Refik Saydam
Dr. Refik Ibrahim Saydam (September 8, 1881, Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

 – July 8, 1942, Istanbul) was the 4th Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 from 25 January 1939 to 8 July 1942.


He was born in Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

 in 1881 and is the son of Hacı Ahmet Efendi of Çankırı
-Agriculture:Various produce like wheat, corn, beans, apple etc. are grown in the farms, and fields that are rich of water.-Industry:Most of the industry is located near the city center and Korgun. Other towns that are in the industrial map of the city are Şabanözü, Çerkeş, Ilgaz, Kurşunlu, and...

. After completing primary and secondary education in Fatih Military Junior High School, he entered to Military School of Medicine in 1899. He went on training course at Gülhane as of graduating with the rank of doctor captain on November 4, 1905. He was assigned as doctor at Maltepe Military Hospital and Feshane Factory between the years 1907-1910 and improved his expertise on military camps and hospitals by being sent to Germany in 1910.

He was a medic in the Ottoman Army during the dissolution of the empire
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire included the watershed events of the Young Turk Revolution and the establishment of the Second Constitutional Era, and ended with the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the victorious sides of World War I.- Establishment of the Second Constitutional Era, 24...

. He created a medicine to cure typhus
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters...

, which was used largely by the Central Powers
Central Powers
The Central Powers were one of the two warring factions in World War I , composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria...


He was one of the key people of the Independence War
Turkish War of Independence
The Turkish War of Independence was a war of independence waged by Turkish nationalists against the Allies, after the country was partitioned by the Allies following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I...

. He landed at Samsun
Samsun is a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey. It is the provincial capital of Samsun Province and a major Black Sea port.-Name:...

 with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey....

 in 1919 to start the resistance in Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

. He was known as a reformist while he was the Prime Minister. Just four years after his death, the single party period
Single-Party Period of Republic of Turkey
The single-party period of the Republic of Turkey begins with the Republican People's Party being the only party between 1925 and 1945. It ends with the establishment of National Development Party . End of single party period marked with Republican People's Party leaving the majority to Democratic...

 came to an end in Turkey.

Political life

He became the Vice-president of the department of Health of the Ministry of War on December 1, 1913 and was promoted to the rank of major on June 1, 1915. Meanwhile, he established the Institute of Bacteriology and his vaccines against epidemics and especially typhus had been effective. After the truce, he assigned to the order of 9th Army Inspectorship, and passed to Anatolia along with Mustafa Kemal as the health inspector of the army, soon named as the 3rd Army Inspectorship, on May 15, 1919. He attended to Erzurum and Sivas Congresses, came to Ankara with the delegation committee and joined to the opening ceremony of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey with the elections held for the 1st term as the deputy of Bayazıt on April 23, 1920. He was elected as the Minister of Health in the Council of Ministers under the presidency of Fevzi Pasha, as the Minister of Health and Social Relief upon the resignation of Dr. Mr. Adnan, and resigned from ministry suggesting his sickness on December 14, 1921.

Being elected as İstanbul deputy, he officiated as the Minister of Health under the cabinet of İsmet Pasha in 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th sessions.

After the pass away of Atatürk, at the Second Bayar Government formed on November 11, 1938, he performed as the Minister of Interior and was assigned as the general secretary of the Republican People's Party
Republican People's Party (Turkey)
The Republican People's Party is a centre-left Kemalist political party in Turkey. It is the oldest political party of Turkey and is currently Main Opposition in the Grand National Assembly. The Republican People's Party describes itself as "a modern social-democratic party, which is faithful to...

. He was appointed to Prime Ministry by President İsmet İnönü
Ismet Inönü
Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" .-Family and early life:...

 as İstanbul Deputy at the 6th session elections on January 25, 1939.

During this duty, he died in İstanbul on July 8, 1942 and was buried in Ankara.

Endeavoring to extent the health services and establishing health facilities, especially the Hıfzıssıha Foundation which is today known with his name, at the period of his health ministry, he also tried to protect the nation from the negative impacts of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 during the period of prime ministry. He never married.


  • Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the General Directorate of Cultural Heritages and Museums

External links

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