Police misconduct
Overview
Police misconduct refers to inappropriate actions taken by police officer
Police officer
A police officer is a warranted employee of a police force...

s in connection with their official duties. Police misconduct can lead to a miscarriage of justice
Miscarriage of justice
A miscarriage of justice primarily is the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime they did not commit. The term can also apply to errors in the other direction—"errors of impunity", and to civil cases. Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn, or "quash", a wrongful...

 and sometimes involves discrimination
Discrimination
Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their membership in a certain group or category. It involves the actual behaviors towards groups such as excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to another group. The term began to be...

. In an effort to control police misconduct, there is an accelerating trend for civilian agencies to go beyond review to engage directly in investigations and to have much greater input into disciplinary decisions. With the proliferation of mobile devices capable of recording alleged misconduct, existing eavesdropping
Eavesdropping
Eavesdropping is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black's Law Dictionary...

 laws in some jurisdictions are being leveraged to prosecute civilians, while in other circumstances police will illegally seize or delete evidence.

Types of misconduct include, false confession
False confession
A false confession is an admission of guilt in a crime in which the confessor is not responsible for the crime. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused...

, false arrest
False arrest
False arrest is a common law tort, where a plaintiff alleges they were held in custody without probable cause, or without an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction...

, falsified evidence
Falsified evidence
False evidence, forged evidence or tainted evidence is information created or obtained illegally, to sway the verdict in a court case. Also, misleading by suppressing evidence can be used to sway a verdict; however, in some cases, suppressed evidence is excluded because it was found hidden or...

, false imprisonment
False imprisonment
False imprisonment is a restraint of a person in a bounded area without justification or consent. False imprisonment is a common-law felony and a tort. It applies to private as well as governmental detention...

, intimidation
Intimidation
Intimidation is intentional behavior "which would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" fear of injury or harm. It's not necessary to prove that the behavior was so violent as to cause terror or that the victim was actually frightened.Criminal threatening is the crime of intentionally or...

, police brutality
Police brutality
Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially also in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a police officer....

, police corruption
Police corruption
Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest....

, political repression
Political repression
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take political life of society....

, racial profiling
Racial profiling
Racial profiling refers to the use of an individual’s race or ethnicity by law enforcement personnel as a key factor in deciding whether to engage in enforcement...

, sexual abuse
Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another. When that force is immediate, of short duration, or infrequent, it is called sexual assault. The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or molester...

, surveillance abuse
Surveillance abuse
Surveillance abuse is the use of surveillance methods or technology to monitor the activity of an individual or group of individuals in a way which violates the social norms or laws of a society. Mass surveillance by the state may constitute surveillance abuse if not appropriately regulated....

 and off-duty misconduct.
Encyclopedia
Police misconduct refers to inappropriate actions taken by police officer
Police officer
A police officer is a warranted employee of a police force...

s in connection with their official duties. Police misconduct can lead to a miscarriage of justice
Miscarriage of justice
A miscarriage of justice primarily is the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime they did not commit. The term can also apply to errors in the other direction—"errors of impunity", and to civil cases. Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn, or "quash", a wrongful...

 and sometimes involves discrimination
Discrimination
Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their membership in a certain group or category. It involves the actual behaviors towards groups such as excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to another group. The term began to be...

. In an effort to control police misconduct, there is an accelerating trend for civilian agencies to go beyond review to engage directly in investigations and to have much greater input into disciplinary decisions. With the proliferation of mobile devices capable of recording alleged misconduct, existing eavesdropping
Eavesdropping
Eavesdropping is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black's Law Dictionary...

 laws in some jurisdictions are being leveraged to prosecute civilians, while in other circumstances police will illegally seize or delete evidence.

Types of misconduct include, false confession
False confession
A false confession is an admission of guilt in a crime in which the confessor is not responsible for the crime. False confessions can be induced through coercion or by the mental disorder or incompetency of the accused...

, false arrest
False arrest
False arrest is a common law tort, where a plaintiff alleges they were held in custody without probable cause, or without an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction...

, falsified evidence
Falsified evidence
False evidence, forged evidence or tainted evidence is information created or obtained illegally, to sway the verdict in a court case. Also, misleading by suppressing evidence can be used to sway a verdict; however, in some cases, suppressed evidence is excluded because it was found hidden or...

, false imprisonment
False imprisonment
False imprisonment is a restraint of a person in a bounded area without justification or consent. False imprisonment is a common-law felony and a tort. It applies to private as well as governmental detention...

, intimidation
Intimidation
Intimidation is intentional behavior "which would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" fear of injury or harm. It's not necessary to prove that the behavior was so violent as to cause terror or that the victim was actually frightened.Criminal threatening is the crime of intentionally or...

, police brutality
Police brutality
Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially also in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a police officer....

, police corruption
Police corruption
Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest....

, political repression
Political repression
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take political life of society....

, racial profiling
Racial profiling
Racial profiling refers to the use of an individual’s race or ethnicity by law enforcement personnel as a key factor in deciding whether to engage in enforcement...

, sexual abuse
Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another. When that force is immediate, of short duration, or infrequent, it is called sexual assault. The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or molester...

, surveillance abuse
Surveillance abuse
Surveillance abuse is the use of surveillance methods or technology to monitor the activity of an individual or group of individuals in a way which violates the social norms or laws of a society. Mass surveillance by the state may constitute surveillance abuse if not appropriately regulated....

 and off-duty misconduct. Others include:
  • Noble cause corruption, where the officer believes the good outcomes justify bad behavior
  • Selective enforcement (knowledge and allowances of violations by friends, family and/or acquaintances unreported)
  • Abuses of power (using badge or other ID to gain entry into concerts, to get discounts, etc.)
  • Lying under oath (blatant lies under oath and/or to other authorities to cover wrong-doing)
  • Influence of drugs and/or alcohol while on duty
  • Violations by officers of police procedural policies


There is a view that police officers share a 'code of silence' and do not turn each other in for misconduct. While this code has been called a myth, a 2005 survey found evidence that it exists.

Contributors and prediction

Misconduct has been shown to be related to personality and education, but it can also be significantly affected by the culture of the police agency.
Education can help predict misconduct, with better-educated officers receiving fewer complaints on average.

Some analyses have found that changes in structural disadvantage, population mobility
Population mobility
Population mobility, geographic mobility or more simply mobility is a statistic that measures migration within a population. It is most commonly used in demography and human geography, it may also be used to describe the movement of animals between populations.Mobility estimates in the Current...

, and immigrant population have been associated with changes in police misconduct. Social disorganization may create a context for police misconduct because residents may not have in place the social networks necessary to organize against police malpractice. The fact that most police officers enjoy broad discretion and minimal supervision has been cited as increasing opportunities for police misconduct.

A 1991 study of the relationship between the Big Five personality traits
Big Five personality traits
In contemporary psychology, the "Big Five" factors of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which are used to describe human personality....

 (extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) and performance found that conscientiousness was the most significantly related to performance while agreeableness, emotional stability, and extroversion also has a relationship. Misconduct may be triggered by "contempt of cop
Contempt of cop
Contempt of cop is law enforcement jargon in the United States for behavior by citizens towards law enforcement officers that the officers perceive as disrespectful or insufficiently deferential to their authority...

", i.e., perceived disrespect towards police officers, such as by asserting one's constitutional rights, or by disrespecting the police.

Video and audio recording

Many police cars are now equipped with recording systems, which can deter, document or rebut police misconduct during traffic stops. Usually, the recordings have rebutted claims of police misconduct according to a 2004 study by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and Community Oriented Policing Service; future innovations in recording equipment could allow an officer's entire workday to be recorded. Some transparency
Transparency (social)
Transparency is a general quality. It is implemented by a set of policies, practices and procedures that allow citizens to have accessibility, usability, utility, understandability, informativeness and auditability of information and process held by centers of authority...

 advocates believe that such cameras should be installed in all police cruisers to ensure accountability. Some police departments have experimented with Taser cameras that automatically begin recording when the Taser is deployed. The Cato Institute recommends that police film all no-knock raids.

Recording by witnesses have made a significant impact on the notability and handling of police incidence, such as the Rodney King beating.

Mobile devices

As digital recording technology usage has increased, especially using cell phones, there have been more cases of citizens capturing video of alleged police misconduct. In response U.S. law enforcement have begun using eavesdropping and wiretapping laws to charge citizens who record police without their knowledge. Some police organizations such as the Fraternal Order of Police
Fraternal Order of Police
The Fraternal Order of Police is an organization of sworn law enforcement officers in the United States. It claims a membership of over 325,000 members organized in 2100 local chapters , organized into local lodges, state lodges, and the national Grand Lodge...

 support the prosecutions, and are relieved ACLU attempts to challenge the Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

 eavesdropping act have so far failed in the federal courts. In Illinois, recording audio of police without consent is a class 1 felony that can carry a prison term of 15 years. Legal challenges in Illinois are ongoing.

Most charges involving recording police are dropped or dismissed as courts have ruled on-duty cops in public have no reasonable expectation of privacy. However, police "can use vaguer charges, such as interfering with a police officer, refusing to obey a lawful order, or obstructing an arrest or police action." Arrests for these charges are more common, as are incidents of police illegally confiscating cameras, deleting evidence or misinforming citizens they cannot film. This "citizen video" evidence has played a key role in raising public awareness of police misconduct during and after an incident such as the BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant
BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant
Oscar Grant was fatally shot by BART police officer Johannes Mehserle in Oakland, California, United States, in the early morning hours of New Year's Day 2009. Responding to reports of a fight on a crowded Bay Area Rapid Transit train returning from San Francisco, BART Police officers detained...

 (U.S.), Death of Ian Tomlinson
Death of Ian Tomlinson
Ian Tomlinson was an English newspaper vendor who collapsed and died in the City of London after coming into contact with the police while on his way home from work during the 2009 G-20 summit protests. A first postmortem examination indicated he had suffered a heart attack and had died of natural...

 (U.K.) and the Robert Dziekański death
Robert Dziekanski Taser incident
Robert Dziekański was a Polish immigrant to Canada who died on October 14, 2007, after being tasered five times by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at Vancouver International Airport....

 (Canada).

United States

The Chicago Police Department
Chicago Police Department
The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of Chicago, Illinois, in the United States, under the jurisdiction of the Mayor of Chicago. It is the largest police department in the Midwest and the second largest local law enforcement agency in the...

 in August 1968 initiated a "police riot
Police riot
A police riot is a confrontation between police and civilians. The term can also describe a riot by civilians caused or instigated by police...

" according to the Walker Report which gathered testimony on the violence surrounding the 1968 Democratic National Convention
1968 Democratic National Convention
The 1968 Democratic National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968. Because Democratic President Lyndon Johnson had announced he would not seek a second term, the purpose of the convention was to...

 and Anti-Vietnam War protests. The New York Police Department (NYPD) had a prominent case
Louis Eppolito and Stephen Caracappa
Louis Eppolito and Stephen Caracappa are two former New York Police Department police detectives who worked on behalf of the New York Mafia while they committed various illegal activities...

 of two detectives working for the mafia
Mafia
The Mafia is a criminal syndicate that emerged in the mid-nineteenth century in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organizational structure and code of conduct, and whose common enterprise is protection racketeering...

 during the 1980s. The Los Angeles Police Department
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department is the police department of the city of Los Angeles, California. With just under 10,000 officers and more than 3,000 civilian staff, covering an area of with a population of more than 4.1 million people, it is the third largest local law enforcement agency in...

 (LAPD) in the late 1990s had a large incident of misconduct with the Rampart scandal
Rampart Scandal
The Rampart scandal refers to widespread corruption in the Community Resources Against Street Hoodlums anti-gang unit of the Los Angeles Police Department Rampart Division in the late 1990s. More than 70 police officers in the CRASH unit were implicated in misconduct, making it one of the most...

 implicating 70 officers of an anti-gang unit called C.R.A.S.H.. This resulted $125-million in lawsuit settlement payouts, dissolving of the unit and the LAPD entering into a consent decree
Consent decree
A consent decree is a final, binding judicial decree or judgment memorializing a voluntary agreement between parties to a suit in return for withdrawal of a criminal charge or an end to a civil litigation...

 with the U.S. Department of Justice on comprehensive reforms.

During the 1990s the New Orleans Police Department
New Orleans Police Department
The New Orleans Police Department has primary responsibility for law enforcement in New Orleans, Louisiana. The department's jurisdiction covers all of Orleans Parish, while the city is divided into eight police districts....

 (NOPD) also came under the scrutiny of the Justice Department when a series of crimes, including murders, by officers prompted attempts at reform by then Police Chief Richard Pennington
Richard Pennington
Richard Pennington served as police chief of Atlanta, Georgia from 2002 to 2009. From 1994 to 2002 he served as police chief of New Orleans, Louisiana....

. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

 there was a spike in allegations of misconduct and in March 2011 the Justice Department published a 158-page report that found "systemic violations of civil rights" by a NOPD that routinely failed to discipline officers involved. Six cases stemming from Katrina have been investigated and followed closely by ProPublica
ProPublica
ProPublica is a non-profit corporation based in New York City. It describes itself as an independent non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. In 2010 it became the first online news source to win a Pulitzer Prize, for a piece written by one of its...

, one is the Danziger Bridge shootings
Danziger Bridge Shootings
The Danziger Bridge shootings were a police shooting that took place on September 4, 2005, at the Danziger Bridge in New Orleans, Louisiana. Six days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, the city's police department killed two people: seventeen-year-old James Brissette and forty-year-old...

 that resulted in two civilian deaths and four wounded. In August 2011, four officers were convicted of unlawfully firing on citizens then trying to cover it up with the assistance of a fifth investigating officer.

In 2006, two NYPD officers were convicted of protecting a brothel. In 2008, several cases of police misconduct in the U.S. were uncovered through surveillance tapes. These include one case where an officer's testimony contradicted the tape, and another tape where police officer Patrick Pogan charged a bicyclist with disorderly conduct and resisting arrest and the tape showed that an officer had knocked him off his bicycle. Two undercover cops were indicted on lying about a drug bust, and charges of assault were dropped against a truck driver when the video showed the police beating him; another case showed a man accused of resisting arrest being beaten.

In a number of jurisidictions, police officers have been accused of ticket fixing
Ticket fixing
Ticket fixing is a practice in which a public official destroys or dismisses a pending traffic ticket as a favor to a friend or family member. For example, police officers in a number of jurisdictions have been charged with destroying pending tickets at the request of other officers. Judges have...

.

In a number of jurisdictions, police officers are able to gain effective immunity to red light camera
Red light camera
A red light camera is a traffic enforcement camera that captures an image of a vehicle which has entered an intersection against a red traffic light. By automatically photographing vehicles that run red lights, the camera produces evidence that assists authorities in their enforcement of traffic laws...

 tickets, photo radar tickets, and toll violation fines. In California 1.5 million privately-owned cars have license plate numbers protected from easy look up, effectively invisible to agencies trying to process camera violations. The "protected" list includes police and their families, including adult children.

More than 30 California police departments mail out fake red light camera "tickets," also called "Snitch Tickets," in an effort to bluff registered owners into revealing the identity of the person who was driving the vehicle at the time of the alleged violation. Because these "tickets" have not been filed at court, they carry no legal weight and (in the US) the registered owner is under no obligation to respond in any manner. In California, a genuine ticket will bear the name and address of the local branch of the Superior Court and direct the recipient to contact that Court, while a fake "ticket" generated by the police will not.

Norway

Police misconduct has become an issue of high media attention in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

. The death of Eugene Ejike Obiora, a naturalized Norwegian
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 of Nigeria
Nigeria
Nigeria , officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in...

n origin in September 2006 stirred an uproar that has caused the authorities to announce significant changes to the way charges of police brutality
Police brutality
Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially also in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a police officer....

 and other forms of police misconduct, including corruption
Police corruption
Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest....

, involving the Norwegian police
Norwegian Police Service
The Norwegian Police Service is the official police force in Norway which are run by the Minister of Justice and Police. The department consists of 27 regional areas and seven national special forces. The department has about 11,000 employees....

 will be handled in the future. As a consequence of the Obiora case, training at the Norwegian Police Academy has undergone changes and national police director Ingelin Killengreen
Ingelin Killengreen
Ingelin Christine Killengreen is a Norwegian jurist and the current Police Commissioner in the National Police Directorate....

 has instigated a thorough review of police methods in general.

One officer employed in Oslo Police District was sentenced in 2006 to two years in prison
Prison
A prison is a place in which people are physically confined and, usually, deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime...

 for human trafficking
Human trafficking
Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or a modern-day form of slavery...

, embezzlement
Embezzlement
Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted....

 of money and weapons, as well as theft of emergency passport
Passport
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth....

s. Two cases were from Follo
Follo
Follo is one of three districts in the county of Akershus, Norway. It is located between Oslo and Østfold and includes the southwestern part of the county's area east of Oslo, namely the municipalities Frogn, Oppegård, Ski, Vestby, Ås, Nesodden, and Enebakk...

 Police District. One officer was accused of having felt up
Sexual harassment
Sexual harassment, is intimidation, bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. In some contexts or circumstances, sexual harassment is illegal. It includes a range of behavior from seemingly mild transgressions and...

 a number of women during interrogations. He was acquitted on almost all charges by the regional court. Another officer had been accused of abuse of power
Abuse of Power
Abuse of Power is a novel written by radio talk show host Michael Savage.- Plot :Jack Hatfield is a hardened former war correspondent who rose to national prominence for his insightful, provocative commentary...

 during an arrest. This case will be retried in the regional court by order of the Supreme Court
Supreme Court of Norway
The Supreme Court of Norway was established in 1815 on the basis of the Constitution of Norway's §88, prescribing an independent judiciary. It is located in Oslo and is Norway's highest court...

 after the acquittal was appealed. Another case involves a female officer from Telemark
Telemark
is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder. The county administration is in Skien. Until 1919 the county was known as Bratsberg amt.-Location:...

 Police District who was issued a fine of 10.000 kroner
Norwegian krone
The krone is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories. The plural form is kroner . It is subdivided into 100 øre. The ISO 4217 code is NOK, although the common local abbreviation is kr. The name translates into English as "crown"...

 and the loss of her employment for a period of five years for embezzlement and breach of confidentiality, among other issues.

The most prominent case of intentional miscarriage of justice
Miscarriage of justice
A miscarriage of justice primarily is the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime they did not commit. The term can also apply to errors in the other direction—"errors of impunity", and to civil cases. Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn, or "quash", a wrongful...

 was against Fritz Moen
Fritz Moen
Fritz Yngvar Moen was a Norwegian man wrongfully convicted for two distinct felony murders, serving a total of 18 years in prison...

, several officers appear to have manipulated timelines, threatened the accused and witnesses and made false statements to close the case.

Canada

In October 2007 there was an incident at Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport
Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, about from Downtown Vancouver. In 2010 it was the second busiest airport in Canada by aircraft movements and passengers , behind Toronto Pearson International Airport, with non-stop flights daily to...

 involving new Polish immigrant Robert Dziekański
Robert Dziekanski Taser incident
Robert Dziekański was a Polish immigrant to Canada who died on October 14, 2007, after being tasered five times by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at Vancouver International Airport....

. Dziekański was taser
Taser
A Taser is an electroshock weapon that uses electrical current to disrupt voluntary control of muscles. Its manufacturer, Taser International, calls the effects "neuromuscular incapacitation" and the devices' mechanism "Electro-Muscular Disruption technology"...

ed five times during the arrest, became unresponsive and died. The incident was video recorded by a civilian who turned it over to police, then sued to get it back for release to news outlets. The official inquiry
Braidwood Inquiry
The Braidwood Inquiry was a public inquiry conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, examining the safety of Tasers and the death of Robert Dziekanski. The two-stage inquiry is being conducted by retired Court of Appeal of British Columbia and Court of Appeal of the Yukon Territory Justice...

 found the RCMP were not justified deploying the taser and that the officers deliberately misrepresented their actions to investigators. The incident effected taser
Taser
A Taser is an electroshock weapon that uses electrical current to disrupt voluntary control of muscles. Its manufacturer, Taser International, calls the effects "neuromuscular incapacitation" and the devices' mechanism "Electro-Muscular Disruption technology"...

 use in Canada and relations with Poland.

During the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit protests
2010 G-20 Toronto summit protests
The 2010 G-20 Toronto summit protests began one week ahead of the summit of the leaders of the G-20 on June 26 and 27 in Toronto. Protests included demonstrations, rallies, marches, as well as a destructive riot that broke out on June 26 which caused vandalism to several businesses in Downtown...

 police enacted regulations the Ontario Ombudsman
Ombudsman
An ombudsman is a person who acts as a trusted intermediary between an organization and some internal or external constituency while representing not only but mostly the broad scope of constituent interests...

 found contributed to "massive violations of civil rights." The regulation requested by police chief Bill Blair
Bill Blair (police chief)
William Sterling "Bill" Blair, is the police chief of Toronto, Ontario. He was selected in a 4–2 vote of the Toronto Police Services Board in early April 2005, and formally appointed Chief of the Toronto Police Service on April 26, 2005. He succeeded Mike Boyd, who had served as interim chief...

 made the security zone public works
Public works
Public works are a broad category of projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community...

 and police interpreted this to permit them to arrest anyone not providing identification within five-metres of the temporary fence. There were 1,118 arrests with 800 released without charge, Blair conceded later no five-metre rule ever existed in the law.
Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty
Dalton McGuinty
Dalton James Patrick McGuinty, Jr., MPP is a Canadian lawyer, politician and, since October 23, 2003, the 24th and current Premier of the Canadian province of Ontario....

 was criticized for allowing misinterpretion of the law until the G-20 was over. In September 2011, officers who removed their name tags during the G-20 protests were refused promotion by the civilian oversight board.

Russia

Police corruption and brutality is rampant in Russia as it is common for officers to be hired as private security on the side by businessman and Russian mafia
Russian Mafia
The Russian Mafia is a name applied to organized crime syndicates in Russia and Ukraine. The mafia in various countries take the name of the country, as for example the Ukrainian mafia....

. This leads to conflicts of interest as business and political rivals are jailed with selective enforcement of laws and trumped-up charges, or kidnapped for ransom. These tactics are believed to have been used against billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky
Mikhail Khodorkovsky
Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky is a Russian prisoner, considered by some - such as Amnesty International - to have been imprisoned for political reasons, jailed until 2016 and a former Russian oligarch and businessman...

 to "weaken an outspoken political opponent, to intimidate other wealthy individuals and to regain control of strategic economic assets." Meanwhile bureaucrats who are found guilty of significant crimes get away with light sentences. Intimidation and violence against journalists and whistle blowers is high as Russia remains one of the worst countries at solving their murders. It is widely believed the Federal Security Service (successor to the KGB
KGB
The KGB was the commonly used acronym for the . It was the national security agency of the Soviet Union from 1954 until 1991, and was the premier internal security, intelligence, and secret police organization during that time.The State Security Agency of the Republic of Belarus currently uses the...

) remain in control using the police as foot soldiers, and are unaccountable with connections to organized crime and the Russian leadership.

India

It is believed corruption among the Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
The Indian Police Service , simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India...

 is pervasive and goes up to the top brass. Reform has been made difficult with honest officers pressured by powerful local officials and suffer punitive transfers and threats while corrupt officers receive promotions.
A number of officers face charges in Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation
The Central Bureau of Investigation is a government agency of India that serves as a criminal investigation body, national security agency and intelligence agency. It was established on 1 April 1963 and evolved from the Special Police Establishment founded in 1941...

 cases.
Some of the past scandals include murder, sexual harassment,
sex-on-tape scandal,
dowry harassment,
fraud
and fake killing encounter.

China

Wen Qiang a deputy police chief, along with family members, was arrested as part of a massive crackdown
Chongqing gang trials
The Chongqing gang trials were a series of triad-busting trials in the city of Chongqing that began in October 2009 and is ongoing as of July 2010...

 on corruption of the People's Armed Police
People's Armed Police
The People's Armed Police , officially Chinese People's Armed Police Force is a paramilitary or gendarmerie force primarily responsible for civilian policing and fire rescue duties in the People's Republic of China, as well as provide support to PLA during wartime.In contrast to public security...

 and organized crime in Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

 in late 2009. His crimes included bribes, rape and failing to account for assets; Wen was executed in July 2010. The trials highlighted the continued use of torture by police to obtain confessions, despite laws implemented in June 2010 excluding tortured confessions being used in trials.

United States

U.S. police misconduct statistics are hard to come by because the government does not regularly collect data. One attempt to track misconduct is the "National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project" which estimates misconduct rates using newspaper reports. This comprehensive data suggest that police are more likely than the average person to commit a number of crimes including assault, sexual assault, and murder, but less likely to commit robbery. The NPMSRP projects that roughly 1 in 4.7 officers will be implicated in an act of misconduct during the course of their career. In the United States, the exclusionary rule
Exclusionary rule
The exclusionary rule is a legal principle in the United States, under constitutional law, which holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights is sometimes inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law...

 means that evidence gathered through misconduct is sometimes inadmissible in court.

The Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
The Black Panther Party wasan African-American revolutionary leftist organization. It was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982....

 sought to oppose police brutality through neighborhood patrols. Police officers were often followed by armed Black Panthers who at times came to aid African-Americans who were victims of brutality and racial prejudice. Groups like Copwatch
Copwatch
Copwatch is a network of activist organizations in the United States and Canada that observe and document police activity while looking for signs of police misconduct and police brutality...

 continue to use the patrol method, often using video cameras to document them.

In a 2004 United States survey of the public's view on accountability in reforming police, most members of the public wanted an "early warning system" which flags officers who have received many complaints, video cameras on police cars, detailed records of police stops, and citizen review boards
Citizen oversight
Citizen oversight is the act of an assembly of citizens that come together to review government activities that may be deemed misconduct or to consider possible government solutions...

. Citizen review of police has been an "emotion-packed" issue, with law enforcement concerned that citizens reviewing their actions do not understand the procedures which they operate by and the citizen review board advocates arguing that the law enforcement "code of silence" requires that they have input into the disciplinary action. As of 2003, three-fourths of the United States' largest cities had citizen review boards.

Early warning systems are procedures designed to identify and address issues 'problem officers', as around 10% of officers are theorized to cause 90% of the problems. Early warning systems were recommended by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights in 1981, and by 1999 an estimated 27% of police agencies serving populations of over 50,000 people had implemented these programs. The systems work by collecting data such as complaints, which triggers an intervention at a certain point. After the intervention, the officer is monitored as a follow-up.

It is sometimes argued that civil liability can create new deterrents to police misconduct. Civilian police commissioner
Police commissioner
Commissioner is a senior rank used in many police forces and may be rendered Police Commissioner or Commissioner of Police. In some organizations, the commissioner is a political appointee, and may or may not actually be a professional police officer. In these circumstances, there is often a...

s and citizen review boards have been cited as institutions that can help reduce police misconduct. There is some variation as to how much access the civilian reviewers are given to internal police documents and personnel files. Decertification of police has been cited as another possible remedy. Surveys suggest that officers are aware of the detrimental impacts of police misconduct and hold strong opinions as to what strategies are preferable. The exclusionary rule
Exclusionary rule
The exclusionary rule is a legal principle in the United States, under constitutional law, which holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights is sometimes inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law...

 has been one classic deterrent to obtaining evidence through police misconduct, but it is proposed that it be replaced with restitution to victims of misconduct.

Norway

The Special Unit for Police Affairs (SUPA) was established on January 1, 2005. In 2006 the unit received 904 complaints, of which 101 led to indictment
Indictment
An indictment , in the common-law legal system, is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime. In jurisdictions that maintain the concept of felonies, the serious criminal offence is a felony; jurisdictions that lack the concept of felonies often use that of an indictable offence—an...

. Of these 26 ended with the issuance of a fine, 8 cases criminal charges were brought, 64 went to trial, and 3 cases were given "påtaleunnlatelse" (no charges despite misconduct likely took place). Four police officers alone were responsible for 63 of the 101 cases. In September 2007, Jan Egil Presthus director of SUPA stated to the Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 newspaper Dagsavisen
Dagsavisen
Dagsavisen is a daily newspaper published in Oslo, Norway. The former party organ of the Norwegian Labour Party, the ties loosened over time from 1975 to 1999, and it is now fully independent...

that investigations of police conduct involving death are going to be posted on the Internet. He states that total openness will strengthen the publics confidence in the unit's integrity and impartially. This came following Dagsavisen in June 2007 publishing an overview of police cases with a deadly outcome. The article showed that in the ten most serious cases after the establishment of the SUPA all charges against the police were eventually dropped.

A buzzing media discourse focusing on deaths incurred during police arrests and transports continued in Norway throughout 2007, and Presthus counts this as one factor triggering the initiative to publish ongoing investigations on the Internet. The cases will be presented on the web pages of SUPA, and they will be presented in a way that preserves the anonymity of officers and other parties involved where deemed necessary.

Metropolitan police

Hong Kong and New York City, which both have had issues with police misconduct and corruption, have approached the problem in different ways. For corruption, Hong Kong created an external agency which actually investigates corruption while New York reviews corruption through an internal department, although the information is reported to a monitoring commission. New York also uses "integrity checks" in which an officer's integrity is tested through an opportunity for corruption. For misconduct, Hong Kong reviews complaints internally with a monitoring commission while New York has created the New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board (NYCCCRB) which investigates and makes a formal recommendation to the commissioner.

See also

Incidents
  • Mafia cops
  • 39th District corruption scandal
    39th District corruption scandal
    The 39th District corruption scandal refers to a persistent pattern of brutality and corruption among a cadre Philadelphia Police Department officers, primarily from the department's 39th district, that emerged in late 1995 and received nationwide attention by 1997, eventually resulting in an...

  • Conflicts involving Critical Mass
    Conflicts involving Critical Mass
    There have been many conflicts during Critical Mass bicycling events resulting in injuries, property damage, and arrests. Both bicyclists and drivers have been victims...

  • Knapp Commission
    Knapp Commission
    The Knapp Commission stemmed from a five-member panel initially formed in April 1970 by Mayor John V. Lindsay to investigate corruption within the New York City Police Department...

  • The Los Angeles May Day Mêlée
  • MOVE Organization
    MOVE
    MOVE or the MOVE Organization is a Philadelphia-based black liberation group founded by John Africa. MOVE was described by CNN as "a loose-knit, mostly black group whose members all adopted the surname Africa, advocated a "back-to-nature" lifestyle and preached against technology." The group...

  • New York State Police Troop C scandal
    New York State Police Troop C scandal
    The New York State Police Troop C scandal involved the fabrication of evidence used to convict suspects in New York by the New York State Police.-John Spencer:...

  • NYPD subway sodomy incident
    NYPD subway sodomy incident
    The NYPD subway sodomy incident refers to the circumstances surrounding the October 15, 2008, arrest of Michael Mineo by New York City Police Department officers. According to Mineo, the arresting police officers pinned him to the ground, while Richard Kern, one of the officers, pulled down...

  • Rampart Scandal
    Rampart Scandal
    The Rampart scandal refers to widespread corruption in the Community Resources Against Street Hoodlums anti-gang unit of the Los Angeles Police Department Rampart Division in the late 1990s. More than 70 police officers in the CRASH unit were implicated in misconduct, making it one of the most...

  • Wickersham report


Individuals

  • Adrian Schoolcraft
    Adrian Schoolcraft
    Adrian Schoolcraft is a suspended New York Police Department officer who in May 2010 released secretly recorded tapes to The Village Voice. Schoolcraft alleges that these tapes show corruption within New York City's 81st Police Precinct...

  • Sean Bell
    Sean Bell shooting incident
    The Sean Bell shooting incident took place in the New York City borough of Queens, New York, United States on November 25, 2006, when three men were shot a total of fifty times by a team of both plainclothes and undercover NYPD officers, killing one of the men, Sean Bell, on the morning before his...

  • Rap Brown
  • Richard Cain
    Richard Cain
    Richard Cain was a notoriously corrupt Chicago police officer, made man in the Chicago Outfit and a close associate of Mafia boss Sam Giancana. Several conspiracy theorists have claimed that Cain was directly involved in the 1963 assassination of U.S. President John F...

  • Lon Horiuchi
    Lon Horiuchi
    Lon Tomohisa Horiuchi is a U.S. FBI HRT sniper who was involved in controversial deployments during the 1992 Ruby Ridge standoff and 1993 Waco Siege. In 1997, Horiuchi was charged with manslaughter for the death of Vicki Weaver at Ruby Ridge; the case was dismissed.-Early life:Horiuchi, the son of...

  • Kathryn Johnston
    Kathryn Johnston shooting
    Kathryn Johnston was an elderly Atlanta, Georgia woman who was shot by undercover police officers in her home on Neal Street in northwest Atlanta on November 21, 2006, where she had lived for 17 years. Three officers had entered her home in what was later described as a 'botched' drug raid...

  • Bernard Kerik
    Bernard Kerik
    Bernard Bailey "Bernie" Kerik is a former New York City Police Commissioner, Secretary of Homeland Security nominee, and now a federal felon. Kerik was New York City Police Commissioner from 2000 to 2001, under Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In December 2004, President George W. Bush nominated Kerik as...

  • Rodney King
    Rodney King
    Rodney Glen King is an American best known for his involvement in a police brutality case involving the Los Angeles Police Department on March 3, 1991...

  • Stacey Koon
    Stacey Koon
    Stacey Cornell Koon is a former sergeant with the Los Angeles Police Department who became nationally notorious in the wake of the Rodney King incident...


  • Epaminondas Korkoneas
  • Benjamin LaGuer
    BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant
    Oscar Grant was fatally shot by BART police officer Johannes Mehserle in Oakland, California, United States, in the early morning hours of New Year's Day 2009. Responding to reports of a fight on a crowded Bay Area Rapid Transit train returning from San Francisco, BART Police officers detained...

  • Cory Maye
    Cory Maye
    Cory Jermaine Maye , is a former prisoner in the U.S. state of Mississippi. He was originally convicted of murder in the 2001 death of Prentiss, Mississippi police officer Ron W. Jones during a drug raid on the other half of Maye's duplex. Maye has said he thought that the intruders were burglars...

  • Johannes Mehserle
  • Jean Charles de Menezes
    Jean Charles de Menezes
    Jean Charles de Menezes was a Brazilian man shot in the head seven times at Stockwell tube station on the London Underground by the London Metropolitan police, after he was misidentified as one of the fugitives involved in the previous day's failed bombing attempts...

  • Patrick Pogan
  • Laurence Powell
    Laurence Powell
    Laurence Michael Powell is a former Los Angeles Police officer. He was one of the four officers involved in the beating of Rodney King on March 3, 1991.-Background:...


  • Salvatore Rivieri
  • Frank Serpico
    Frank Serpico
    Francesco Vincent Serpico is a retired American New York City Police Department officer who is most famous for testifying against police corruption in 1971...

  • Harry Stanley
    Harry Stanley
    Harry Stanley was a painter and decorator who was fatally shot by police in controversial circumstances.-Background:...

  • Ian Tomlinson
    Death of Ian Tomlinson
    Ian Tomlinson was an English newspaper vendor who collapsed and died in the City of London after coming into contact with the police while on his way home from work during the 2009 G-20 summit protests. A first postmortem examination indicated he had suffered a heart attack and had died of natural...

  • Abner Louima
    Abner Louima
    Abner Louima is a Haitian who was assaulted, brutalized and forcibly sodomized with the handle of a bathroom plunger by New York City police officers after being arrested outside a Brooklyn nightclub in 1997....

  • Justin Volpe
  • Otto Zehm
    Otto Zehm
    Otto Zehm was a mentally disabled man from Spokane, Washington who died on March 20, 2006, two days after being beaten, tasered multiple times, and improperly restrained by seven Spokane Police Officers...

  • Robert Dziekanski

Organizations
  • Christopher Commission
    Christopher Commission
    The Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, informally known as the Christopher Commission, was formed in July 1991, in the wake of the Rodney King beating, by then-mayor of Los Angeles Tom Bradley. It was chaired by attorney Warren Christopher...

  • COINTELPRO
    COINTELPRO
    COINTELPRO was a series of covert, and often illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.COINTELPRO tactics included discrediting targets through psychological...

  • Copwatch
    Copwatch
    Copwatch is a network of activist organizations in the United States and Canada that observe and document police activity while looking for signs of police misconduct and police brutality...

  • FBI
  • Internal affairs
    Internal affairs (law enforcement)
    The internal affairs division of a law enforcement agency investigates incidents and plausible suspicions of lawbreaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force...

  • Newham Monitoring Project
    Newham Monitoring Project
    Newham Monitoring Project is a grassroots community-based anti-racist organisation in the London Borough of Newham, London, England with a remit to provide support work against racial discrimination and violence, police misconduct and around civil rights issues. It provides advice, support,...


External links

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