Peabody Trust
Peabody Trust founded in 1862, is one of London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

's oldest and largest housing association
Housing association
Housing associations in the United Kingdom are independent not-for-profit bodies that provide low-cost "social housing" for people in housing need. Any trading surplus is used to maintain existing homes and to help finance new ones...

s with over 19,000 properties. It also a charity
Charitable organization
A charitable organization is a type of non-profit organization . It differs from other types of NPOs in that it centers on philanthropic goals A charitable organization is a type of non-profit organization (NPO). It differs from other types of NPOs in that it centers on philanthropic goals A...

 and urban regeneration agency. The organisation was originally named the Peabody Donation Fund, and now brands itself simply as “Peabody”.


The Trust was founded in 1862 by London-based American banker George Peabody
George Peabody
George Peabody was an American-British entrepreneur and philanthropist who founded the Peabody Trust in Britain and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, and was responsible for many other charitable initiatives.-Biography:...

, who in the 1850s had developed a great affection for London, and determined to make a charitable gift to benefit it. His initial ideas included a system of drinking fountains (comparable to the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association
Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association
The Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association was an association set up in London by Samuel Gurney an MP and philanthropist and Edward Thomas Wakefield, a barrister in 1859 to provide free drinking water...

 scheme actually set up by Samuel Gurney
Samuel Gurney
Samuel Gurney was an English banker and philanthropist.He should not be confused with his second son, Samuel , also described as banker and philanthropist, and a Member of Parliament.-Early years and marriage:...

 and Edward Thomas Wakefield in 1859), or a contribution to the "ragged schools
Ragged school
Ragged Schools were charitable schools dedicated to the free education of destitute children in 19th century England. The schools were developed in working class districts of the rapidly expanding industrial towns...

" of the Earl of Shaftesbury
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury KG , styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851, was an English politician and philanthropist, one of the best-known of the Victorian era and one of the main proponents of Christian Zionism.-Youth:He was born in London and known informally as Lord Ashley...

. In March 1859, however, he settled on establishing a model dwellings company
Model dwellings company
Model Dwellings Companies were a group of private companies in Victorian Britain that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment...

. Three years later, in a letter to The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

 on 26 March 1862, he launched the Peabody Donation Fund, with an initial gift of £150,000. The aim of the organisation, he said, would be to "ameliorate the condition of the poor and needy of this great metropolis, and to promote their comfort and happiness". The paper reported, "We have today to announce an act of beneficence unexampled in its largeness and in the time and manner of the gift". Shortly before his death in 1869, Peabody increased his gift to a munificent £500,000.

The Peabody Trust was later constituted by Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament. In the Republic of Ireland the term Act of the Oireachtas is used, and in the United States the term Act of Congress is used.In Commonwealth countries, the term is used both in a narrow...

, stipulating its objectives to work solely within London for the relief of poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

. This was to be expressed through the provision of model dwellings
Model dwellings company
Model Dwellings Companies were a group of private companies in Victorian Britain that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment...

 for the capital's poor.
The first block, designed by H.A. Darbishire in a red-brick Jacobethan
Jacobethan is the style designation coined in 1933 by John Betjeman to describe the mixed national Renaissance revival style that was made popular in England from the late 1820s, which derived most of its inspiration and its repertory from the English Renaissance , with elements of Elizabethan and...

 style, opened in Commercial Street
Commercial Street
Commercial Street may refer to:* Commercial Street, Leith* Commercial Street, Leeds* Commercial Street * Commercial Street, Bangalore* Commercial Street, Lerwick* Commercial Street...

, Spitalfields
Spitalfields is a former parish in the borough of Tower Hamlets, in the East End of London, near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane. The area straddles Commercial Street and is home to many markets, including the historic Old Spitalfields Market, founded in the 17th century, Sunday...

, on 29 February 1864. It cost £22,000 to build, and contained 57 "dwellings" (i.e. flats
An apartment or flat is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building...

) for the poor, nine shops with accommodation for the shopkeepers, and baths and laundry facilities on the upper floor.. It was followed by blocks in Chelsea
Chelsea, London
Chelsea is an area of West London, England, bounded to the south by the River Thames, where its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour. Its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, which is now in a pipe above...

, Bermondsey
Bermondsey is an area in London on the south bank of the river Thames, and is part of the London Borough of Southwark. To the west lies Southwark, to the east Rotherhithe, and to the south, Walworth and Peckham.-Toponomy:...

, Islington
Islington is a neighbourhood in Greater London, England and forms the central district of the London Borough of Islington. It is a district of Inner London, spanning from Islington High Street to Highbury Fields, encompassing the area around the busy Upper Street...

 and Shadwell
Shadwell is an inner-city district situated within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets located on the north bank of the Thames between Wapping to the south and Ratcliff to the east...

. By 1882 the Trust housed more than 14,600 people in 3,500 dwellings. By 1939 it owned more than 8,000 dwellings.

In its early days, the Trust imposed strict rules to ensure that its tenants were of good moral character. Rents were to be paid weekly and punctually; there was a night-time curfew and a set of moral standards to be adhered to; and the dwellings could not be used for certain trades.

Current Mission

Peabody's current mission is to make London a city of opportunity for all by ensuring as many people as possible have a good home, a real sense of purpose and a strong feeling of belonging.

Peabody defines "a good home" as "a place that is safe, warm, clean, light, well maintained and evokes personal pride"; "a real sense of purpose" as "regular endeavour through work, learning, caring for others, personal development or volunteering"; and "a strong feeling of belonging" as "active involvement in the neighbrouhood and the spirit of togetherness and friendliness that goes with it".

21st Century Peabody

In December 2009, Peabody launched its new vision for social housing communities in the 21st century. The vision was announced alongside regeneration plans for Peabody's estate near Clapham Junction.

Areas of activity

Peabody has four areas of activity:
  • The provision of rented housing for people who are unable to afford to rent or buy in the open market;
  • The provision of supported housing and care for those who need additional support;
  • The provision of low cost home ownership, particularly shared ownership;
  • The delivery of community regeneration activities such as the provision of learning opportunities and access to training and accreditation.

Activate London

Peabody leads Activate London, funded by the Big Lottery Fund
Big Lottery Fund
The Big Lottery Fund is a grant-making non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom created by the Government to administer the funding of "good causes" following the creation of the National Lottery. It has an annual expenditure of £630 million...

, in partnership with Broomleigh Housing, Circle Anglia
Circle Anglia
Circle is one of the largest groups of housing associations in the UK. It provides affordable housing and related services in England, mainly in London, the South East, East Anglia and Birmingham....

, Family Mosaic, Metropolitan Housing, Southern Housing and CBHA.

Activate London promotes mental well-being, physical activity and healthy eating. Over 80 community projects developed to suit a wide range of interests will be launched across London over the course of Activate London programme (2008–2012).

Peabody's Activate London projects include Cockney Sparrow, an initiative to create wildlife havens on Peabody estates, and Elvis' Kitchen, a healthy eating campaign fronted by charismatic Peabody caretaker Elvis Campbell.

Well-being Wagon

As part of Activate London, Peabody operates the Well-being Wagon, a large green van that visits Peabody estates across London offering free health checks and healthy living advice.

Peabody Group

The Peabody Group comprises two housing associations, Peabody and CBHA, and a number of trading companies.

Community-based Housing Association

Community-based Housing Association (CBHA) is a community-based housing association serving the London Borough of Waltham Forest
London Borough of Waltham Forest
The London Borough of Waltham Forest is in northeast London, England. Officially, it forms part of Outer London as it borders Essex. However, it can be seen that the NE London boundary does not extend far compared to elsewhere in the city...

 and surrounding areas. It is the successor landlord to Waltham Forest Housing Action Trust. The organisation owns around 1,600 homes in six areas:
  • Cambridge Road estate, Oatland Rise and Gosport Road estate, Walthamstow
    Walthamstow is a district of northeast London, England, located in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is situated north-east of Charing Cross...

  • Cathall
    Cathall is a housing estate in the Cathall ward, Leytonstone, East London. It is managed by Community-based Housing Association.-History:Cathall estate was built in 1972, consisting of two 20-storey tower blocks and a huge maze of 8-storey flats...

    , Leytonstone
    Leytonstone is an area of east London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is a high density suburban area, located seven miles north east of Charing Cross in the ceremonial county of Greater London and the historic county of Essex...

  • Chingford Hall estate, Chingford
    Chingford is a district of north east London, bordering on Enfield and Edmonton to the west, Woodford to the east, Walthamstow and Stratford to the south and Essex to the north. It is situated northeast of Charing Cross and forms part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest...

  • Oliver Close
    Oliver Close
    Oliver Close Estate is a housing estate in Leyton, London, England. From 1967 to 1996 the estate contained 500 flats in five high-rise buildings...

    , Leyton
    Leyton is an area of north-east London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest, located north east of Charing Cross. It borders Walthamstow and Leytonstone; Stratford in Newham; and Homerton and Lower Clapton in the London Borough of Hackney....


Housing associations borrow money to pay for new homes and improvements. In March 2011, Peabody raised £200 million on a corporate bond
Corporate bond
A corporate bond is a bond issued by a corporation. It is a bond that a corporation issues to raise money in order to expand its business. The term is usually applied to longer-term debt instruments, generally with a maturity date falling at least a year after their issue date...

, at a rate among the best secured by a housing association borrowing in its own name.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.