Quintana Roo
Overview
 
Quintana Roo officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo (Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. It is divided in 10 municipalities
Municipalities of Quintana Roo
The Mexican State of Quintana Roo is made up of 10 municipalities : Tulum and Bacalar are the newest municipalities. The state was created from the Quintana Roo Territory in 1974 with seven municipios. Solidaridad was formed in 1993 by act of the Congress of Quintana Roo. Tulum was split off from...

 and its capital city is Chetumal
Chetumal
Chetumal is a city on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It is the capital of the state of Quintana Roo and the municipal seat of the Municipality of Othón P. Blanco...

.

It is located in Southeastern Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
The Yucatán Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel...

. It is bordered by the states of Yucatán
Yucatán
Yucatán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities and its capital city is Mérida....

 to the northwest and Campeche
Campeche
Campeche is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Located in Southeast Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Yucatán to the north east, Quintana Roo to the east, and Tabasco to the south west...

 to the west.
Encyclopedia
Quintana Roo officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo (Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. It is divided in 10 municipalities
Municipalities of Quintana Roo
The Mexican State of Quintana Roo is made up of 10 municipalities : Tulum and Bacalar are the newest municipalities. The state was created from the Quintana Roo Territory in 1974 with seven municipios. Solidaridad was formed in 1993 by act of the Congress of Quintana Roo. Tulum was split off from...

 and its capital city is Chetumal
Chetumal
Chetumal is a city on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It is the capital of the state of Quintana Roo and the municipal seat of the Municipality of Othón P. Blanco...

.

It is located in Southeastern Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
The Yucatán Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel...

. It is bordered by the states of Yucatán
Yucatán
Yucatán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities and its capital city is Mérida....

 to the northwest and Campeche
Campeche
Campeche is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Located in Southeast Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Yucatán to the north east, Quintana Roo to the east, and Tabasco to the south west...

 to the west. To the north, Quintana Roo borders the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

 and to the south, Belize
Belize
Belize is a constitutional monarchy and the northernmost country in Central America. Belize has a diverse society, comprising many cultures and languages. Even though Kriol and Spanish are spoken among the population, Belize is the only country in Central America where English is the official...

. It also claims territory which gives it a small border with Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast...

 in the southwest of the state, although this disputed area is also claimed by Campeche.

Quintana Roo is home of the world famous city of Cancún
Cancún
Cancún is a city of international tourism development certified by the UNWTO . Located on the northeast coast of Quintana Roo in southern Mexico, more than 1,700 km from Mexico City, the Project began operations in 1974 as Integrally Planned Center, a pioneer of FONATUR Cancún is a city of...

, the islands of Cozumel
Cozumel
Cozumel is an island in the Caribbean Sea off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, opposite Playa del Carmen, and close to the Yucatan Channel. Cozumel is one of the ten municipalities of the state of Quintana Roo...

 and Isla Mujeres
Isla Mujeres
Isla Mujeres is one of the ten municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The municipality, located in the northeastern corner of the state is mostly on the mainland and has a municipal seat of the same name; Isla Mujeres...

, the towns of Bacalar
Bacalar
Bacalar is the municipal seat and largest city in Bacalar Municipality in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, about north of Chetumal, at 18° 40' 37" N, 88° 23' 43" W. In the 2010 census the city had a population of 11,084 people. At that time it was still a part of Othón P...

, Playa del Carmen
Playa del Carmen
Playa del Carmen is a balneario resort city just south of Cancún on the coast of the Caribbean Sea, in the northeast of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The city is the seat of the Solidaridad municipality. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 149,923 people and it is rapidly growing...

 and Akumal
Akumal
Akumal is a small beach-front tourist resort community south of Cancún, between the towns of Playa del Carmen and Tulum. It is located in Tulum Municipality in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico...

, as well as the ancient Maya
Maya civilization
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period The Maya is a Mesoamerican...

 ruins of Chacchoben
Chacchoben
Chacchoben is the name of a Mayan ruin approximately 110 mi south of Tulum and 7 mi from the village from which it derives its name.- History :...

, Coba
Coba
Coba is a large ruined city of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is located about 90 km east of the Maya site of Chichen Itza, about 40 km west of the Caribbean Sea, and 44 km northwest of the site of Tulum, with which it is...

, Kohunlich
Kohunlich
Kohunlich is a large archaeological site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located on the Yucatán Peninsula about 25 km east of the Rio Bec region, and about 65 km west of Chetumal on Highway 186, and 9 km south of the road...

, Muyil
Muyil
Muyil was one of the earliest and longest inhabited ancient Maya sites on the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. It is located approximately south of the coastal site of Tulum, in the Municipality of Felipe Carrillo Puerto in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Artifacts found here date back...

, Tulum, Xel-Há
Xel-Há
Xelha is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization from pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, located on the eastern coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the present-day state of Quintana Roo, Mexico...

, and Xcaret
Xcaret
Xcaret is a Maya civilization archaeological site located on the Caribbean coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the modern-day state of Quintana Roo in Mexico. The site was occupied by the pre-Columbian Maya and functioned as a port for navigation and an important Maya trading center...

. The Sian Ka'an
Sian Ka'an
Sian Ka'an is a non profit and non governmental organization biosphere reserve formed by a group of conservationists in the municipality of Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, whose mission is the conservation of the biodiversity...

 Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere reserve
The Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO was established in 1971 to promote interdisciplinary approaches to management, research and education in ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.-Development:...

 is also in the state.

The state officially covers an area of 42361 square kilometres (16,355.7 sq mi), but since 1997 there is a boundary dispute with the states of Yucatan and Campeche over an area of approximately 10200 square kilometres (3,938.2 sq mi).

The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many immigrants come from Yucatán
Yucatán
Yucatán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities and its capital city is Mérida....

, Campeche
Campeche
Campeche is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Located in Southeast Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Yucatán to the north east, Quintana Roo to the east, and Tabasco to the south west...

, Tabasco
Tabasco
Tabasco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 17 municipalities and its capital city is Villahermosa....

, and Veracruz
Veracruz
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is...

. The state is frequently hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the most recent and severe being Hurricane Dean
Hurricane Dean
The name Dean was used for five tropical cyclones in the Northern Atlantic Ocean:*1983's Tropical Storm Dean, which struck the coast of Virginia, causing minor erosion and flooding...

 in 2007, making landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h (175 mph), with gusts up to 320 km/h (200 mph).

History

The area that makes up modern Quintana Roo was long part of Yucatán, sharing its history. With the Caste War of Yucatán
Caste War of Yucatán
The Caste War of Yucatán began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. A lengthy war ensued between the Yucateco forces in the north-west of the Yucatán and the...

 starting in the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region and the independent Maya nation of Chan Santa Cruz
Chan Santa Cruz
Chan Santa Cruz or U Noh Kah Balam Nah Chan Santa Cruz is the Maya town now known as Felipe Carrillo Puerto in what is now the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. This name is often assigned to the Maya free state ruled from Chan Santa Cruz for much of the second half of the 19th century...

 was centered on what is now the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto
Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo
See also Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Oaxaca, for the town in Oaxaca.Felipe Carrillo Puerto or simply Carrillo Puerto is the name of a municipality for which the city of the same name serves its the municipal seat. The municipality is located south-central part of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It...

.

Quintana Roo was made a territory of Mexico by decree of President Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican-American War volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N...

 on November 24, 1902. It was named after an early patriot of the Mexican Republic, Andrés Quintana Roo
Andrés Quintana Roo
Andrés Quintana Roo was a Mexican liberal politician and author. He was one of the most influential men in the War of Independence and served as a member of the Congress of Chilpancingo...

. The Mexican army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region during the 1910s, and in 1915 the area was again declared to be legally part of the state of Yucatán.

Quintana Roo was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on October 8, 1974. It is the Mexican Republic's youngest state.

Municipalities

The State of Quintana Roo is divided into 10 municipalities , each headed by a municipal president
Municipal president
A presidente municipal is the chief of government of municipios in Mexico. The position is comparable to the county executive of a county in the United States or to the mayor of a city in the United States, although the jurisdiction of a presidente municipal includes not only a city but the...

:

  • Bacalar
  • Benito Juarez
    Benito Juárez, Quintana Roo
    Benito Juárez is one of the ten municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Most of its population reside in the municipal seat, Cancún. It is named after the 19th century president and statesman Benito Juárez.- Location :...

  • Othón P. Blanco
    Othón P. Blanco, Quintana Roo
    On february 2nd, 2011, the municipality of Othón P. Blanco had undergone important changes. All information below may be outdated. Please remove this notice when data has been checked....

  • Cozumel
    Cozumel
    Cozumel is an island in the Caribbean Sea off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, opposite Playa del Carmen, and close to the Yucatan Channel. Cozumel is one of the ten municipalities of the state of Quintana Roo...

  • Felipe Carrillo Puerto
    Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo
    See also Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Oaxaca, for the town in Oaxaca.Felipe Carrillo Puerto or simply Carrillo Puerto is the name of a municipality for which the city of the same name serves its the municipal seat. The municipality is located south-central part of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It...


  • Isla Mujeres
    Isla Mujeres
    Isla Mujeres is one of the ten municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The municipality, located in the northeastern corner of the state is mostly on the mainland and has a municipal seat of the same name; Isla Mujeres...

  • Solidaridad
    Solidaridad, Quintana Roo
    Solidaridad is one of the ten municipalities that make up the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It is also one of the youngest municipalities in the country and was formed on July 28 of 1993 by decree of the State Congress during the administration of Mario Villanueva Madrid...

  • Tulum
    Municipality of Tulum
    Tulum is one of the ten municipalities that make up the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It became one of the newest municipalities in the country when it was formed on March 13, 2008 as a result of its separation from Solidaridad Municipality...

  • José María Morelos
    José María Morelos, Quintana Roo
    José María Morelos is one of the ten municipalities that make up the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.-Communities:There were 129 populated localities, as well as 132 unpopulated localities enumerated during the 2010 census....

  • Lázaro Cárdenas
    Lázaro Cárdenas, Quintana Roo
    Lázaro Cárdenas is one of the ten municipalities that make up the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Its municipal seat is the town of Kantunilkín, which was founded on 10 October 1859...



Tourism

Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s. Tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 resulted in the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to ecotourism
Ecotourism
Ecotourism is a form of tourism visiting fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas, intended as a low impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial tourism...

 inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the development of the region as well as the gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

. Quintana Roo ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United Nations Human Development index (HDI).

Biotic situation of the Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most forested areas of the world when considering biotic mass per hectare. However, anthropological, biological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo is 'facing a faunal crisis'. Many medium to large game animals are disappearing due to hunting
Hunting
Hunting is the practice of pursuing any living thing, usually wildlife, for food, recreation, or trade. In present-day use, the term refers to lawful hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species contrary to applicable law...

 and habitat loss. While its population is relatively small, Quintana Roo is experiencing both a population influx and an increase in tourism. This only increases the pressure on the plants and animals native to the area.

Ecosystems and animals

There are four generalized ecosystem
Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving , physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight....

s in Quintana Roo—tropical forests, or jungle
Jungle
A Jungle is an area of land in the tropics overgrown with dense vegetation.The word jungle originates from the Sanskrit word jangala which referred to uncultivated land. Although the Sanskrit word refers to "dry land", it has been suggested that an Anglo-Indian interpretation led to its...

, savanna
Savanna
A savanna, or savannah, is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of C4 grasses.Some...

, mangrove
Mangrove
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes N and S...

 forests, and coral reefs. One of the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 is the creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and fields/pastures. Tourism has caused Quintana Roo to become famous around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches and coastline. Biological experts consider the coastline of Quintana Roo one of the best manatee
Manatee
Manatees are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows...

 habitats worldwide. Queen conchs are also noted for their inhabitation of coastal territory. The wide variety of biotic organisms such as these has decreased drastically in the last fifteen years.

Avifauna

Also affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal assets. Hundreds of species reside in Quintana Roo permanently, with hundreds of others either wintering there or using it as a stopover on the long journey into South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

. As a result, many birders come to the area annually search of the rare and unexpected.

Effects of tourism

Many blame the environmental damage in Quintana Roo on either the regional government or outside investors. However, resorts and hotels in Quintana Roo have created jobs and increased economic activity, which in turn has resulted in growth.

Tourism projections and the native Maya

Projections for the tourism economy of Quintana Roo were exceedingly optimistic. It houses multiple tourist attractions from the Maya
Maya civilization
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period The Maya is a Mesoamerican...

 ruins to the lush forests and beautiful beaches. However, the long-term effects were not foreseen. The effect on the local environment was not properly considered. Economic stresses of development and population were virtually ignored. The effect on the native population was not properly considered. The 'economic marginalization
Marginalization
In sociology, marginalisation , or marginalization , is the social process of becoming or being made marginal or relegated to the fringe of society e.g.; "the marginalization of the underclass", "marginalisation of intellect", etc.-Individual:Marginalization at the individual level results in an...

' of the Maya has had drastic effects on their sense of place and identity
Cultural identity
Cultural identity is the identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as one is influenced by one's belonging to a group or culture. Cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not synonymous with, identity politics....

. For tourism to truly benefit the region, attention must go to both the environment and the area's original occupants.

Universities

  • Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Cancún
  • University of Quintana Roo, Chetumal
  • Universidad Intercultural Maya de Quintana Roo, José María Morelos
  • Universidad Anáhuac Cancún
    Universidad Anáhuac Cancún
    The Anáhuac Cancún University belongs to the Anahuac University Network, affiliated with the Anahuac University Network , the international education system of the Legion of Christ, called the in 18 countries and serving over 100,000 students from kindergarten to graduate school.The university's...

    , Cancún
    Cancún
    Cancún is a city of international tourism development certified by the UNWTO . Located on the northeast coast of Quintana Roo in southern Mexico, more than 1,700 km from Mexico City, the Project began operations in 1974 as Integrally Planned Center, a pioneer of FONATUR Cancún is a city of...

  • Universidad del Caribe, Cancún
  • Universidad Tecnológica de la Riviera Maya, Playa del Carmen

Sports

The Atlante F.C.
Atlante F.C.
Club de Fútbol Atlante, is a Mexican professional football club, currently playing in the Mexican First Division League. The club is based in Cancún, Mexico as of the start of the 2007-08 season, when they relocated from Mexico City, and plays its home games in Estadio Andrés Quintana Roo.-Domestic...

 was founded in 1916 in Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 and they now play association football (soccer) in the
Primera División de México
Primera División de México
The Primera División Profesional , known simply as the Primera División, is the top level of the Mexican football league system and is administered by the Mexican Football Federation. It was established in 1943 and as of 2011 has 18 clubs. Up to June 2011, it was divided into three groups competing...

. Their home ground (since 2007) is the Estadio Andrés Quintana Roo in Cancún.

After playing the 1955–2001 seasons in Mexico City and the 2002–2005 seasons in Puebla
Puebla, Puebla
The city and municipality of Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico. Being a planned city, it is located to the east of Mexico City and west of Mexico's main port, Veracruz, on the main route between the two.The city was founded...

 the Quintana Roo Tigers
Tigres de Quintana Roo
The Quintana Roo Tigers also known as Mexico Tigers is a Triple-A baseball team located in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The team is part of the Southern Division of the Mexican Baseball League...

 have been playing baseball with a home field at the Estadio de Béisbol Beto Ávila
Estadio De Beisbol Beto Avila
Estadio de Béisbol Beto Ávila is a stadium in Cancún, Mexico. It is primarily used for baseball, and is the home field of the Quintana Roo Tigres Mexican League baseball team. It holds 9,500 people...

 in Cancún since the 2006 season. The Tigers made it to the Mexican League series in 2009, but lost to the Saraperos de Saltillo
Saraperos de Saltillo
The Saraperos de Saltillo are a AAA-level baseball team playing in the Mexican League. They have won 3 championships in 1980, 2009, and 2010. Their homefield is the Estadio De Béisbol Francisco I. Madero in Saltillo, Coahuila. Juan Jose Pacho is the team manager....

4 games to 2.

See also

Further reading

  • Anderson, E. N. and Felix Medina Tzuc. Animals and the Maya in Southeast Mexico. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 2005.
  • Brannon, Jeffery T. and Gilbert M. Joseph. Eds. 1991 Land, labor & capital in modern Yucatán: essays in regional history and political economy. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
  • Barton Bray, David, Marcelo Carreon, Leticia Merino, and Victoria Santos. "On the Road to Sustainable Forestry: The Maya of Quintana Roo are Striving to Combine Economic Efficiency, Ecological Sustainability, and a Democratic Society." Cultural Survival Quarterly 17.1, 38-41. 1993.
  • Daltabuit, Magali and Oriol Pi-Sunyer. 1990. Tourism Development in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Cultural Survival Quarterly 14.2, 9-13. http://209.200.101.189/publications/csq/csq-article.cfm?id=837
  • Dumond, Don E. 1997 The Machete and the Cross. Campesino Rebellion in Yucatan. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica 2008. Quintana Roo. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Accessed 2008-02-21.
  • Forero, Oscar A. and Michael R. Redclift. "The Role of the Mexican State in the Development of Chicle Extraction in Yucatán, and the Continuing Importance of Coyotaje." Journal of Latin American Studies 38.1, 65-93. 2006.
  • Gabbert, Wolfgang. Becoming Maya—Ethnicity and Social Inequality in Yucatan Since 1500. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Arizona. 2004.
  • Hervik, Peter. Mayan People Within and Beyond Boundaries—Social Categories and Lived Identity in Yucatan. Harwood Academic Publishers. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1999.
  • Jones, Grant D. Maya Resistance to Spanish Rule—Time and History on a Colonial Frontier. University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque, New Mexico. 1989.
  • Juarez, Ana M. 2002. "Ecological Degradation, Global Tourism, and Inequality: Maya Interpretations of the Changing Environment in Quintana Roo, Mexico". Human Organization 61.2, 113-124.
  • Morely, Sylvanus Griswold. The Ancient Maya. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1947.
  • Morely, Sylvanus Griswold and George W. Brainerd. The Ancient Maya, 3rd ed. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1956.
  • Pi-Sunyer, Oriol and R. Brooke Thomas. 1997. Tourism, Environmentalism, and Cultural Survival in Quintana Roo. "In" Life and Death Matters: Human Rights at the End of the Millennium. Barbara R. Johnston, ed. p. 187-212. Walnut Creek, California. Altamira Press.
  • Roys, Ralph L. The Political Geography of the Yucatan Maya. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 613. Washington, D. C. 1957.
  • Rugeley, Terry. 2004 Yaxcab´a and the Caste War of Yucat´an: An Archaeological Perspective. Rani T. Alexander. Albuquerque:University of New Mexico Press
  • Schlesinger, Victoria. Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya—A Guide. University of Texas Press. Austin, Texas. 2001.
  • Sharer, Robert J. The Ancient Maya, 4th ed. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 1983.
  • Villa Rojas, Alfonso. The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 559. Washington, D. C. 1945.
  • Young, Peter A, ed. Secrets of the Maya. Hatherleigh Press. Long Island City, New York. 2003
  • Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática

External links

Quintana Roo State Government Tierramayaimports.com Famsi.org
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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