. As of July 2011, −200ER deliveries to 33 different customers numbered 415, ranking the −200ER as the most widely produced variant of the twinjet to date. As of July 2011, 428 of the variant were in airline service. The competing aircraft from Airbus is the A340-300
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

.

777-300

The stretched 777-300 was designed as an A-market replacement for 747-100s and 747-200s. Compared to the older 747s, the stretched 777 has comparable passenger capacity and range, and is designed to burn one-third less fuel and have 40 percent lower maintenance costs. The −300 features a 33.3 ft (10.1 m) fuselage stretch over the baseline −200, allowing seating for up to 550 passengers in a single class high-density configuration, an arrangement adopted for heavily trafficked Japanese routes. Because of the aircraft's length, the −300 is equipped with a tailskid
Tailstrike
Tailstrike is an aviation term that describes an event in which the rear end of an aircraft touches the runway. This can happen during takeoff of a fixed-wing aircraft if the pilot pulls up too rapidly, leading to the rear end of the fuselage touching the runway. It can also occur during landing...

 and ground maneuvering cameras to aid pilots during taxi
Taxiing
Taxiing refers to the movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own power, in contrast to towing or push-back where the aircraft is moved by a tug...

. The maximum range is 6015 nautical miles (11,139.8 km), allowing the −300 to operate trunk routes previously flown by older 747s.

The first −300 was delivered to Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

 on May 21, 1998. Eight different −300 customers have taken delivery of 60 aircraft, and all were in airline service as of July 2011. However, following the introduction of the longer-range −300ER in 2004, all operators have selected the ER version of the −300 model. The −300 has no direct Airbus rival, but the A340-600 is offered in competition.

777-200LR

The 777-200LR ("LR" for Longer Range), the C-market model, became the world's longest-range commercial airliner when it entered service in 2006. Boeing named this aircraft the Worldliner, highlighting its ability to connect almost any two airports in the world, although it is still subject to ETOPS restrictions. It holds the world record for the longest nonstop flight by a commercial airliner, and has a maximum range of 9380 nautical miles (17,371.8 km). The −200LR was intended for ultra-long-haul routes such as Los Angeles to Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, or Dallas to Tokyo.

Developed alongside the −300ER, the −200LR features an increased MTOW and three optional auxiliary fuel tanks in the rear cargo hold. Other new features include raked wingtips, redesigned main landing gear, and additional structural strengthening. As with the −300ER and 777F, the −200LR is equipped with wingtip extensions of 12.8 ft (3.90 m). The first −200LR was delivered to Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

 on February 26, 2006. As of July 2011, nine different −200LR customers have taken delivery of 52 aircraft, with 3 unfilled orders. Airlines operated 48 of the -200LR variant as of July 2011. The closest competing aircraft from Airbus is the A340-500HGW.

777-300ER


The 777-300ER ("ER" for Extended Range) is the B-market version of the −300. It features raked and extended wingtips, a new main landing gear, reinforced nose gear, and extra fuel tanks. The −300ER also has a strengthened fuselage, wings, empennage
Empennage
The empennage , also known as the tail or tail assembly, of most aircraft gives stability to the aircraft, in a similar way to the feathers on an arrow...

, and engine attachments. The standard GE90-115B turbofan is the world's most powerful jet engine in service, with a maximum thrust of 115300 lbf (512.9 kN). The maximum range is 7930 nautical miles (14,686.4 km), made possible due to a higher MTOW along with the increased fuel capacity. The −300ER can fly approximately 34 percent further than the −300 with a full load of passengers and cargo. Following flight testing, the implementation of engine, wing, and weight modifications produced an added 1.4 percent reduction in fuel consumption.
The first −300ER was delivered to Air France
Air France
Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

 on April 29, 2004. The −300ER ranks as the best-selling 777 variant, having surpassed the −200ER in September 2010, and since its launch the model has been a primary driver of the twinjet's sales past the rival A340. Using only two engines produces a typical operating cost
Operating cost
Operating costs can be described as the expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or to the operation of a device, component, piece of equipment or facility.-Business operating costs:...

 advantage of around 8–9 percent for the −300ER over the A340-600, along with a 20 percent fuel burn advantage over the 747-400. Several airlines have acquired the −300ER as a 747-400 replacement amid rising fuel prices. As of July 2011, −300ER deliveries to 24 different customers totaled 290, with 224 unfilled orders. Operators had 281 aircraft in service as of July 2011. The −300ER's direct Airbus competitor is the A340-600HGW.

777 Freighter

The 777 Freighter (777F) is an all-cargo version of the twinjet. It shares features with the −200LR, using its airframe, engines, and fuel capacity. With a maximum payload of 226000 lb (102,511.9 kg), cargo capacity is similar to the 243000 lb (110,222.9 kg) of the 747-200F
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

. The freighter has a range of 4,900 nmi (9,070 km) at maximum payload, although greater range is possible if less cargo weight is carried. As the aircraft promises improved operating economics compared to existing freighters, airlines have targeted the 777F as a replacement for older freighters including the 747-200F and MD-11F.

The first 777F was delivered to Air France on February 19, 2009. As of July 2011, 44 freighters had been delivered to eight different customers, with 52 unfilled orders. Airlines had 39 of the 777F variant in operation as of July 2011.

In the 2000s, Boeing has also been studying the conversion of 777-200ER and −200 passenger airliners into freighters, under the name 777 Boeing Converted Freighter or 777 BCF. The company has been in discussion with several airline customers and looks to offer the conversion beginning in 2011. Fedex, UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines
UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline owned by United Parcel Service Inc. . The company is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Its home airport is located at Louisville International Airport...

, and GE Commercial Aviation Services
GE Commercial Aviation Services
GECAS is a unit of GE Capital, itself part of the large conglomerate General Electric. The president of GECAS is Norman Liu. GECAS is responsible for the leasing of aircraft and associated equipment to airlines...

 are some potential customers.

777 Tanker (KC-777)

The KC-777 is a proposed tanker version
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

 of the 777. In September 2006, Boeing publicly announced that it would produce the KC-777, if the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 (USAF) requires a larger tanker than the KC-767
Boeing KC-767
The Boeing KC-767 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed from the Boeing 767-200ER. The tanker received the designation KC-767A in 2002, after being selected by the US Air Force initially to replace older KC-135Es...

. The 777 tanker would also be able to transport more cargo or personnel. In April 2007, Boeing instead offered its KC-767 Advanced Tanker for USAF's KC-X
KC-X
KC-X is the United States Air Force program to procure its next-generation aerial refueling tanker aircraft to replace some of the older Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers. The contest was for a production contract for 179 new tankers with estimated value of US$35 billion...

 competition.

Operators

The customers that have received the most 777s are ILFC, Emirates, Singapore Airlines, Air France, and United Airlines. A total of 924 aircraft (all variants) were in airline service as of July 2011, with Emirates (87), Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

 (66), Air France
Air France
Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

 (61), United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

 (52), All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

 (49), British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

 (49), American Airlines
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 (47), Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines
is an airline headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is the flag carrier of Japan and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport , as well as Nagoya's Chūbu Centrair International Airport and Osaka's Kansai International Airport...

 (46), Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

 (38), Korean Air
Korean Air
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd. , operating as Korean Air, is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of South Korea, with global headquarters located in Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 130 cities in 45...

 (29), Air India
Air India
Air India is the flag carrier airline of India. It is part of the government of India owned Air India Limited . The airline operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Its corporate office is located at the Air India Building at Nariman...

 (24), and other operators with fewer aircraft of the type.

Orders and deliveries

|Deliveries
TypeTotalBacklogTotal20112010200920082007200620052004200320022001200019991998199719961995
777-200 88 88 1 3 2 1 3 9 3 10 11 32 13
777-200ER 428 13 415 0 3 4 3 19 23 13 22 29 41 55 42 63 50 48
777-200LR 55 1 54 6 9 16 11 10 2
777-300 60 60 1 4 2 9 6 3 4 17 14
777-300ER 545 241 304 43 40 52 47 53 39 20 10
777F 119 70 49 11 22 16
Total 1,295 325 970 60 74 88 61 83 65 40 36 39 47 61 55 83 74 59 32 13


Data through October 2011. Updated on November 3, 2011.

Incidents and accidents

As of November 1, 2011, the 777 has been in seven incidents, including one hull-loss accident
Aviation accidents and incidents
An aviation accident is defined in the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which a...

, and two hijackings
Aircraft hijacking
Aircraft hijacking is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers. Occasionally, however, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves, such as the September 11 attacks of 2001...

, with no fatalities among the passengers or crew. The only fatality involving the twinjet occurred in a refueling fire at Denver International Airport
Denver International Airport
Denver International Airport , often referred to as DIA, is an airport in Denver, Colorado. By land size, at , it is the largest international airport in the United States, and the third largest international airport in the world after King Fahd International Airport and Montréal-Mirabel...

 on September 5, 2001, during which a ground worker sustained fatal burns. The aircraft, operated by British Airways
British Airways
British Airways is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. British Airways is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations...

, suffered scorching of the wings and was repaired and put back into service.

The type's only hull loss occurred on January 17, 2008, when British Airways Flight 38
British Airways Flight 38
British Airways Flight 38 was a scheduled flight from Beijing Capital International Airport which crash landed just short of the runway at its destination, London Heathrow Airport, on 17 January 2008 after an flight. There were no fatalities, but 47 people sustained injuries...

 (BA38), a Rolls-Royce Trent 895 engined 777-200ER flying from Beijing to London, crash-landed approximately 1000 feet (304.8 m) short of Heathrow Airport's runway 27L and slid onto the runway's threshold
Displaced threshold
A displaced threshold is a runway threshold located at a point other than the physical beginning or end of the runway. The portion of the runway so displaced may be used for takeoff but not for landing...

. There were 47 injuries and no fatalities. The impact damaged the landing gear, wing root
Wing root
The wing root is the part of the wing on a fixed-wing aircraft that is closest to the fuselage. On a simple monoplane configuration, this is usually easy to identify...

s, and engines, and the aircraft was written off. Upon investigation, the accident was blamed on ice crystals
Ice crystals
Ice crystals are a small crystalline form of ice including hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust. The highly symmetric shapes are due to depositional growth, namely, direct deposition of water vapour onto the ice crystal...

 from the fuel system clogging the fuel-oil heat exchanger
Heat exchanger
A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact...

 (FOHE). Air accident investigators called for this component on the Trent 800 series engine to be redesigned, and manufacturer Rolls-Royce said in March 2009 the new part should be ready within .

Two other minor momentary losses of thrust with Trent 895 engines occurred in 2008. The National Transportation Safety Board
National Transportation Safety Board
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes, ship and marine...

 (NTSB) investigators concluded that, just as on BA38, the loss of power was caused by ice in the fuel clogging the fuel-oil heat exchanger. As a result, the heat exchanger was redesigned.

Specifications

777-200 777-200ER 777-200LR 777 Freighter 777-300 777-300ER
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity,
typical
301 (3-class)
400 (2-class)
440 (maximum)
N/A
(cargo)
365 (3-class)
451 (2-class)
550 (maximum)
Length 209 in 1 in (63.73 m) 242 in 4 in (73.86 m)
Wingspan 199 in 11 in (60.93 m) 212 in 7 in (64.8 m) 199 in 11 in (60.93 m) 212 in 7 in (64.8 m)
Wing sweepback 31.64°
Degree (angle)
A degree , usually denoted by ° , is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1⁄360 of a full rotation; one degree is equivalent to π/180 radians...

Tail height 60 in 9 in (18.52 m) 61 in 1 in (18.62 m) 60 in 8 in (18.49 m)
Cabin width 19 in 3 in (5.87 m)
Fuselage width 20 in 4 in (6.2 m)
Maximum cargo capacity 5720 cu ft (162 m³)
32× LD3
23051 cu ft (652.7 m³)
37× pallets
7640 cu ft (216.3 m³)
44× LD3
Empty weight, operating 297,300 lb
Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the Imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement...

 
(134,800 kg)
304,500 lb
(138,100 kg)
320,000 lb
(145,150 kg)
318,300 lb
(144,400 kg)
353,800 lb
(160,500 kg)
370,000 lb
(167,800 kg)
Maximum landing weight 445,000 lb
(201,840 kg)
470,000 lb
(213,180 kg)
492,000 lb
(223,168 kg)
575,000 lb
(260,816 kg)
524,000 lb
(237,680 kg)
554,000 lb
(251,290 kg)
Maximum Takeoff Weight 
(MTOW)
545,000 lb
(247,200 kg)
656,000 lb
(297,550 kg)
766,000 lb
(347,500 kg)
766,800 lb
(347,800 kg)
660,000 lb
(299,370 kg)
775,000 lb
(351,500 kg)
Typical cruise speed Mach
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 0.84 (560 mph, 905 km/h, 490 knots) at a cruise altitude of 35000 ft (10,668 m)
Maximum cruise speed Mach 0.89 (590 mph, 950 km/h, 512 knots) at a cruise altitude of 35000 ft (10,668 m)
Maximum range 5,240 nmi
(9,700 km)
7,725 nmi
(14,310 km)
9,380 nmi
(17,370 km)
4,900 nmi
(9,070 km)
6,005 nmi
(11,120 km)
7,930 nmi
(14,690 km)
Takeoff distance at MTOW
ISA+15 MSL
8300 ft (2,529.8 m) 11700 ft (3,566.2 m) 9750 ft (2,971.8 m) 9800 ft (2,987 m) 11100 ft (3,383.3 m) 10500 ft (3,200.4 m)
Maximum fuel capacity 31,000 US gal
Gallon
The gallon is a measure of volume. Historically it has had many different definitions, but there are three definitions in current use: the imperial gallon which is used in the United Kingdom and semi-officially within Canada, the United States liquid gallon and the lesser used United States dry...


(117,348 L)
45,220 US gal
(171,176 L)
47,890 US gal
(181,283 L)
47,890 US gal
(181,283 L)
45,220 US gal
(171,176 L)
47,890 US gal
(181,283 L)
Service ceiling 43,100 ft (13,140 m)
Engine (×2) PW 4077
Pratt & Whitney PW4000
|-See also:-External links:* * *...

 
RR 877
Rolls-Royce Trent 800
|-See also:-External links:*...

 
GE90-77B
General Electric GE90
General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings ranging from 74,000 to 115,000 lbf . It was first introduced in November 1995 on British Airways' 777s, and is available only on the 777...

 
PW 4090
RR 895
GE90-94B
GE90-110B1
GE90-115B1
PW 4098
RR 892
GE90-92B/GE90-94B
GE90-115B1
Thrust (×2) PW: 77,000 lbf
Pound-force
The pound force is a unit of force in some systems of measurement including English engineering units and British gravitational units.- Definitions :...

 (342 kN)
RR: 76,000 lbf (338 kN)
GE: 77,000 lbf (342 kN)
PW: 90,000 lbf (400 kN)
RR: 93,400 lbf (415 kN)
GE: 93,700 lbf (417 kN)
GE −110B: 110,100 lbf (490 kN)
GE −115B: 115,540 lbf (514 kN)
PW: 98,000 lbf (436 kN)
RR: 93,400 lbf (415 kN)
GE: 92,000/93,700 lbf (409 kN)/(418 kN)
GE: 115,540 lbf (514 kN)


Sources: Boeing 777 specifications, Boeing 777 airport planning report, Civil Aircraft, Rolls-Royce Trent 800 series data

See also

External links

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