Proceedings of the Royal Society
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journal
Scientific journal
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past...

s published by the Royal Society
Royal Society
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...

, whereas its initial journal, Philosophical Transactions
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. It was established in 1665, making it the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science, and it has remained in continuous publication ever since, making it the world's...

, is now devoted to special thematic issues. Originally a single journal, "Proceedings" was split into two separate journals in 1905:
  • Series A, which publishes research related to mathematical, physical and engineering sciences
  • Series B, which publishes research related to biology
    Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

The two journals are currently the Royal Society's main research journals. Many celebrated names in science have published their research in Proc. R. Soc., including Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS was an English theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics...

, Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...

, James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This united all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory...

, Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM, FRS was a New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics...

, and Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger was an Austrian physicist and theoretical biologist who was one of the fathers of quantum mechanics, and is famed for a number of important contributions to physics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933...



The Proceedings started out in 1800 as the Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. The Royal Society published four volumes, from 1800 to 1843. Volumes 5 and 6, which appeared from 1843 to 1854, were called Abstracts of the Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London. Starting with volume 7, in 1854, the Proceedings first appeared under the name Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Publication of the proceedings in this form continued to volume 75 in 1905. Starting with volume 76, the Proceedings were split into Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character and Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character. The Proceedings have since undergone further name changes. Currently, the two series are called Proceedings of the Royal Society A — Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences and Proceedings of the Royal Society B — Biological Sciences.

Proceedings of the Royal Society A

Proc. R. Soc. A publishes refereed
Peer review
Peer review is a process of self-regulation by a profession or a process of evaluation involving qualified individuals within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards, improve performance and provide credibility...

 research articles in the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences. The journal is abstracted and indexed by Applied Mechanics Reviews, Bibliography and Index of Geology (Also known as GeoRef), British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography, Chemical Abstracts, Chemistry Citation Index, Composites Alert, Compumath Citation Index, Current Contents
Current Contents
Current Contents is a rapid alerting service database from the Institute for Scientific Information, now part of Thomson Reuters, that is published online and in several different printed subject sections.-History:...

, Engineered Materials Abstracts, Engineering Index Monthly, Excerpta Medica
Embase is an online information source of published literature designed to supportinformation managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatoryrequirements of a licensed drug. Through its unique and comprehensive content coverage,...

, Fluidex, Forest Products Abstracts, Geographical Abstracts, Human Geography, Geological Abstracts, Geomechanics Abstracts, Index to Scientific Reviews, Inspec
Inspec is a major indexing database of scientific and technical literature, published by the Institution of Engineering and Technology , and formerly by the Institution of Electrical Engineers , one of the IET's forerunners....

, Mass Spectrometry Bulletin, Mathematical Reviews, Metals Abstracts, Metals Abstracts Index, Mineralogical Abstracts, Nonferrous Metals Alert, Oceanographic Literature Review, Petroleum Abstracts, Polymers, Ceramics, Research Alert (Philadelphia), Science Citation Index
Science Citation Index
The Science Citation Index is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information and created by Eugene Garfield in 1960, which is now owned by Thomson Reuters. The larger version covers more than 6,500 notable and significant journals, across 150 disciplines, from ...

, Steels Alert, and World Aluminum Abstracts.

The current Editor of the journal is Sir Michael Berry FRS
Royal Society
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...


Proceedings of the Royal Society B

This series covers research related to biological sciences. Topics covered in particular include ecology
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

, behavioural ecology
Behavioral ecology
Behavioral ecology, or ethoecology, is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment...

 and evolutionary biology; significant numbers of papers in epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a population. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive...

, human biology
Human biology
Human Biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, epidemiology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences. It is closely related to...

, neuroscience
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics,...

, palaeontology
Paleontology "old, ancient", ὄν, ὀντ- "being, creature", and λόγος "speech, thought") is the study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments...

 and biomechanics
Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells. Perhaps one of the best definitions was provided by Herbert Hatze in 1974: "Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of...

 have also appeared in the journal. Proceedings B publishes predominately research articles but also both commissioned and non-commissioned reviews, comments, replies, and commentaries. In 2005, Biology Letters
Biology Letters
Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It was split off as a separate journal from the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences in 2005 after having been published as a supplement. Originally it was published quarterly, but from 2007 it has been...

(originally a supplement to Proceedings B), was launched as an independent journal publishing short articles from across biology.

The current Editor of Proc R Soc B is Michael Hassell
Michael Hassell
Michael Patrick Hassell CBE, FRS is a British biologist, noted for his work in population ecology, especially in insects. He is a professor at Imperial College London....

 FRS. Proceedings B has an Impact Factor of 4.857 and is ranked 7th in Biology.

Open access

Although current issues of these journals require a subscription, issues are available free at the journal's website, subject to a one year embargo for Proceedings B and a two year embargo for Proceedings A, thus making these delayed open access journal
Delayed open access journal
Delayed open access journals are traditional subscription-based journals that provide open access or free access upon the elapse of an embargo period following the initial publication date...


External links

Current journals

Journal archives

(1800–1843) (1854–1905) (1905–1934) (1905–1934) (1934–1990)
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