Proton rocket
Overview
 
Proton (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system
Expendable launch system
An expendable launch system is a launch system that uses an expendable launch vehicle to carry a payload into space. The vehicles used in expendable launch systems are designed to be used only once , and their components are not recovered for re-use after launch...

 used for both commercial and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n government space launches. The first Proton rocket
Rocket
A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

 was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2011, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the Khrunichev
Khrunichev
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets. The company's history dates back to 1916, when an automobile factory was established outside Moscow...

 plant in Moscow, and then transported for launch to the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
The Baikonur Cosmodrome , also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppe of Kazakhstan, about east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters above sea level...

, where they are brought to the launch pad horizontally and then raised into vertical position for launch.

Like many Soviet boosters, the names of recurring payloads became associated with their launchers.
Encyclopedia
Proton (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system
Expendable launch system
An expendable launch system is a launch system that uses an expendable launch vehicle to carry a payload into space. The vehicles used in expendable launch systems are designed to be used only once , and their components are not recovered for re-use after launch...

 used for both commercial and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n government space launches. The first Proton rocket
Rocket
A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

 was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2011, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the Khrunichev
Khrunichev
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets. The company's history dates back to 1916, when an automobile factory was established outside Moscow...

 plant in Moscow, and then transported for launch to the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
The Baikonur Cosmodrome , also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppe of Kazakhstan, about east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters above sea level...

, where they are brought to the launch pad horizontally and then raised into vertical position for launch.

Like many Soviet boosters, the names of recurring payloads became associated with their launchers. Thusly, the moniker "Proton" originates from a series of large scientific Proton satellite
Proton satellite
The Proton was a model of Soviet scientific artificial satellites. The maximum mass was about 17 tonnes. Four "Protons" were launched between 1965 and 1968. The satellite was developed by NPO Mashinostroyenia...

s, which were among the rocket's first payloads. It is also known as the D-1/D-1e or SL-12/SL-13.

Launch capacity to low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
A low Earth orbit is generally defined as an orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km...

 is about 22 tonnes (48,501.7 lb). Geostationary transfer capacity is about 5–6 t (11,023.1–13,227.7 lb). Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services
International Launch Services
International Launch Services is a U.S.-Russian joint venture with exclusive rights to the worldwide sale of commercial Proton rocket launch services from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.- Ownership :...

 (ILS). In a typical launch of a commercial communications satellite destined for geostationary orbit
Geostationary orbit
A geostationary orbit is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth's equator , with a period equal to the Earth's rotational period and an orbital eccentricity of approximately zero. An object in a geostationary orbit appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers...

, a Proton M/Breeze M can place a spacecraft with mass at separation of 9127 pounds (4,139.9 kg) into an orbit with an apogee of 35786 kilometres (22,236.4 mi), a perigee of 6257 kilometres (3,887.9 mi) and an inclination of 19.7°.

History

Proton initially started life as a "super ICBM." It was designed to throw a 100-megaton
TNT equivalent
TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions. The ton of TNT is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 gigajoules, which is approximately the amount of energy released in the detonation of one ton of TNT...

 (or larger) nuclear
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

 warhead
Warhead
The term warhead refers to the explosive material and detonator that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.- Etymology :During the early development of naval torpedoes, they could be equipped with an inert payload that was intended for use during training, test firing and exercises. This...

 over a distance of 13,000 km. It was hugely oversized for an ICBM, and was never deployed in such a capacity. It was eventually utilized as a space launch vehicle
Launch vehicle
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure....

. It was the brainchild of Vladimir Chelomei
Vladimir Chelomei
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey was a Soviet mechanics scientist and rocket engineer from Ukraine.-Early life:Chelomey was born in Siedlce, Russian Empire into a Ukrainian family...

's design bureau as a foil to Sergei Korolev's N1
N1 rocket
N-1 was a heavy lift rocket intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the NASA Saturn V rocket. This heavy lift booster had the capability of lifting very heavy loads into orbit, designed with manned extra-orbital travel in mind...

 booster with the specific intent of sending a two-man Zond craft around the Moon. With the termination of the Saturn V
Saturn V
The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload...

 program, Proton became the largest expendable launch system
Expendable launch system
An expendable launch system is a launch system that uses an expendable launch vehicle to carry a payload into space. The vehicles used in expendable launch systems are designed to be used only once , and their components are not recovered for re-use after launch...

 in service until the Energia
Energia
Energia was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift expendable launch system as well as a booster for the Buran spacecraft. Control system main developer enterprise was the NPO "Electropribor"...

 rocket first flew in 1987 and the U.S. Titan IV
Titan IV
The Titan IV family of space boosters were used by the U.S. Air Force. They were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. At the time of its introduction, the Titan IV was the "largest unmanned space booster used by the Air Force."The...

 in 1989.

Between the 1965 first flight and 1970, the Proton experienced dozens of failures. However, once perfected it became one of the most reliable heavy launch vehicles. With a total of about 335 launches, it has an 88% success rate.

Proton launched the unmanned Soviet circumlunar flights, and was intended to have launched the first Soviet circumlunar spaceflights, before the United States flew the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Apollo 8, the second manned mission in the American Apollo space program, was the first human spaceflight to leave Earth orbit; the first to be captured by and escape from the gravitational field of another celestial body; and the first crewed voyage to return to Earth from another celestial...

 mission. Proton launched the Salyut
Salyut
The Salyut program was the first space station program undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted of a series of nine space stations launched over a period of eleven years from 1971 to 1982...

 space stations, the Mir
Mir
Mir was a space station operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, at first by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, Mir was the first modular space station and had a greater mass than that of any previous spacecraft, holding the record for the...

 core segment and expansion modules, and both the Zarya
Zarya
Zarya , also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB , was the first module of the International Space Station to be launched. The FGB provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance to the ISS during the initial stage of assembly...

 and Zvezda modules of the ISS
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

. It also launched many probes to the Moon, Mars
Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance...

, Venus
Venus
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. The planet is named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows...

, and even Halley's Comet (using the 4-stage D-1e version).

Proton also launches commercial satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

s, most of them being managed by International Launch Services
International Launch Services
International Launch Services is a U.S.-Russian joint venture with exclusive rights to the worldwide sale of commercial Proton rocket launch services from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.- Ownership :...

. The first ILS Proton launch was on 9 April 1996 with the launch of the SES Astra
SES Astra
Astra is the name for the geostationary communication satellites, both individually and as a group, which are owned and operated by SES S.A., a global satellite operator based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg. The name is sometimes also used to describe the channels broadcasting from these...

 1F communications satellite
Communications satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications...

.

Since 1994, Proton has earned $4.3 billion for the Russian space industry, and by 2011 this figure is expected to rise to $6 billion.

Proton 8K82K

The (GRAU index) 8K82K version is now usually called "Proton K". It is fuelled by unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine
UDMH
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is a toxic volatile hygroscopic clear liquid, with a sharp, fishy, ammoniacal smell typical for organic amines. It turns yellowish on exposure to air and absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide. It mixes completely with water, ethanol, and kerosene. In concentration...

 and nitrogen tetroxide. These are hypergolic fuels which burn on contact, avoiding the need for an ignition system, and can be stored at ambient temperatures. This avoids the need for low-temperature–tolerant components, and allows the rocket to sit on the pad indefinitely (other launchers with such capability include the U.S. Titan II
Titan (rocket family)
Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. A total of 368 rockets of this family were launched, including all the Project Gemini manned flights of the mid-1960s...

, Titan III
Titan III
The Titan IIIC was a space booster used by the United States Air Force. It was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL., and Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. It was planned to be used as a launch vehicle in the cancelled Dyna-Soar and Manned Orbiting Laboratory programs...

, and Titan IV
Titan IV
The Titan IV family of space boosters were used by the U.S. Air Force. They were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. At the time of its introduction, the Titan IV was the "largest unmanned space booster used by the Air Force."The...

, the Chinese Long March 2 rocket family
Long March 2 rocket family
Long March 2 rocket family or Chang Zheng 2 rocket family as in Chinese pinyin is an expendable launch system operated by the People's Republic of China.-History:...

 and Long March 4 rocket family, the Soviet/Ukrainian Tsyklon
Tsyklon
The Tsyklon , GRAU index 11K67, was a Soviet/Ukrainian-designed expendable launch system, primarily used to put Cosmos satellites into low Earth orbit. It is based on the R-36 intercontinental ballistic missile designed by Mikhail Yangel and made eight launches, with seven successes, and one failure...

 launchers, the Soviet/Russian Kosmos-3
Kosmos-3
The Kosmos-3 was a Soviet carrier rocket, derived from the R-14 missile, which was used to orbit satellites between 1966 and 1968. It was quickly replaced by the modernised Kosmos-3M. Six were flown, four as orbital carrier rockets, and two on sub-orbital flights...

 and Kosmos-3M launchers and the European Ariane 1 to Ariane 4
Ariane 4
Ariane 4 was an expendable launch system, designed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and manufactured and marketed by its subsidiary Arianespace. Ariane 4 was justly known as the ‘workhorse’ of the Ariane family. Since its first flight on 15 June 1988 until the last, on 15 February 2003, it...

 launchers). In contrast, cryogenic fuel
Cryogenic fuel
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state. Cryogenic fuels most often constitute liquefied gases such as liquid hydrogen....

s need periodic topping-up of propellants as they boil off.

The fourth stage has come in multiple variants, depending on the mission. The simplest, Blok D
Block D
Blok D is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit. There were plans to use it for some other rockets as well ....

, was used for interplanetary missions. Blok D had no guidance module, depending on the probe to control flight. Three different Blok DM versions (DM, DM2, and DM-2M) were for high Earth orbits. (Low-Earth orbits often skipped a fourth stage entirely, hence the third stage's self-contained guidance capability.) The Blok D/DM were unusual in that the fuel was stored in a toroidal tank, around the engine and behind the oxidizer tank.

Proton-M

The latest version is the Proton M, which can launch 3–3.2 t (6,613.9–7,054.8 lb) into geostationary orbit
Geostationary orbit
A geostationary orbit is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth's equator , with a period equal to the Earth's rotational period and an orbital eccentricity of approximately zero. An object in a geostationary orbit appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers...

 or 5.5 tonnes (12,125.4 lb) into a geostationary transfer orbit
Geostationary transfer orbit
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit is a Hohmann transfer orbit used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit....

. It can place up to 22 tonnes (48,501.7 lb) in low Earth orbit with a 51.6-degree inclination, the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).

The Proton M's improvements include modifications to the lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants. Generally a Breeze-M storable propellant upper stage is used instead of the Block D
Block D
Blok D is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit. There were plans to use it for some other rockets as well ....

 or Block DM stage, eliminating the need for multiple fuel supplies and oxygen top-off due to boiling; however, the Proton-M has also flown with a Block-DM upper stage. Efforts were also made to reduce dependency on foreign (usually Ukrainian) component suppliers.

Proton launch vehicles and Breeze M Upper Stages are designed and built by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (Khrunichev) in Moscow, the majority owner of International Launch Services (ILS). The Center is home to all engineering, assembly and test functions of the Proton production. And now, with the recent consolidation of the Russian space enterprises, Khrunichev has direct oversight and control of up to 70% of all Proton manufacturing from suppliers to manufacturers. The consolidation directly supports Khrunichev’s ongoing efforts for vertical integration of Proton production.

The most recent enhanced Proton, the Phase III Proton Breeze M launch vehicle, was flight proven on the Russian Federal dual mission of Express AM-44 and Express MD-1 in February 2009 and performed its first commercial launch in March 2010 with the Echostar XIV satellite. The Proton Breeze M phase III configuration is the current standard configuration for ILS Proton. This configuration provides 6150 kg of GTO performance, which is an increase of 1150 kg over the original Proton Breeze M, while maintaining the fundamental design configuration.

Khrunichev has initiated development of a set of phase IV enhancements in order to keep pace with market demands and the mass growth trends of commercial satellites. The implementation of Phase IV Proton Breeze M enhancements will be completed in 2013. The Payloads Systems Mass performance for phase IV has been increased to 6300 kg to a reference GTO orbit with 1500 m/s of residual delta V to GSO.

Launches

Date Flight Version Payload Notes
8 April 1996 Proton D1-e (launch #236) Astra 1F Success, first commercial flight
23 April 1996 Proton-K (#237) Priroda
Priroda
The Priroda module was the seventh and final module of the Mir Space Station. Its primary purpose was to conduct Earth resource experiments through remote sensing and to develop and verify remote sensing methods...

Success
25 May 1996 Proton-K (#238) / DM-2 Gorizont
Gorizont
Gorizont, , GRAU index 11F662, is a series of 35 Russian, previously Soviet, geosynchronous communication satellites launched between 1978 and 2000. The programme was started in order to develop a satellite system to relay coverage of the 1980 Olympic Games from Moscow. The first four satellites...

-32
Success
6 September 1996 Proton-K (#239) / DM-1 INMARSAT
Inmarsat
Inmarsat plc is a British satellite telecommunications company, offering global, mobile services. It provides telephony and data services to users worldwide, via portable or mobile terminals which communicate to ground stations through eleven geostationary telecommunications satellites...

-3F2
Success
26 September 1996 Proton-K (#240) / DM-2M Express-2 Success
16 November 1996 Proton-R (#241) (Block D-2
Block D
Blok D is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit. There were plans to use it for some other rockets as well ....

)
Mars 96
Mars 96
Mars 96 was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name. After failure of the second fourth-stage burn, the probe assembly re-entered the Earth's atmosphere, breaking up over a...

Failure, Block D-2
Block D
Blok D is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit. There were plans to use it for some other rockets as well ....

 failed to restart, reentered atmosphere over Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

24 May 1997 Proton-K (#242) / DM-4 Telstar
Telstar
Telstar is the name of various communications satellites, including the first such satellite to relay television signals.The first two Telstar satellites were experimental and nearly identical. Telstar 1 was launched on top of a Thor-Delta rocket on July 10, 1962...

-5
Success
6 June 1997 Proton-K (#243) / DM-5 Kosmos-2344 (Araks) Success
18 June 1997 Proton-K (#244) / DM-2 Iridium Satellite LLC 11-16 (for Motorola
Motorola
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

)
Success
14 August 1997 Proton-K (#245) / DM-2 Kosmos-2345 (Araks) Success
28 August 1997 Proton-K (#246) / DM-3 PanAmSat
PanAmSat
The former PanAmSat Corporation founded in 1984 by Reynold Anselmo, was a satellite service provider headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut. It operated a fleet of communications satellites used by the entertainment industry, news agencies, internet service providers, government agencies, and...

-5 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
14 September 1997 Proton-K (#247) / DM-2 Iridium Satellite LLC 27-33 (for Motorola
Motorola
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

)
Success
12 November 1997 Proton-K (#248) / DM-2M Coupon
Coupon
In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be exchanged for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product. Customarily, coupons are issued by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods or by retailers, to be used in retail stores as a part of sales promotions...

 Купон (КА)
Success
2 December 1997 Proton-K (#249) / DM-3 Astra 1G  (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
24 December 1997 Proton-K (#250) / DM-3 Asiasat
AsiaSat
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. is a commercial operator of communication spacecraft. AsiaSat is based in Hong Kong with two major shareholders, CITIC and General Electric.-Satellites:...

-3 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Failure. Block DM3 upper stage engine's failure.
7 April 1998 Proton-K (#251) / DM-2 Iridium Satellite LLC 62-68 (for Motorola
Motorola
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

)
Success
29 April 1998 Proton-K (#252) / DM-2 Kosmos-2350 Success
7 May 1998 Proton-K (#253) / DM-3 EchoStar-4 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
30 August 1998 Proton-K (#254) / DM-3 Astra 2A
Astra 2A
Astra 2A is a communications satellite owned by SES Astra. Launched in 1998, half its expected end-of-life capacity of 28 transponders were pre-booked by BSkyB, who utilised it to launch their new Sky Digital service...

 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
4 November 1998 Proton-K (#255) / DM-3 PanAmSat
PanAmSat
The former PanAmSat Corporation founded in 1984 by Reynold Anselmo, was a satellite service provider headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut. It operated a fleet of communications satellites used by the entertainment industry, news agencies, internet service providers, government agencies, and...

-8 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
20 November 1998 Proton-K (#256) / ? Zarya
Zarya
Zarya , also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB , was the first module of the International Space Station to be launched. The FGB provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance to the ISS during the initial stage of assembly...

Success
30 December 1998 Proton-K (#257) / DM-2 Kosmos 2362-2364 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
15 February 1999 Proton-K (#258) / DM-3 Telstar
Telstar
Telstar is the name of various communications satellites, including the first such satellite to relay television signals.The first two Telstar satellites were experimental and nearly identical. Telstar 1 was launched on top of a Thor-Delta rocket on July 10, 1962...

-6 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
28 February 1999 Proton-K (#259) / DM-2 Raduga
Raduga
Raduga can refer to :* MKB Raduga, a Russian maker of missile systems formerly known as OKB Raduga* VBK-Raduga, an unmanned reentry capsule used to return material from the Russian Mir space station...

 1-4
Success
21 March 1999 Proton-K (#260) / DM-3 Asiasat
AsiaSat
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. is a commercial operator of communication spacecraft. AsiaSat is based in Hong Kong with two major shareholders, CITIC and General Electric.-Satellites:...

 3S (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
20 May 1999 Proton-R (#261) (Block DM
Block D
Blok D is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit. There were plans to use it for some other rockets as well ....

)
Nimiq
Nimiq
The Nimiq satellites are a fleet of geostationary telecommunications satellites owned by the Telesat and used by satellite television providers including Bell TV and EchoStar . 'Nimiq' is an Inuit word used for an object or a force which binds things together. A contest in 1998 was held to choose...

-1
Success
18 June 1999 Proton-K (#262) / DM-3 Astra 1H (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
5 July 1999 Proton-K (#263) / Breeze-M Raduga
Raduga
Raduga can refer to :* MKB Raduga, a Russian maker of missile systems formerly known as OKB Raduga* VBK-Raduga, an unmanned reentry capsule used to return material from the Russian Mir space station...

Failed
6 September 1999 Proton-K (#264) / DM-2M Yamal
Yamal (satellite)
Yamal is a communication satellite developed by Gazprom Space Systems for Russian Direct-To-Home television. The first satellite of the Yamal series was launched by September 6, 1999.-External links:**...

 101,102
Success
26 September 1999 Proton-K (#265) / DM-3 LMI-1
LMI
LMI can mean:* Lenders mortgage insurance* Liberty Media International, a media-company in the United States of America* Linear matrix inequality* Link Management Interface* Linux Mark Institute* Lisp Machines, Inc....

 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
27 October 1999 Proton-K (#266) / DM-2 Express-A1
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Failed
12 February 2000 Proton-R (#267) (Block DM-3) Garuda 1
Garuda 1
Garuda 1 is an Indonesian communications satellite which is operated by ACeS. It was constructed by Lockheed Martin and is based on the A2100AXX satellite bus. It has two very large antennas, each measuring 12 meter in diameter. Launch occurred on 12 February 2000, at 09:10:54 GMT...

Success
12 March 2000 Proton-K (#268) / DM-2M Express-A2
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
18 April 2000 Proton-K (#269) / DM-2M Eutelsat
Eutelsat
Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. Providing coverage over the entire European continent, as well as the Middle East, Africa, India and significant parts of Asia and the Americas, it is one of the world's three leading satellite operators in terms of revenues.Eutelsat’s satellites...

 SESAT 1
Success
6 June 2000 Proton-K (#270) / Breeze-M Gorizont-45
Gorizont
Gorizont, , GRAU index 11F662, is a series of 35 Russian, previously Soviet, geosynchronous communication satellites launched between 1978 and 2000. The programme was started in order to develop a satellite system to relay coverage of the 1980 Olympic Games from Moscow. The first four satellites...

Success
24 June 2000 Proton-K (#271) / DM-2M Express-A3
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
30 June 2000 Proton-K (#272) / DM-3 Sirius-1 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
4 July 2000 Proton-K (#273) / DM-2 Geizer Success
12 July 2000 Proton-K (#274) / ? Zvezda (ISS module) Success
28 August 2000 Proton-K (#275) / DM-2 Raduga
Raduga
Raduga can refer to :* MKB Raduga, a Russian maker of missile systems formerly known as OKB Raduga* VBK-Raduga, an unmanned reentry capsule used to return material from the Russian Mir space station...

 1-5
Success
5 September 2000 Proton-K (#276) / DM-3 Sirius-2 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
1 October 2000 Proton-K (#277) / DM-3 GE-1A (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
13 October 2000 Proton-K (#278) / DM-2 GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

Success
21 October 2000 Proton-K (#279) / DM-3 GE-6 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
30 November 2000 Proton-K (#280) / DM-3 Sirius-3 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
15 May 2001 Proton-K (#281) / DM-3 PanAmSat
PanAmSat
The former PanAmSat Corporation founded in 1984 by Reynold Anselmo, was a satellite service provider headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut. It operated a fleet of communications satellites used by the entertainment industry, news agencies, internet service providers, government agencies, and...

-10
Success
16 June 2001 Proton-K (#282) / DM-3 Astra-2C (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
24 August 2001 Proton-K (#283) / DM-2 Kosmos 2379 Success
6 October 2001 Proton-K (#284) / DM-2 Globus-1 Success
1 December 2001 Proton-K (#285) / DM-2 Kosmos 2380-2382 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
30 March 2002 Proton-K (#286) / DM-3 Intelsat-903
Intelsat
Intelsat, Ltd. is a communications satellite services provider.Originally formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization , it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast...

 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
7 May 2002 Proton-K (#287) / DM-3 DirecTV-5
DirecTV
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider and broadcaster based in El Segundo, California. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America, and the Anglophone Caribbean. ...

 (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
10 June 2002 Proton-K (#288) / DM-2M Express-A4
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
25 July 2002 Proton-K (#289) / DM-5 Kosmos-2392 (Arcon
Arcon
Arcon is a commune in the Loire department in central France....

)
Success
22 August 2002 Proton-K (#290) / DM-3 EchoStar-8  (for ILS
ILS
Ils may refer to:*Ils , an electronic music producer and DJ*Them , a French horror filmILS may refer to:In Organizations:...

)
Success
17 October 2002 Proton-K (#291) / DM-2 INTEGRAL
INTEGRAL
The European Space Agency's INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory is an operational Earth satellite, launched in 2002 for detecting some of the most energetic radiation that comes from space. It is the most sensitive gamma ray observatory ever launched.INTEGRAL is an ESA mission in...

Success
25 November 2002 Proton-K (#292) / DM-2M Astra 1K
Astra 1K
Astra 1K was a communications satellite manufactured by Alcatel Space for SES Astra. When it was launched on November 25, 2002 it was the largest civilian communications satellite ever launched, weighing...

Block DM-3 miscommanded, leaving payload in unusable orbit
25 December 2002 Proton-K (#293) / DM-2M Kosmos 2394-2396 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
30 December 2002 Proton-M (#2) Breeze M Nimiq
Nimiq
The Nimiq satellites are a fleet of geostationary telecommunications satellites owned by the Telesat and used by satellite television providers including Bell TV and EchoStar . 'Nimiq' is an Inuit word used for an object or a force which binds things together. A contest in 1998 was held to choose...

-2
Success
24 April 2003 Proton-K (#294) / DM-2 Kosmos 2397 Success
7 June 2003 Proton-K (#295) Breeze M AMC-9 Success. 300th flight of a Proton
24 November 2003 Proton-K (#296) / DM-2M Yamal-200
Yamal (satellite)
Yamal is a communication satellite developed by Gazprom Space Systems for Russian Direct-To-Home television. The first satellite of the Yamal series was launched by September 6, 1999.-External links:**...

 1,2
Success
10 December 2003 Proton-K (#297) / Breeze-M Kosmos 2402-2404 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
28 December 2003 Proton-K (#298) / DM-2M Express-AM22
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
15 March 2004 Proton-M (#3) Breeze M Eutelsat
Eutelsat
Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. Providing coverage over the entire European continent, as well as the Middle East, Africa, India and significant parts of Asia and the Americas, it is one of the world's three leading satellite operators in terms of revenues.Eutelsat’s satellites...

 W3A
Success
27 March 2004 Proton-K (#299) / DM-2 Raduga
Raduga
Raduga can refer to :* MKB Raduga, a Russian maker of missile systems formerly known as OKB Raduga* VBK-Raduga, an unmanned reentry capsule used to return material from the Russian Mir space station...

 1-7 #17
Success
26 April 2004 Proton-K (#300) / DM-2M Express-AM11
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
16 June 2004 Proton-M (#4) Breeze M Intelsat
Intelsat
Intelsat, Ltd. is a communications satellite services provider.Originally formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization , it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast...

 10-02
Success
5 August 2004 Proton-M (#5) Breeze M Hispasat
Hispasat
Hispasat is a group of Spanish communication satellites . They were developed by the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial and the European Space Agency...

 Amazonas
Success
15 October 2004 Proton-M (#6) Breeze M AMC-15 Success
29 October 2004 Proton-K (#301) / DM-2M Express-AM1
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
26 December 2004 Proton-K (#302) / DM-2 Kosmos 2411-2413 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
3 February 2005 Proton-M (#7) Breeze M AMC-12 Success
29 March 2005 Proton-K (#303) / DM-2M Express-AM2
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
22 May 2005 Proton-M (#8) Breeze M DirecTV
DirecTV
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider and broadcaster based in El Segundo, California. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America, and the Anglophone Caribbean. ...

-8
Success
24 July 2005 Proton-K (#304) / DM-2 Express-AM3
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
9 September 2005 Proton-M (#9) Breeze M Anik
Anik
Anik may refer to:* Anik , satellites launched by Canadian telecommunications company Telesat* Anik Bissonnette, a Canadian ballet dancer* Anik Matern, a Canadian actress and founder of the Dynamic Theater Factory* Anik Mountain...

 F1-R
Success
25 December 2005 Proton-K (#305) / DM-2 Kosmos 2417-2419 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
29 December 2005 Proton-M (#10) Breeze M AMC-23/Worldsat-3 Success
28 February 2006 Proton-M (#11) Breeze M Arabsat-4A Failure. Briz-M upper stage turbopump
Turbopump
A turbopump is a gas turbine that comprises basically two main components: a rotodynamic pump and a driving turbine, usually both mounted on the same shaft, or sometimes geared together...

 malfunction
18 June 2006 Proton-K (#306) / DM-3 Kazsat
KazSat
KazSat 1 , the first Kazakh space satellite, was launched on June 18, 2006 by Proton-K rocket . It contains 12 Ku-band transponders . It is a communications satellite occupying geosynchronous orbit approximately 36 000 km above the Earth...

Success
5 August 2006 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat
Eutelsat
Eutelsat S.A. is a French-based satellite provider. Providing coverage over the entire European continent, as well as the Middle East, Africa, India and significant parts of Asia and the Americas, it is one of the world's three leading satellite operators in terms of revenues.Eutelsat’s satellites...

 HotBird-8
Success
9 November 2006 Proton Breeze M Arabsat-4B
BADR4
Badr-4 is an EADS Astrium-built communications satellite operated by Arabsat, launched November 8, 2006 on a Proton-M/Briz-M rocket....

Success
25 December 2006 Proton-K (#307) / DM-2 Kosmos 2424-2426 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
12 December 2006 Proton Breeze M MEASAT-3
MEASAT-3
MEASAT-3 was successfully launched on December 12, 2006, 7.35 am from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan.In March 2003, MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd. of Malaysia ordered a Boeing 601HP satellite, giving it the designation MEASAT-3 at that time...

Success
10 April 2007 Proton Breeze M Anik F3 Success
7 July 2007 Proton Breeze M Enhanced DirecTV-10
DirecTV-10
DirecTV-10 is a Boeing model 702 direct broadcast satellite that provides high definition television to DirecTV subscribers in North America. It was launched by International Launch Services on July 7, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan aboard an Enhanced Proton Breeze-M rocket...

Success.
5 September 2007 Proton Breeze M JCSAT-11 Failure
26 October 2007 Proton-K (#308) / DM-2 Kosmos 2431-2433 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
17 November 2007 Proton Breeze M Sirius-4
SIRIUS (satellite)
Sirius was a constellation of communications satellites operated at 5°E in geostationary orbit by SES Sirius . They carried digital satellite television to the countries of Scandinavia, Baltic states, eastern Europe and Africa, including the Viasat pay TV system, along with several pay TV...

Success
28 January 2008 Proton Breeze M Ekspress-AM33 Success
11 February 2008 Proton Breeze M Thor 5 Success
15 March 2008 Proton Breeze M AMC-14
AMC-14 (satellite)
AMC-14 is a communications satellite initially owned by SES Americom which was to have been placed in geostationary orbit, following launch by a Proton rocket. Built by Lockheed Martin and based on the A2100 satellite bus, AMC-14 was to have been located at 61.5° west longitude and would have been...

Failurepremature shutdown of Briz-M upper stage
27 June 2008 Proton-K (#309) / DM-3 Kosmos 2440 Success
19 August 2008 Proton Breeze M Inmarsat 4 F3 Success
20 September 2008 Proton Breeze M Nimiq
Nimiq
The Nimiq satellites are a fleet of geostationary telecommunications satellites owned by the Telesat and used by satellite television providers including Bell TV and EchoStar . 'Nimiq' is an Inuit word used for an object or a force which binds things together. A contest in 1998 was held to choose...

-4
Success
25 September 2008 Proton Block DM Kosmos 2447-2449 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
6 November 2008 Proton Breeze M Astra 1M
SES Astra
Astra is the name for the geostationary communication satellites, both individually and as a group, which are owned and operated by SES S.A., a global satellite operator based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg. The name is sometimes also used to describe the channels broadcasting from these...

Success
10 December 2008 Proton Breeze M Ciel-2
Ciel-2
Ciel 2 is a commercial broadcast communications satellite owned by Canadian Ciel Satellite Group. It was launched on December 10, 2008 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan by ILS Proton-M/Breeze-M vehicle. The satellite is built by Thales Alenia Space and is based on Spacebus-4000C4 bus. It is...

Success
11 February 2009 Proton Breeze M Enhanced Express-AM44
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

 and Express-MD1
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Success
28 February 2009 Proton-K (#310) / DM-2 Raduga
Raduga
Raduga can refer to :* MKB Raduga, a Russian maker of missile systems formerly known as OKB Raduga* VBK-Raduga, an unmanned reentry capsule used to return material from the Russian Mir space station...

 1-8 #18
Success
3 April 2009 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat W2A Success
16 May 2009 Proton Breeze M ProtoStar II Success
1 July 2009 Proton Breeze M Sirius FM-5
Sirius FM-5
Sirius FM-5, also known as Radiosat 5, is an American communications satellite which will be operated by Sirius XM Radio. It was constructed by Space Systems Loral, based on the LS-1300 bus, and carries a single transponder designed to transmit in the NATO E F and I bands...

Success
12 August 2009 Proton Breeze M AsiaSat 5
AsiaSat 5
AsiaSat 5 is a Chinese communications satellite, which will be operated by the Hong Kong based Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company. It will be positioned in geostationary orbit at a longitude of 100.5° East of the Greenwich Meridian, where it will replace the older AsiaSat 2 spacecraft...

Success
18 September 2009 Proton Breeze M Nimiq 5 Success
24 November 2009 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat W7 Success
14 December 2009 Proton-M / DM-2 Kosmos 2456-2458 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
29 December 2009 Proton Breeze M DirecTV-12
DirecTV-12
DirecTV-12, also known as D12, is a Boeing model 702 satellite built by the Boeing Satellite Development Center. It was launched on December 29, 2009 and became operational on May 19, 2010...

Success
12 February 2010 Proton Breeze M Intelsat 16
Intelsat 16
Intelsat 16 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat planned to be located at 58°W.L.. It was built by Orbital Sciences Corporation, on a Star-2 Bus. Intelsat 16 was formerly known as PAS-11R. It was launched on February 12, 2010 by ILS Proton-M launch vehicle....

Success
2 March 2010 Proton Breeze M Kosmos 2459-2461 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
20 March 2010 Proton Breeze M EchoStar 14 Success
24 April 2010 Proton Breeze M SES-1
SES-1
SES-1 is a Dutch geostationary communications satellite which is operated by SES World Skies. It was originally ordered by SES Americom as a ground spare for AMC-5R, however in April 2008 a decision was made to launch it, and it was named AMC-1R. It was subsequently renamed AMC-4R, and finally...

 (AMC-4R)
Success
3 June 2010 Proton Breeze M Badr 5 (Arabsat 5B) Success
11 July 2010 Proton Breeze M EchoStar 15 Success
2 September 2010 Proton-M / DM-2 Kosmos 2464-2466 (GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites)
Success
14 October 2010 Proton Breeze M XM 5 Success
14 November 2010 Proton-M / DM-3 SkyTerra 1 Success
5 December 2010 Proton-M / DM-3 GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 satellites
FailureBlock DM upper stage fueling error, causing crash into the Pacific Ocean
26 December 2010 Proton Breeze M Eutelsat KA-SAT
KA-SAT
KA-SAT is a telecommunications satellite owned by Eutelsat. The satellite will provide broadband Internet access services across Europe and also a small area of the Middle East. It is positioned at 9°E, joining Eurobird 9A Ku band satellite. KA-SAT was manufactured by EADS Astrium, based on the...

Success
20 May 2011 Proton Breeze M Telstar-14R Success
15 July 2011 Proton Breeze M KazSat-2 and SES-3 Success
18 August 2011 Proton Breeze M Express-AM4
Express (satellite)
Ekspress , is a series of geostationary communications satellites owned by Russian State Company for Satellite Communications. The first satellite of this kind was launched on October 13, 1994...

Failure - Breeze-M delivered satellite on incorrect orbit
29 September 2011 Proton Breeze M QuetzSat 1 Success
20 October 2011 Proton Breeze M ViaSat-1
ViaSat-1
ViaSat-1 is a communications satellite owned by ViaSat. Launched October 19, 2011 aboard a Proton rocket, it is the world's highest capacity communications satellite with a total capacity in excess of 140 Gbps, more than all the satellites covering North America combined, at the time of its...

Success


Planned
Date Flight Payload
25 November 2011 Proton Breeze M Asiasat 7
11 December 2011 Proton Breeze M Amos-5 and Luch 5A
28 december 2011 Proton Breeze M SES 4
December 2011 ISS assembly flight 3R Multipurpose Laboratory Module
Multipurpose Laboratory Module
Nauka , also known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module , , will be a component of the International Space Station , funded by the Russian Federal Space Agency. In the original ISS plans, Nauka was to use the location of the Docking and Stowage Module...

 and European Robotic Arm
European Robotic Arm
The European Robotic Arm is a robotic arm to be attached to the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. It will be the first robot arm able to work on the Russian space station segments, and will supplement the two Russian Strela cargo cranes that are already installed on the Pirs...

Fourth quarter 2011 Proton Breeze M Astra 4B
End of 2011 Proton Breeze M Ekspress AM8 and Ekspress MD2
Late 2011 Proton Breeze M SkyTerra 2
Late 2011 Proton Breeze M EuropaSat
Late 2011 Proton Breeze M Yahsat 1B
Early 2012 Proton Breeze M Telkom-3 and Yamal 300K
Early 2012 Proton Breeze M Intelsat 23
2012 Proton Breeze M Intelsat 22
2012 Proton Breeze M Nimiq 6
2012 Proton Breeze M Yamal 402
2013 Proton Breeze M Yamal 401
2013 Proton Breeze M TurkSat 4A
2014 Proton Breeze M TurkSat 4B
~2015 Proton MDA Space Infrastructure Servicing vehicle
2018 Proton ESA's ExoMars
ExoMars
ExoMars is a European-led robotic mission to Mars currently under development by the European Space Agency with collaboration by NASA...

 mission to Mars.

Future developments

Significant upgrades were temporarily put on hold following announcement of the new Angara
Angara rocket
The Angara rocket family is a family of space-launch vehicles currently under development by the Moscow-based Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center...

 launch vehicle. The single largest upgrade was the KVRB stage. This cryogenic
Cryogenic fuel
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state. Cryogenic fuels most often constitute liquefied gases such as liquid hydrogen....

 stage would have greatly increased capacity. The engine was developed successfully, and the stage as a whole had progressed to hardware. However, as KVRB is noticeably larger than Blok D, the vehicle's aerodynamics, flight control, software, and possibly electronics would have to be reevaluated. In addition, the launch pad can supply existing Protons with common hypergol fuels from single sources. The upper stages, in particular, are fed by common loading pipes running along the rocket. Switching to a stage with different fuels requires the addition of extra support articles; switching to cryogens requires that such support articles top off the stage periodically.

Heavy variants of Angara will be simpler and cheaper than Proton (and like the new Atlas V
Atlas V
Atlas V is an active expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family. Atlas V was formerly operated by Lockheed Martin, and is now operated by the Lockheed Martin-Boeing joint venture United Launch Alliance...

 rocket, will not use hypergolics; instead, it will use the same RP-1
RP-1
RP-1 is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as a rocket fuel. Although having a lower specific impulse than liquid hydrogen , RP-1 is cheaper, can be stored at room temperature, is far less of an explosive hazard and is far denser...

 fuel as that used on the Soyuz rocket). They will also be designed from the start to accept a KVRB stage, and will already have a LOX supply at the pad; only a hydrogen supply will be called upon. However, delays in Angara development mean that Protons will continue to fly for some time.

Frank McKenna, CEO of ILS, has indicated that in 2010 the Phase III Proton design would become the standard ILS configuration, with the ability to lift 6.15 metric tons to GTO.

Similar launch systems

  • Delta IV Heavy
  • Atlas V Heavy
    Atlas V
    Atlas V is an active expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family. Atlas V was formerly operated by Lockheed Martin, and is now operated by the Lockheed Martin-Boeing joint venture United Launch Alliance...

  • Ariane 5
    Ariane 5
    Ariane 5 is, as a part of Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit . Ariane 5 rockets are manufactured under the authority of the European Space Agency and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales...

  • Chang Zheng 5
  • Angara A5
  • Falcon 9
    Falcon 9
    Falcon 9 is a rocket-powered spaceflight launch system designed and manufactured by SpaceX. Both stages of its two-stage-to-orbit vehicle use liquid oxygen and rocket-grade kerosene propellants...

  • H-IIA
    H-IIA
    H-IIA is an active expendable launch system operated by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency . The liquid-fueled H-IIA rockets have been used to launch satellites into geostationary orbit, to launch a lunar orbiting spacecraft, and to launch an interplanetary...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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