Park and ride
Overview
 
Park and ride facilities are car parks
Parking lot
A parking lot , also known as car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface....

 with connections to public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 that allow commuters
Commuting
Commuting is regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full time study. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations when not work related.- History :...

 and other people wishing to travel into city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

, rail
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 system (rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

, light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 or commuter rail
Regional rail
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city center, and the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis...

), or carpool
Carpool
Carpooling , is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car....

 for the rest of their trip. The vehicle is stored in the car park during the day and retrieved when the owner returns. Park and rides are generally located in the suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

s of metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

s or on the outer edges of large cities.
Relatively little current research exists on the benefits and disbenefits of Park and Ride schemes.
Park and ride schemes are often marketed as a way to avoid the difficulties and cost of parking within the city centre, but it has also been suggested that there is 'a lack of clear-cut evidence
for park-and-ride’s widely assumed impact in reducing congestion'.

In theory, Park and ride facilities allow commuters to avoid the stress
Stress (medicine)
Stress is a term in psychology and biology, borrowed from physics and engineering and first used in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become commonly used in popular parlance...

 of driving a congested part of their journey and facing scarce, expensive city centre parking.
Encyclopedia
Park and ride facilities are car parks
Parking lot
A parking lot , also known as car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface....

 with connections to public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 that allow commuters
Commuting
Commuting is regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full time study. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations when not work related.- History :...

 and other people wishing to travel into city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

, rail
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 system (rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

, light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 or commuter rail
Regional rail
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city center, and the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis...

), or carpool
Carpool
Carpooling , is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car....

 for the rest of their trip. The vehicle is stored in the car park during the day and retrieved when the owner returns. Park and rides are generally located in the suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

s of metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

s or on the outer edges of large cities.

Benefits & Criticism

Relatively little current research exists on the benefits and disbenefits of Park and Ride schemes.
Park and ride schemes are often marketed as a way to avoid the difficulties and cost of parking within the city centre, but it has also been suggested that there is 'a lack of clear-cut evidence
for park-and-ride’s widely assumed impact in reducing congestion'.

In theory, Park and ride facilities allow commuters to avoid the stress
Stress (medicine)
Stress is a term in psychology and biology, borrowed from physics and engineering and first used in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become commonly used in popular parlance...

 of driving a congested part of their journey and facing scarce, expensive city centre parking. They are meant to avoid congestion by encouraging people to use public transport as opposed to their own personal vehicles. They do so by making it easier for people to use public transport in an urban area with traffic congestion
Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

, and often to reduce the availability of car parks to encourage this behaviour.

Park and ride facilities may suit commuters with alternative fuel vehicle
Alternative fuel vehicle
An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than "traditional" petroleum fuels ; and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum...

s, which often have reduced range, since the facility may be closer to home than the ultimate destination. They also are useful as a fixed meeting place for those carsharing
Carsharing
Car sharing or Carsharing is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour. They are attractive to customers who make only occasional use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like occasional access to a vehicle of a different type than they use...

 or carpooling or using kiss and ride (see below). Also, some transit operators use park and ride facilities to encourage more efficient driving practices by reserving parking spaces for low emission designs, high occupancy vehicles
High-occupancy vehicle lane
In transportation engineering and transportation planning, a high-occupancy vehicle lane is a lane reserved for vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers...

, or carsharing.

Most facilities provide services such as passenger waiting areas and toilets. Travel information
Public transport timetable
A public transport timetable is a representation of public transport information to assist a passenger with planning a trip using public transport. A timetable details when vehicle will arrive and depart specified locations and may be organised for by route or for a particular stop...

, such as leaflets and posters, may be provided. At larger facilities, extra services such as a travel office, food shop, car wash
Car wash
A car wash or auto wash is a facility used to clean the exterior and, in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles.- Categories :...

, cafeteria
Cafeteria
A cafeteria is a type of food service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen...

, other shops and services may be provided. These are often encouraged by municipal operators to improve the attraction of using park and ride.

However, research undertaken in the United Kingdom suggests that the impact upon congestion may be limited. Looking at both the UK policy background and evidence from an award-winning scheme in Cambridge, Jonathan Manns notes 'an Hellerian ‘Catch-22’ situation, whereby the survival of local politicians is dependent upon its continuation, irrespective of its actual successes'. In Cambridge it is suggested that 'there does not appear to be evidence of an overall drop in vehicle
flow within the city' and thus that 'while cars parked at the park-and-ride sites are themselves no longer contributing towards the congestion externality, traffic flows are being generated elsewhere – for example, flow between car parks and homes from locals at whom the park-and-ride was not targeted but who nevertheless are attempting to commute to the service. This is significant in that while certain cars are removed from the flow, new flows are stimulated net of other individuals, thereby significantly negating the overall impact of the service'.

In Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, a tax has been introduced on the benefit of free or cheap parking paid by an employer, in situations in which workers would otherwise have to pay. This tax has reduced the number of workers driving into the inner city, and increased the usage of park and ride areas, especially in Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

. The introduction of a congestion tax
Stockholm congestion tax
The Stockholm congestion tax , also found referred to as the Stockholm congestion charge, is a congestion pricing system implemented as a tax levied on most vehicles entering and exiting central Stockholm, Sweden...

 in Stockholm has further increased the usage of park and ride.

In Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, capital of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, P+R car parks are established near some of metro stations and railway stations (ca 17 parks near 12 metro stations and 3 train stations, in 2011). These parkings offers low prices and all-day and return (2× 75 min) tickets with integrated fare for public transport system.

Bus park and rides

Park and ride facilities, with dedicated car parks and bus services, began in the 1960s in the UK. Oxford
Oxford
The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

 operated the first such scheme, initially with an experimental service operating part-time from a motel on the A34 in the 1960s and then on a full-time basis from 1973. Better Choice Parking
Better Choice Parking
BCP is one of the largest independent airport car parking companies in the UK , also offering parking at Dover and Southampton ports . BCP also sells pre-bookable central London parking .-History of BCP:...

 first offered an airport park and ride service at London Gatwick Airport
London Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport is located 3.1 miles north of the centre of Crawley, West Sussex, and south of Central London. Previously known as London Gatwick,In 2010, the name changed from London Gatwick Airport to Gatwick Airport...

 in 1978. Oxford now operates park and ride from 5 dedicated car parks around the city. As of 2005, Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

 has the biggest park and ride in the UK, operating from six separate sites around the city.

Railway park and rides

Some railway stations are promoted as a park and ride facility for a distant town, for instance for Looe
Looe
Looe is a small coastal town, fishing port and civil parish in the former Caradon district of south-east Cornwall, England, with a population of 5,280 . Looe is divided in two by the River Looe, East Looe and West Looe being connected by a bridge...

 and for St Ives
St Ives, Cornwall
St Ives is a seaside town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The town lies north of Penzance and west of Camborne on the coast of the Celtic Sea. In former times it was commercially dependent on fishing. The decline in fishing, however, caused a shift in commercial...

, both in Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of , and covers an area of...

, England. These train services are generally less frequent than those of a park and ride bus service. Stations in the UK that are situated outside the main urban area are often suffixed with "parkway", such as , , and . At and , the stations are located to serve air as well as road passengers.

In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, it is common for outlying rail stations to include automobile parking, often hundreds of spaces. Boston, for example, has built several large parking facilities at its commuter rail and metro station
Metro station
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, often known by names such as "metro", "underground" and "subway". It is often underground or elevated. At crossings of metro lines, they are multi-level....

s near major highways and large arterial surface roads
Arterial road
An arterial road, or arterial thoroughfare, is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways, and between urban centres at the highest level of service possible. As such, many arteries are limited-access roads, or feature...

 around the periphery of the city: Alewife
Alewife (MBTA station)
Alewife, located at the intersection of Alewife Brook Parkway and Cambridgepark West in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a local intermodal transportation hub. It is the northern terminus of the MBTA's Red Line, and a bus terminal for several local routes and one intercity route. It opened in 1985.The...

, Braintree
Braintree (MBTA station)
Braintree, located at Ivory and Union Streets in Braintree, Massachusetts, is the southernmost station on the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's Red Line. It also is a stop on the MBTA Commuter Rail Old Colony Lines...

, Forest Hills
Forest Hills (MBTA station)
Forest Hills Station is a station on the MBTA Orange Line, located in Forest Hills in the southern part of the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts at the intersections of Washington Street, Hyde Park Avenue, South Street, The Arborway and Morton Street.Forest Hills is the southern...

, Hyde Park
Hyde Park (MBTA station)
Hyde Park is a station along the MBTA Commuter Rail's Providence/Stoughton line from T. F. Green Airport, Rhode Island to Boston, Massachusetts and the Franklin Line...

, Quincy Adams
Quincy Adams (MBTA station)
Quincy Adams Station, located at Burgin Parkway and Centre Street, in Quincy, Massachusetts, is the next to last station on the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's Red Line Braintree branch....

, Riverside
Riverside (MBTA station)
Riverside is the western terminus of the MBTA Green Line "D" Branch light rail line. It is located at 333 Grove Street, off Exit 22 on Interstate 95 , in Auburndale, a village of Newton, Massachusetts. Scheduled travel time to Park Street is 46 minutes. Riverside includes a parking...

, Route 128
Route 128 (MBTA station)
Route 128 is a station on the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Providence/Stoughton MBTA Commuter Rail line, with inbound service to Back Bay and South Station in Boston and outbound service towards either Stoughton or TF Green Airport. It is also known as "University Park" station...

, Wellington
Wellington (MBTA station)
Wellington is a MBTA station on the Orange Line, located in Medford, Massachusetts, USA on the Revere Beach Parkway slightly east of its intersection with Route 28....

, Woburn
Anderson Regional Transportation Center
Anderson Regional Transportation Center is a train and bus station located at 100 Atlantic Ave., off Commerce Way in Woburn, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston. It can be accessed from Exit 37C off Interstate 93 or the Washington Street exit off Interstate 95/Route 128. It opened on April 28, 2001,...

. The local transit operator, the MBTA
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, often referred to as the MBTA or simply The T, is the public operator of most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Officially a "body politic and corporate, and a political subdivision" of the...

, offers almost 46,000 park and ride spaces.

Bike and ride

B & R (B + R) is a name for using cycle boxes near public transport terminals, mostly together with P & R car parks. This system can be promoted through integrated fare and tickets with public transport system.

Kiss and ride

Many railway stations and airports feature an area in which cars can discharge and pick up passengers. These "kiss and ride" facilities allow drivers to stop and park temporarily, instead of the longer-term parking associated with park and ride facilities.

Some high-speed railway
Taiwan High Speed Rail
Taiwan High Speed Rail is a high-speed rail line that runs approximately along the west coast of the Republic of China from the national capital of Taipei to the southern city of Kaohsiung...

 stations in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 have signs outside stations reading Kiss and Ride in English, with Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

 characters above the words that read "temporary pick up and drop off zone". Most people in Taiwan have no idea what the colloquialism
Colloquialism
A colloquialism is a word or phrase that is common in everyday, unconstrained conversation rather than in formal speech, academic writing, or paralinguistics. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier...

 means.

Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 has announced that it will be changing the English expressions for Kiss and Ride, Service Points and Counters to German ones.

The term first appeared in a January 20, 1956, Associated Press
Associated Press
The Associated Press is an American news agency. The AP is a cooperative owned by its contributing newspapers, radio and television stations in the United States, which both contribute stories to the AP and use material written by its staff journalists...

 report published in the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It was the second-largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008 and the fourth most widely distributed newspaper in the country....

.

Car-share park and rides

Park and ride schemes do not necessarily involve public transport. They can be provided to reduce the number of cars on the road by promoting carpool
Carpool
Carpooling , is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car....

ing and carsharing
Carsharing
Car sharing or Carsharing is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour. They are attractive to customers who make only occasional use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like occasional access to a vehicle of a different type than they use...

. Partly because of the concentration of risers, and thus a reduced number of vehicles, these park and ride terminals often have express transit services into the urban area, such as a high-occupancy vehicle lane
High-occupancy vehicle lane
In transportation engineering and transportation planning, a high-occupancy vehicle lane is a lane reserved for vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers...

. The service may only take passengers in one direction in the morning (typically toward a central business district
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

) and in the opposite direction in the evening, with no or a limited number of trips available in the middle of the day. It is often not allowed to park at these locations overnight. Overall, these attributes vary from region to region.

See also

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK