Polarization (disambiguation)
Polarization or polarisation can refer to:

In the physical sciences

  • Polarization (waves), the orientation of oscillations in the plane perpendicular to a transverse wave's direction of travel which may include:
    • Polarization (antenna), the orientation of electromagnetic waves from e.g. a radio antenna
  • Dielectric polarization, charge separation in insulating materials:
    • Polarization density
      Polarization density
      In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material. When a dielectric is placed in an external electric field, its molecules gain electric dipole moment and the dielectric is...

      , volume dielectric polarization
    • Dipolar polarization, orientation of permanent dipoles
    • Ionic polarization, displacement of ions in a crystal
    • Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization
      Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization
      In dielectric spectroscopy, large frequency dependent contributions to the dielectric response, especially at low frequencies, may come from build-ups of charge...

      , slow long-distance charge separation in dielectric spectroscopy on inhomogeneous soft matter
    • Polarization (corrosion)
      Polarization (corrosion)
      Polarization in electrochemistry refers to effects counteracting and lowering the efficiency of electrochemical processes. The mechanism is typically depletion of reagents causing concentration gradients in boundary layers or the formation of compounds partly passivating the electrode surfaces and...

      , a change in the equilibrium potential of an electrochemical reaction
  • Spin polarization
    Spin polarization
    Spin polarization is the degree to which the spin, i.e., the intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles, is aligned with a given direction. This property may pertain to the spin, hence to the magnetic moment, of conduction electrons in ferromagnetic metals, such as iron, giving rise to...

    , the degree by which the spin of elementary particles is aligned to a given direction
  • Polarizability
    Polarizability is the measure of the change in a molecule's electron distribution in response to an applied electric field, which can also be induced by electric interactions with solvents or ionic reagents. It is a property of matter...

    , an electrical property of atoms or molecules and a separate magnetic property of subatomic particles
  • Photon polarization
    Photon polarization
    Photon polarization is the quantum mechanical description of the classical polarized sinusoidal plane electromagnetic wave. Individual photons are completely polarized...

    , the mathematical link between wave polarization and spin polarization
  • Vacuum polarization
    Vacuum polarization
    In quantum field theory, and specifically quantum electrodynamics, vacuum polarization describes a process in which a background electromagnetic field produces virtual electron–positron pairs that change the distribution of charges and currents that generated the original electromagnetic...

    , a process in which a background electromagnetic field produces virtual electron-positron pairs
  • Polarity in embryogenesis
    Polarity in embryogenesis
    In developmental biology, a blastula embryo is divided into two hemispheres: the animal pole and the vegetal pole.The animal pole consists of small cells that divide rapidly, in contrast with the vegetal pole below it. The animal pole draws its name from its liveliness relative to the...

    , during development, an embryo has an animal pole and a vegetal pole

In mathematics

  • Polarization of an Abelian variety
    Abelian variety
    In mathematics, particularly in algebraic geometry, complex analysis and number theory, an abelian variety is a projective algebraic variety that is also an algebraic group, i.e., has a group law that can be defined by regular functions...

    , in the mathematics of complex manifolds
  • Polarization of an algebraic form
    Polarization of an algebraic form
    In mathematics, in particular in algebra, polarization is a technique for expressing a homogeneous polynomial in a simpler fashion by adjoining more variables...

    , a technique for expressing a homogeneous polynomial in a simpler fashion by adjoining more variables
  • Polarization identity
    Polarization identity
    In mathematics, the polarization identity is any one of a family of formulas that express the inner product of two vectors in terms of the norm of a normed vector space. Let \|x\| \, denote the norm of vector x and \langle x, \ y \rangle \, the inner product of vectors x and y...

     expresses an inner product in terms of its associated norm

In the social sciences

  • Polarization (politics)
    Polarization (politics)
    In politics, polarization is the process by which the public opinion divides and goes to the extremes. It can also refer to when the extreme factions of a political party gain dominance in a party. In either case moderate voices often lose power and influence as a consequence.-Definitions of...

    , the process by which the public opinion divides and goes to the extremes
  • Polarization (psychology)
    Polarization (psychology)
    In communications and psychology, polarization is the process whereby a social or political group is divided into two opposing sub-groups with fewer and fewer members of the group remaining neutral or holding an intermediate position....

    , the process whereby a social or political group is divided into opposing sub-groups
  • Social polarization
    Social polarization
    Social polarization is associated with the segregation within a society that may emerge from income inequality, real-estate fluctuations, economic displacements etc. and result in such differentiation that would consist of various social groups, from high-income to low-income.One of the earlier...

    • Group polarization
      Group polarization
      In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individual's initial tendency is to be risky and towards greater caution if...

    • Attitude polarization
      Attitude polarization
      Attitude polarization, also known as belief polarization, is a phenomenon in which a disagreement becomes more extreme as the different parties consider evidence on the issue. It is one of the effects of confirmation bias: the tendency of people to search for and interpret evidence selectively, to...

    • Racial polarization
      Racial polarization
      Racial polarization is the process whereby a population, the individuals of which have varying degrees of diversity in their ancestry, is divided into separate, and distinct racial groups.-Bermuda:...

      , the process whereby a population with varyingly diverse ancestry is divided into distinct, homogenous racial groups

See also

  • Polarity (disambiguation)
    Polarity (disambiguation)
    Polarity may refer to:*Chemical polarity, a concept in chemistry which describes how equally bonding electrons are shared between atoms*Electrical polarity*Polarity , a physical alignment of atoms...

  • Polarization, in many disciplines, suggests the tendency to be located close to, or attracted towards, one of the two opposite poles of a continuum
    Continuum (theory)
    Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving a gradual quantitative transition without abrupt changes or discontinuities. It can be contrasted with 'categorical' models which propose qualitatively different states.-In physics:...

  • Polarizer
    A polarizer is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations. It can convert a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam with well-defined polarization. The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular...

    , a device which polarizes light
  • Depolarization
    In biology, depolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential, making it more positive, or less negative. In neurons and some other cells, a large enough depolarization may result in an action potential...

     and hyperpolarization
    Hyperpolarization (biology)
    Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of a depolarization.Hyperpolarization is often caused by efflux of K+ through K+ channels, or influx of Cl– through Cl– channels. On the other hand, influx of cations, e.g...

     of neuronal membrane potentials (in neuroscience).
  • :Category:Polarization, for articles about polarization of light and other electromagnetic waves
  • Polarization in astronomy
    Polarization in astronomy
    Light Polarization is an important phenomenon in astronomy. The polarization of starlight was first observed by the astronomers William Hiltner and John S. Hall in 1949. Subsequently, Jesse Greenstein and Leverett Davis, Jr...

  • Induced polarization
    Induced polarization
    Induced polarization is a geophysical imaging technique used to identify subsurface materials, such as ore. The method is similar to electrical resistivity tomography, in that an electric current is induced into the subsurface through two electrodes, and voltage is monitored through two other...

    , a geophysical imaging technique used to identify subsurface materials
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.