by William Shakespeare
, believed to have been written in approximately 1603, and based on the Italian short story "Un Capitano Moro" ("A Moorish Captain") by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in 1565. The work revolves around four central characters: Othello
, a Moorish
general in the Venetian army; his wife Desdemona
; his lieutenant, Cassio
; and his trusted ensign
Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,But seeming so, for my peculiar end:For when my outward action doth demonstrateThe native act and figure of my heartIn compliment extern, 'tis not long afterBut I will wear my heart upon my sleeveFor daws to peck at: I am not what I am.
Even now, now, very now, an old black ramIs tupping your white ewe.
Your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs.
Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them.
My story being done,She gave me for my pains a world of sighs:She swore, in faith, 'twas strange, 'twas passing strange; 'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful.
She lov'd me for the dangers I had pass'd,And I lov'd her that she did pity them.
The robb'd that smiles, steals something from the thief; He robs himself that spends a bootless grief.
Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:She has deceived her father, and may thee.
Thus do I ever make my fool my purse.
I hate the Moor;And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my sheetsHe has done my office: I know not if 't be true;But I, for mere suspicion in that kind, will do as if for surety.
by William Shakespeare
, believed to have been written in approximately 1603, and based on the Italian short story "Un Capitano Moro" ("A Moorish Captain") by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in 1565. The work revolves around four central characters: Othello
, a Moorish
general in the Venetian army; his wife Desdemona
; his lieutenant, Cassio
; and his trusted ensign
. Because of its varied and current themes of racism, love, jealousy, and betrayal, Othello is still often performed in professional and community theatres alike and has been the basis for numerous operatic, film, and literary adaptations.
- OthelloOthello (character)Othello is a character in Shakespeare's Othello . The character's origin is traced to the tale, "Un Capitano Moro" in Gli Hecatommithi by Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio. There, he is simply referred to as the Moor....
, the Moor: A general in the Venetian military.
- DesdemonaDesdemona (Othello)Desdemona is a character in William Shakespeare's play Othello . Shakespeare's Desdemona is a Venetian beauty who enrages and disappoints her father, a Venetian senator, when she elopes with Othello, a man several years her senior. When her husband is deployed to Cyprus in the service of the...
, Othello's wife and daughter of Brabantio
- IagoIagoIago is a fictional character in Shakespeare's Othello . The character's source is traced to Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio's tale "Un Capitano Moro" in Gli Hecatommithi . There, the character is simply "the ensign". Iago is a soldier and Othello's ancient . He is the husband of Emilia,...
, Othello's ensign and Emilia's husband, a villain. He hides his real nature under the veil of 'honesty'.
- EmiliaEmilia (Othello)Emilia is a character in the tragedy Othello by William Shakespeare. The character's origin is traced to the 1565 tale, "Un capitano Moro" from Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio's Gli Hecatommithi. There, the character is described as young and virtuous, is referred to simply as the ensign's wife,...
, Iago's wife and Desdemona's maidservant
- CassioMichael CassioMichael Cassio, or simply Cassio, is a fictional character in William Shakespeare's Othello. The source of the character is the 1565 tale "Un Capitano Moro" by Cinthio; Cassio is unnamed in Cinthio but referred to as "the squadron leader." In the play, Cassio is a young and handsome lieutenant...
, Othello's lieutenant.
- BiancaBianca (Othello)Bianca is a fictional character in William Shakespeare's Othello . She is Cassio's jealous lover. Despite her brief appearance on stage, Bianca plays a significant role in the progress of Iago's scheme to incite Othello's jealousy of Cassio. Bianca is traditionally regarded as a courtesan,...
, Cassio's lover
- BrabantioBrabantioBrabantio is a character in William Shakespeare's Othello . He is a Venetian senator and the father of Desdemona. He has entertained Othello is his home countless times before the play opens, thus giving Othello and Desdemona opportunity to fall in love...
, a Venetian senator, Gratiano's brother, and Desdemona's father
- RoderigoRoderigoRoderigo is a fictional character in Shakespeare's Othello . He is a dissolute Venetian lusting after Othello's wife Desdemona. Roderigo has opened his purse to Iago in the mistaken belief that Iago is using his money to pave the way to Desdemona's bed...
, a dissolute Venetian, in love with Desdemona
- Duke of Venice, or the "DogeDoge of VeniceThe Doge of Venice , often mistranslated Duke was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for over a thousand years. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy. Commonly the person selected as Doge was the shrewdest elder in the city...
- Gratiano, Brabantio's brother
- Lodovico, Brabantio's kinsman and Desdemona's cousin
- Montano, Othello's Venetian predecessor in the government of Cyprus
- Clown, a servant
- Officers, Gentlemen, Messenger, Herald, Sailor, Attendants, Musicians, etc.
, the daughter of a Senator named Brabantio
, and Othello
, a Moorish general in the Venetian army. He is upset by this development because he loves Desdemona and had previously asked her father for her hand in marriage. Iago is upset with Othello for promoting a younger man named Cassio
above him, and tells Roderigo that he plans to use Othello for his own advantage. Iago is also upset because he believes that Othello slept with his wife Emilia. Iago's argument against Cassio is that he is a scholarly tactician with no real battle experience from which he can draw strategy; in contrast, Iago has practical battle skills. By emphasizing Roderigo's failed bid for Desdemona, and his own dissatisfaction with serving under Othello, Iago convinces Roderigo to wake Brabantio, Desdemona's father, and tell him about his daughter's elopement. Iago sneaks away to find Othello and warns him that Brabantio is coming for him.
Before Brabantio reaches Othello, news arrives in Venice that the Turks are going to attack Cyprus; therefore Othello is summoned to advise the senators. Brabantio arrives and accuses Othello of seducing Desdemona by witchcraft, but Othello defends himself successfully before an assembly that includes the Duke of Venice, Brabantio's kinsman Lodovico and Gratiano, and various senators. He explains that Desdemona became enamored of him for the stories he told of his early life, not because of any witchcraft he might have used. The senate is satisfied, but the broken Brabantio leaves saying that Desdemona will betray Othello. By order of the Duke, Othello leaves Venice to command the Venetian armies against invading Turks on the island of Cyprus
, accompanied by his new wife, his new lieutenant Cassio, his ensign Iago, and Emilia as Desdemona's attendant.
The party arrives in Cyprus to find that a storm has destroyed the Turkish fleet. Othello orders a general celebration. Iago schemes to use Cassio to ruin Othello and takes the opportunity of Othello's absence at the celebration to persuade Roderigo to engage Cassio in a fight. He achieves this by getting Cassio drunk on wine after Cassio's own admission that he cannot hold his drink. The brawl greatly alarms the citizenry, and Othello is forced to quell the disturbance. Othello blames Cassio for the disturbance, and the former strips the latter of his rank. Cassio is distraught, but Iago persuades him to importune Desdemona to act as an intermediary between himself and Othello, and persuade her husband to reinstate him.
Iago now persuades Othello to be suspicious of Cassio and Desdemona. As it happens, Cassio is having a relationship of sorts with Bianca, a prostitute. Desdemona drops the handkerchief
that was Othello's first gift to Desdemona and which he has stated holds great significance to him in the context of their relationship. Emilia, at the request of Iago, but unaware of what he plans to do with the handkerchief, steals it. Iago plants it in Cassio's lodgings as evidence of Cassio and Desdemona's affair. After he has planted the handkerchief, Iago tells Othello to stand apart and watch Cassio's reactions while Iago questions him about the handkerchief. Iago goads Cassio on to talk about his affair with Bianca, but speaks her name so quietly that Othello believes the two other men are talking about Desdemona when Cassio is really speaking of Bianca. Bianca, on discovering the handkerchief, chastises Cassio, accusing him of giving her a second-hand gift which he received from another lover. Othello sees this, and Iago convinces him that Cassio received the handkerchief from Desdemona. Enraged and hurt, Othello resolves to kill his wife and Iago is "asked" to kill Cassio as a duty to their intimacy. Othello proceeds to make Desdemona's life a misery, hitting her in front of her family. Desdemona laments her suffering, remembering the fate of her mother's maid, who was forsaken by her lover.
Roderigo complains that he has received nothing for his efforts and threatens to abandon his pursuit of Desdemona, but Iago convinces him to kill Cassio instead, because Cassio has just been appointed in Othello's place as governor of Cyprus, and—Iago argues—if Cassio lives to take office, Othello and Desdemona will leave Cyprus, thwarting Roderigo's plans to win Desdemona. Roderigo attacks Cassio in the street after Cassio leaves Bianca's lodgings. They fight and both are wounded. Cassio's leg is cut from behind by Iago who manages to hide his identity as perpetrator. Passers-by arrive to help; Iago joins them, pretending to help Cassio. When Cassio identifies Roderigo as one of his attackers, Iago secretly stabs Roderigo to stop him from confessing. He then accuses Bianca of the failed conspiracy to kill Cassio.
In the night, Othello confronts Desdemona, and then smothers her to death in bed, before Emilia arrives. Othello tries to justify his actions to the distressed Emilia by accusing Desdemona of adultery. Emilia calls for help. The Governor arrives, with Iago, Cassio, and others, and Emilia begins to explain the situation. When Othello mentions the handkerchief as proof, Emilia realizes what Iago has done. She exposes him, whereupon Iago kills her. Othello, realizing Desdemona's innocence, attacks Iago but does not kill him, saying that he would rather have Iago live the rest of his life in pain. Lodovico, a Venetian nobleman, apprehends both Iago and Othello, but Othello commits suicide with a sword before they can take him into custody. At the end, it can be assumed, Iago is taken off to be tortured, and Cassio becomes governor of Cyprus.
Cinthio sourceOthello is an adaptation of the Italian writer Cinthio
's tale "Un Capitano Moro" ("A Moorish Captain") from his Gli Hecatommithi (1565), a collection of one hundred tales in the style of Boccaccio's Decameron. No English translation of Cinthio was available in Shakespeare's lifetime, and verbal echoes in Othello are closer to the Italian original than to Gabriel Chappuy's 1584 French translation. Cinthio's tale may have been based on an actual incident occurring in Venice about 1508.Shakespeare, William. Four Tragedies: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth. Bantam Books, 1988. It also resembles an incident described in the earlier tale of "The Three Apples", one of the stories narrated in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights). Desdemona is the only named character in Cinthio's tale, with his few other characters identified only as "the Moor
" (Othello), "the squadron leader" (Cassio), "the ensign" (Iago), and "the ensign's wife" (Emilia). Cinthio drew a moral (which he placed in the mouth of Desdemona) that European women are unwise to marry the temperamental males of other nations.
Cinthio's Moor is the model for Shakespeare's Othello, but some researchers believe the poet also took inspiration from the several Moorish delegations from Morocco
to Elizabethan England circa 1600. While Shakespeare closely followed Cinthio's tale in composing Othello, he departed from it in some details. Brabantio, Roderigo, and several minor characters are not found in Cinthio, for example, and Shakespeare's Emilia takes part in the handkerchief mischief while her counterpart in Cinthio does not. Unlike in Othello, in Cinthio, Iago lusts after Desdemona and is spurred to revenge when she rejects him. Shakespeare's opening scenes are unique to his tragedy as is the tender scene between Emilia and Desdemona as the lady prepares for bed. Shakespeare's most striking departure from Cinthio is the manner of his heroine's death. In Shakespeare, Othello suffocates Desdemona, but in Cinthio, Othello commissions Iago to bludgeon his wife to death with a sand-filled stocking. Cinthio describes each gruesome blow, and, when the lady is dead, Iago and Othello place her lifeless body upon her bed, smash her skull, and cause the cracked ceiling above the bed to collapse upon her, giving the impression its falling rafters caused her death. In Cinthio, the two murderers escape detection. Othello then misses Desdemona greatly, and comes to loathe the sight of Iago. He demotes him, and refuses to have him in his company. Iago then seeks revenge by disclosing to Cassio Othello's involvement in Desdemona's death. The two depart Cyprus for Venice, and denounce Othello to the Venetian Seignory; he is arrested, taken to Venice, and tortured. He refuses to admit his guilt and is condemned to exile. Desdemona's relatives eventually find and kill him. Iago, however, continues to escape detection in Desdemona's death, but engages in other crimes while in Venice. He is arrested and dies after being tortured. Cinthio's "ensign's wife", Emilia, survives her husband's death to tell her story.
Cinthio's tale has been described as a "partly-racist warning" about the dangers of miscegenation
. While supplying the source of the plot, the book offered nothing of the sense of place
of Venice or Cyprus. For knowledge of this Shakespeare would have used Gasparo Contarini
's The Commonwealth and Government of Venice, in Lewis Lewkenor's 1599 translation.
Date and text
att Whit Hall
Called The Moor of Venis." The work is attributed to "Shaxberd." The Revels account was first printed by Peter Cunningham in 1842, and, while its authenticity was once challenged, is now regarded as genuine (as authenticated by A. E. Stamp in 1930). Based on its style, the play is usually dated 1603 or 1604, but arguments have been made for dates as early as 1601 or 1602.
The play was entered into the Register
of the Stationers Company
on 6 October 1621, by Thomas Walkley
, and was first published in quarto
format by him in 1622: "Tragœdy of Othello, The Moore of Venice. As it hath beene diuerse times acted at the Globe, and at the Black-Friers, by his Maiesties Seruants. Written by William Shakespeare. London. Printed by N. O. [Nicholas Okes] for Thomas Walkley, and are to be sold at his shop, at the Eagle and Child, in Brittans Bursse, 1622."
One year later, the play was included among the plays in the First Folio
of Shakespeare's collected plays. However, the version in the Folio is rather different in length, and in wording: as the editors of the Folger edition explain: "The Folio play has about 160 lines that do not appear in the Quarto. Some of these cluster together in quite extensive passages. The Folio also lacks a scattering of about a dozen lines or part-lines that are to be found in the Quarto. These two versions also differ from each other in their readings of numerous words. Scholars differ in their explanation of these differences, and no consensus has emerged. One explanation is that the Quarto may have been cut in the printing house to meet a fixed number of pages. Another is that the Quarto is based on an early version of the play, while the Folio represents Shakespeare's revised version. Most modern editions are based on the longer Folio version, but often incorporate Quarto readings of words when the Folio text appears to be in error. Quartos were also published in 1630, 1655, 1681, 1695, 1699 and 1705.
's race. E.A.J. Honigmann
, the editor of the Arden Shakespeare
edition, concluded that Othello's race is ambiguous. "Renaissance representations of the Moor were vague, varied, inconsistent, and contradictory. As critics have established, the term 'Moor' referred to dark-skinned people in general, used interchangeably with similarly ambiguous terms as 'African', 'Ethiopian', 'Negro', and even 'Indian' to designate a figure from Africa (or beyond)." Various uses of the word 'black' (for example, "Haply for I am black") are insufficient evidence for any accurate racial classification, Honigmann argues, since 'black' could simply mean 'swarthy' to Elizabethans. Iago twice uses the word 'Barbary' or 'Barbarian' to refer to Othello, seemingly referring to the Barbary coast inhabited by the "tawny" Moors. Roderigo calls Othello 'the thicklips', which seems to refer to European conceptions of Sub-Saharan African physiognomy, but Honigmann counters that, as these comments are all intended as insults by the characters, they need not be taken literally.
Michael Neill, editor of the Oxford Shakespeare edition, notes that the earliest critical references to Othello's colour, (Thomas Rymer
's 1693 critique of the play, and the 1709 engraving in Nicholas Rowe
's edition of Shakespeare), assume him to be Sub-Saharan, while the earliest known North African interpretation was not until Edmund Kean
's production of 1814. Honigmann discusses the view that Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun
, Moorish ambassador of the Arab King of Barbary to Queen Elizabeth I
in 1600, was one inspiration for Othello. He stayed with his retinue in London for several months and occasioned much discussion. While Shakespeare's play was written only a few years afterwards Honigman questions the view that ben Messaoud himself was a significant influence on it.
Othello is referred to as a “Barbary horse” (1.1.113) and a “lascivious Moor” (1.1.127). In III.III he denounces Desdemona's supposed sin as being "black as mine own face." Desdemona's physical whiteness is otherwise presented in opposition to Othello's dark skin; V.II "that whiter skin of hers than snow." Iago tells Brabantio that "an old black ram / is tupping your white ewe" (1.1.88). In Elizabethan discourse, the word "black" could suggest various concepts that extended beyond the physical colour of skin, including a wide range of negative connotations.
Othello was frequently performed as an Arab Moor during the 19th century. He was first played by a black man on the London stage in 1833, by Ira Aldridge
. However, the first major screen production casting a black actor as Othello would not come until 1995 with Laurence Fishburne
opposite Kenneth Branagh
's Iago. In the past, Othello would often have been portrayed by a white actor in blackface
or in a black mask; more recent actors who chose to ‘blacken up’ include Ralph Richardson
(1937), John Gielgud
(1961), Laurence Olivier
(1964), Anthony Hopkins
(1981) and Orson Welles
.Cartmell, Deborah (2000) Interpreting Shakespeare on screen Palgrave MacMillan pp72-77 ISBN 978-0-312-23393-8 Ground-breaking black American actor Paul Robeson
played the role from 1930–1959. The casting of the role comes with a political subtext. Patrick Stewart
played the role in the Royal Shakespeare Company
's 1997 staging of the play and Thomas Thieme, also white, played Othello in a 2007 Munich Kammerspiele
staging at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre
. Michael Gambon
also took the role in 1980 and 1991; their performances critically acclaimed."Black or white? Casting can be a grey area" Guardian article. 5 April 2007"Othello (Theatre review) The Guardian Friday 28 April 2006
Iago / OthelloAlthough eponymously
titled, suggesting that the tragedy belongs primarily to Othello, Iago plays an important role in the plot he reflects the archetypal villain, and has the biggest share of the dialogue. In Othello, it is Iago who manipulates all other characters at will, controlling their movements and trapping them in an intricate net of lies. He achieves this by getting close to all characters and playing on their weaknesses while they refer to him as "honest" Iago, thus furthering his control over the characters . A. C. Bradley, and more recently Harold Bloom
, have been major advocates of this interpretation. Other critics, most notably in the later twentieth century (after F. R. Leavis
), have focused on Othello. Apart from the common question of jealousy, some argue that his honour
is his undoing, while others address the hints of instability in his person (in Act IV Scene I, for example, he falls 'into a trance').
OtheringAs the Protestant Reformation of England highlighted the importance of pious, controlled behaviour in society; it was the tendency of the contemporary Englishman to displace society's undesirable qualities of barbarism, treachery, jealousy and libidinousness onto those who are considered 'other'. The assumed characteristics of black men, or 'the other', were both instigated and popularised by Renaissance dramas of the time; for example, the treachery of black men inherent to George Peele's 'The Battle of Alcazar' (1588)
The heroThere have been many differing views on the character of Othello over the years. They span from describing Othello as a hero to describing him as an egotistical fool. A.C Bradley calls Othello the "most romantic of all of Shakespeare's heroes" and "the greatest poet of them all". On the other hand, F.R. Leavis describes Othello as "egotistical". There are those who also take a less critical approach to the character of Othello such as William Hazlitt
saying that "the nature of the Moor is noble... but his blood is of the most inflammable kind".
Pre-20th centuryOthello possesses an unusually detailed performance record. The first certainly known performance occurred on 1 November 1604, at Whitehall Palace in London, being mentioned in a Revels account on "Hallamas Day, being the first of Nouembar", 1604, when "the Kings Maiesties plaiers" performed "A Play in the Banketinge house at Whit Hall Called The Moor of Venis." The play is there attributed to "Shaxberd". Subsequent performances took place on Monday, 30 April 1610 at the Globe Theatre
, and at Oxford in September 1610. On 22 November 1629, and on 6 May 1635, it played at the Blackfriars Theatre
. Othello was also one of the twenty plays performed by the King's Men
during the winter of 1612, in celebration of the wedding of Princess Elizabeth
and Frederick V, Elector Palatine
At the start of the Restoration
era, on 11 October 1660, Samuel Pepys
saw the play at the Cockpit Theatre
. Nicholas Burt
played the lead, with Charles Hart
as Cassio; Walter Clun
won fame for his Iago. Soon after, on 8 December 1660, Thomas Killigrew
's new King's Company
acted the play at their Vere Street theatre, with Margaret Hughes
as Desdemona – probably the first time a professional actress appeared on a public stage in England.
It may be one index of the play's power that Othello was one of the very few Shakespearean plays that was never adapted and changed during the Restoration and the eighteenth century.
As Shakespeare regained popularity among nineteenth-century French Romantics, poet, playwright, and novelist Alfred de Vigny
created a French translation of Othello, titled Le More de Venise, which premiered at the Comédie-Française
on 24 October 1829.
Famous nineteenth century Othellos included Edmund Kean
, Edwin Forrest
, Ira Aldridge
, and Tommaso Salvini
, and outstanding Iagos were Edwin Booth
and Henry Irving
20th centuryThe most notable American production may be Margaret Webster
's 1943 staging starring Paul Robeson
as Othello and Jose Ferrer
as Iago. This production was the first ever in America to feature a black actor playing Othello with an otherwise all-white cast (there had been all-black productions of the play before). It ran for 296 performances, almost twice as long as any other Shakespearean play ever produced on Broadway. Although it was never filmed, it was the first nearly complete performance of a Shakespeare play released on records. Robeson had first played the role in London in 1931 opposite a cast that included Peggy Ashcroft
as Desdemona and Ralph Richardson
as Roderigo, and would return to it in 1959 at Stratford on Avon with co-stars Mary Ure
, Sam Wanamaker
and Vanessa Redgrave
. The critics had mixed reactions to the "flashy" 1959 production which included mid western accents and rock-and roll drumbeats but gave Robeson primarily good reviews. W.A. Darlington of The Daily Telegraph
ranked Robeson's Othello as the best he'd ever seen while the Daily Express
, which had for years prior published consistently scathing articles about him for his leftist views, praised his "strong and stately" performance (though in turn suggested it was a "triumph of presence not acting").
Actors have alternated the roles of Iago and Othello in productions to stir audience interest since the nineteenth century. Two of the most notable examples of this role swap were William Charles Macready
and Samuel Phelps
at Drury Lane
(1837) and Richard Burton
and John Neville at the Old Vic Theatre (1955). When Edwin Booth
's tour of England in 1880 was not well attended, Henry Irving
invited Booth to alternate the roles of Othello and Iago with him in London. The stunt renewed interest in Booth's tour. James O'Neill
also alternated the roles of Othello and Iago with Booth.
The American actor William Marshall
performed the title role in at least six productions. His Othello was called by Harold Hobson
of the London Sunday Times "the best Othello of our time," continuing: "...nobler than Tearle
, more martial than Gielgud
, more poetic than Valk
. From his first entry, slender and magnificently tall, framed in a high Byzantine arch, clad in white samite, mystic, wonderful, a figure of Arabian romance and grace, to his last plunging of the knife into his stomach, Mr Marshall rode without faltering the play's enormous rhetoric, and at the end the house rose to him." Marshall also played Othello in a jazz musical version, Catch My Soul, with Jerry Lee Lewis
, in Los Angeles in 1968. His Othello was captured on record in 1964 with Jay Robinson
as Iago and on video in 1981 with Ron Moody
as Iago. The 1982 Broadway staging starred James Earl Jones
as Othello and Christopher Plummer
as Iago, who became the only actor to receive a Tony Award
nomination for a performance in the play.
gave his acclaimed performance of Othello at the Royal National Theatre
in 1964, he had developed a case of stage fright that was so profound that when he was alone onstage, Frank Finlay
(who was playing Iago) would have to stand offstage where Olivier could see him to settle his nerves. This performance was recorded complete on LP, and filmed by popular demand in 1965 (according to a biography of Olivier, tickets for the stage production were notoriously hard to get). The film version
still holds the record for the most Oscar nominations for acting ever given to a Shakespeare film – Olivier, Finlay, Maggie Smith
(as Desdemona) and Joyce Redman
(as Emilia, Iago's wife) were all nominated for Academy Awards
. Olivier was among the last white actors to be greatly acclaimed as Othello, although the role continued to be played by such performers as Paul Scofield
at the Royal National Theatre
in 1980, Anthony Hopkins
in the BBC Shakespeare television production on videotape. (1981), and Michael Gambon
in a stage production at Scarborough directed by Alan Ayckbourn
in 1990. Gambon had been in Olivier's earlier production. In an interview Gambon commented "I wasn't even the second gentleman in that. I didn't have any lines at all. I was at the back like that, standing for an hour. [It's] what I used to do – I had a metal helmet, I had an earplug, and we used to listen to The Archers
. No one knew. All the line used to listen to The Archers. And then I went and played Othello myself at Birmingham Rep
I was 27. Olivier sent me a telegram on the first night. He said, "Copy me." He said, "Do what I used to do." Olivier used to lower his voice for Othello so I did mine. He used to paint the big negro lips on. You couldn't do it today, you'd get shot. He had the complete negro face. And the hips. I did all that. I copied him exactly. Except I had a pony tail. I played him as an Arab. I stuck a pony tail on with a bell on the end of it. I thought that would be nice. Every time I moved my hair went wild." British blacking-up for Othello ended with Gambon in 1990, however the Royal Shakespeare Company
didn't run the play at all on the main Stratford stage until 1999, when Ray Fearon
became the first black British actor to take the part, the first black man to play Othello with the RSC since Robeson.
In 1997, Patrick Stewart
took the role of Othello with the Shakespeare Theatre Company
(Washington, D.C.) in a race-bending performance, in a "photo negative" production of a white Othello with an otherwise all-black cast. Stewart had wanted to play the title role since the age of 14, so he and director Jude Kelly
inverted the play so Othello became a comment on a white man entering a black society. The interpretation of the role is broadening, with theatre companies casting Othello as a woman or inverting the gender of the whole cast to explore gender questions in Shakespeare's text. Companies also have chosen to share the role between several actors during a performance.
21st centuryOthello opened at the Donmar Warehouse
in London on 4 December 2007, directed by Michael Grandage
, with Chiwetel Ejiofor
as Othello, Ewan McGregor
as Iago and Kelly Reilly as Desdemona. Despite tickets selling as high as £2000 on web-based vendors, only Ejiofor was praised by critics, winning the Laurence Olivier Award for his performance; with McGregor and Reilly's performances receiving largely negative notices. Stand up comedian Lenny Henry
was the latest big name to play Othello. He did so on a tour at the start of 2009 produced by Northern Broadsides
in collaboration with West Yorkshire Playhouse
. Canadian playwright Ann-Marie MacDonald
's 1988 award-winning
play Goodnight Desdemona (Good Morning Juliet)
is a revision of Othello and Romeo and Juliet
in which an academic diciphers a cryptic manuscript she believes to be the original source for the tragedies, and is transported into the plays themselves.
, a three act opera with an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Berio di Salsi and music by Gioachino Rossini was first performed at the Teatro del Fondo
, Naples, on 4 December 1816. The opera deviates from Shakespeare's original in some aspects: Jago is less diabolical than his Shakespearean counterpart, the setting is Venice rather than Cyprus, and the composer and librettist provided an alternative happy ending to the work, a common practice with drama and opera at one time. The opera is rarely performed.
and librettist Arrigo Boito
adapted Shakespeare's play to Otello
, an Italian grand opera in four acts that was first performed at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan on 5 February 1887. It was Verdi's second to last opera (followed by another Shakespeare adaptation, Falstaff
) and is considered by many to be Verdi's greatest opera. Verdi and his librettist dispensed with the first act of the play. The popular opera attracts world class singers and is found in the repertoire of prominent opera houses. Franco Zeffirelli
's 1986 film version of Verdi's
opera starring Plácido Domingo
as Othello won the BAFTA
for foreign language film. (Indeed, according to the Kennedy Center's biographical note on Domingo, Laurence Olivier saw Domingo in Otello
and, in a mockingly furious voice, told Franco Zeffirelli: "You realise that Domingo plays Othello as well as I do, and he has that voice!")
On 25 February 1999, Bandanna, an English language opera in a prologue and two acts with a libretto by Irish poet Paul Muldoon and music by Daron Hagen
was performed by the opera theatre at The University of Texas in Austin. The opera is set in 1968 on the United States–Mexican border and borrows elements from Cinthio's tale, Shakespeare's play, and Verdi's opera.
BalletMexican choreographer José Limón
created a 20-minute, four character ballet called The Moor's Pavane
to the music of Henry Purcell
in 1949. The work premiered at the Connecticut College American Dance Festival in the same year. American Ballet Theatre
was the first dance company outside Limon's to include the work in its repertory. It is a standard in dance companies around the world and notable interpreters of the Moor include Rudolf Nureyev
The ballet Othello was choreographed by John Neumeier
to music by Arvo Pärt, Alfred Schnittke, Naná Vasconcelos et al. and was premiered by the Hamburg Ballet in Hamburg on 27 January 1985, with Gamal Gouda as Othello, Gigi Hyatt as Desdemona, and Max Midinet as Iago. The work remains in the repertoire of the Hamburg Ballet
, seeing its 100th performance in 2008.
In 2002, modern dance choreographer Lar Lubovitch
created a full-length ballet in three acts based on the Shakespeare play and Cinthio's tale with a score by Elliot Goldenthal
. The work has been staged by the San Francisco Ballet
with Desmond Richardson
, Yuan Yuan Tan
, and Parrish Maynard in the principal roles. The ballet was broadcast on PBS
's Great Performances
: Dance in America and the program was nominated for an Emmy Award
. The ballet is recorded on Kultur video. Othello was first performed in New York City at the Metropolitan Opera House
, 23 May 1997, by American Ballet Theatre
Other ballets include Prologue choreographed by Jacques d'Amboise for the New York City Ballet
in 1967 as a prequel to Shakespeare's play, Othello choreographed by John Butler to the music of Dvořák for Carla Fracci
and the La Scala Ballet in 1976, and a version choreographed by Jean-Pierre Bonnefous for the Louisville Ballet
in the 1980s.
- See also Shakespeare on screen (Othello).
Shot between 1948–52, Orson Welles
directed The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice
(1952), produced as a black and white film noir
. The film stars Welles as Othello and Suzanne Cloutier
as Desdemona. The troubled production was filmed over the course of three years as Welles' time and money permitted, in Mogador, Morocco and Venice. Lack of funds (and costumes) forced Roderigo's death scene to be shot in a Turkish bath with performers wearing only large, ragged towels. The film won the Palme D'Or
at the 1952 Cannes Film Festival
. Rather than focusing on racial mis-matching, the film plays on a difference between Desdemona and Othello in age, size and personal attractiveness. The film noir colouring of the picture minimised any commentary on Othello's blackness, to the point that the critic F. R. Leavis
wrote that the film made no reference to Othello's colour.
Unlike Welles's film, Laurence Olivier
's Othello (1965), based on John Dexter
's National Theatre's production, brings issues of race to the fore, with Olivier putting on an 'African accent' and entering in a large 'ethnic' necklace and a dressing gown. He commented, however, that he did "not dare to play the Moor as a full-blooded negro". One contemporary critic found the coloration too much, commenting that Olivier was "blacker than black, almost blue" . Trevor Nunn
's 1989 version filmed at Stratford
, cast black opera singer Willard White
in the leading role, opposite Ian McKellen
's Iago. The first major screen production casting a black actor as Othello would not come until 1995 with Laurence Fishburne
opposite Kenneth Branagh
's Iago (not that there have been many major screen productions of Othello, most film versions to date have been filmed stage productions). It was made during the O. J. Simpson trial and commentators such as Cartmell draw parallels between the two "who-dunnit" murder stories, and wonder if the film's release was not a little to do with the publicity surrounding the film star's drama.
is a version in Hindi
set in Uttar Pradesh
, starring Ajay Devgan
as Omkara (Othello), Saif Ali Khan
as Langda Tyagi (Iago), Kareena Kapoor
as Dolly (Desdemona), Vivek Oberoi
as Kesu (Cassio), Bipasha Basu
as Billo (Bianca) and Konkona Sen Sharma
as Indu (Emilia). The film was directed by Vishal Bhardwaj
who earlier adapted Shakespeare's Macbeth
. All characters in the film share the same letter or sound in their first name as in the original Shakespeare classic. It is one of the few mainstream Indian movies
to contain uncensored profanity.
Other film adaptations
- 1909 silent film shot in VeniceBuchanan, Shakespeare on Silent Film (2009)
- 1909 German directed by, and stars, Franz Porten as Othello, Henny Porten as Desdemona, and Rosa Porten as Emilia.
- 1914 silent film shot in Venice
- 1922 German, starring Emil JanningsEmil JanningsEmil Jannings was a German actor. He was not only the first actor to win the Academy Award for Best Actor, but also the first person to be presented an Oscar...
as Othello, Werner KraussWerner KraussWerner Johannes Krauss was a German stage and film actor.-Early life:Krauss was born at the parsonage of Gestungshausen in Upper Franconia, where his grandfather was Protestant pastor. He spent his childhood in Breslau and from 1901 attended the teacher's college at Kreuzburg...
as Iago, and Ica von LenkeffyIca von LenkeffyIca von Lenkeffy was a Hungarian film actress of the silent era. She appeared in 26 films between 1912 and 1928.She was born in Miskolc, Hungary and died in Budapest.-Selected filmography:* A Vörös Sámson...
- 1955 OthelloOthello (1955 film)Othello is a 1955 Soviet drama film directed by Sergei Yutkevich, based on the play Othello by William Shakespeare. It was entered into the 1956 Cannes Film Festival.-Cast:* Sergei Bondarchuk - Othello* Irina Skobtseva - Desdemona...
, USSR, starring Sergei BondarchukSergei BondarchukSergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk was a Soviet film director, screenwriter, and actor.- Biography :Born in Belozerka, in the Kherson Governorate, Sergei Bondarchuk spent his childhood in the cities of Yeysk and Taganrog, graduating from the Taganrog School Number 4 in 1938. His first performance as an...
, Irina SkobtsevaIrina SkobtsevaIrina Konstantinova Skobtseva is a Russian/Soviet actress, wife of Sergei Bondarchuk, and mother of Elena and Fyodor Bondarchuk.She first met Sergei shooting Othello in 1955, and became his second wife in 1959. She starred as Pierre Bezukhov's wife Elena Kuragina Bezukhova in the juggernaut War...
, Andrei Popov. Directed by Sergei YutkevichSergei YutkevichSergei Iosifovich Yutkevich was an award-winning Soviet film director and screenwriter.-Life and career:He began work as a teen doing puppet shows. Later he helped found the Factory of the Eccentric Actor , which was primarily concerned with circus and music hall acts. He entered films in the...
- 1962 All Night Long (British) Othello is Rex, a jazz bandleader. Dave BrubeckDave BrubeckDavid Warren "Dave" Brubeck is an American jazz pianist. He has written a number of jazz standards, including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke". Brubeck's style ranges from refined to bombastic, reflecting his mother's attempts at classical training and his improvisational skills...
and other jazz musicians.
- 1965 OthelloOthello (1965 film)Othello is a 1965 film based on the National Theatre's staging of Shakespeare's Othello staged by John Dexter. Directed by Stuart Burge, the film starred Laurence Olivier, Maggie Smith, Frank Finlay, and Joyce Redman, providing film debuts for both Derek Jacobi and Michael...
with Laurence OlivierLaurence OlivierLaurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM was an English actor, director, and producer. He was one of the most famous and revered actors of the 20th century. He married three times, to fellow actors Jill Esmond, Vivien Leigh, and Joan Plowright...
, Maggie SmithMaggie SmithDame Margaret Natalie Smith, DBE , better known as Maggie Smith, is an English film, stage, and television actress who made her stage debut in 1952 and is still performing after 59 years...
, Frank FinlayFrank FinlayFrancis Finlay, CBE is an English stage, film and television actor.-Personal life:Finlay was born in Farnworth, Lancashire, the son of Margaret and Josiah Finlay, a butcher. A devout Catholic, he belongs to the British Catholic Stage Guild. He was educated at St...
, and Joyce RedmanJoyce Redman-Biography:She was born in County Mayo, Ireland, to an Anglo-Irish family. She was educated by a private governess in Ireland, along with her three sisters. She was trained in acting at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art....
- 1974 Catch My SoulCatch My SoulFor UK Stage version see Catch My Soul Catch My Soul is a 1974 film produced by Jack Good and Richard M. Rosenbloom, and directed by Patrick McGoohan. It was an adaptation of Good's stage musical of the same title, which itself was loosely adapted from William Shakespeare's Othello...
adapted from Jack GoodJack Good (producer)Jack Good is a pioneering former TV television producer, musical theatre producer, record producer, musician and painter of icons.-Career:...
's rock musicalCatch My Soul (UK stage version)Disambiguation: for Film version see Catch My SoulCatch My Soul was the UK stage version of the rock musical produced by Jack Good. The show was a showcase for the talents of Lance LeGault, PP Arnold, P.J. Proby and an introduction to the rock musician Robert Tench and the band Gass...
, directed by Patrick McGoohanPatrick McGoohanPatrick Joseph McGoohan was an American-born actor, raised in Ireland and England, with an extensive stage and film career, most notably in the 1960s television series Danger Man , and The Prisoner, which he co-created...
and starring Richie HavensRichie HavensRichard P. "Richie" Havens is an African American folk singer and guitarist. He is best known for his intense, rhythmic guitar style , soulful covers of pop and folk songs, and his opening performance at the 1969 Woodstock Festival.-Career:Born in Brooklyn, Havens was the eldest of nine children...
, Lance LeGaultLance LeGaultLance LeGault , sometimes credited as W. L. LeGault, is an American film and television actor, best known as Colonel Roderick Decker in the 1980s American television series The A-Team.-Personal life:...
, Season HubleySeason Hubley-Biography:Hubley was born Susan Hubley in New York City, the daughter of Julia Kaul and Grant Shelby Hubley, a writer and entrepreneur. Her brother is actor Whip Hubley....
and Tony Joe WhiteTony Joe WhiteTony Joe White is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, best known for his 1969 hit "Polk Salad Annie"; "Rainy Night in Georgia", which he wrote but was first made popular by Brook Benton in 1970; and "Steamy Windows", a hit for Tina Turner in 1989...
- 1982 Othello, the Black Commando written by and starring Max H. Boulois with Tony CurtisTony CurtisTony Curtis was an American film actor whose career spanned six decades, but had his greatest popularity during the 1950s and early 1960s. He acted in over 100 films in roles covering a wide range of genres, from light comedy to serious drama...
as Colonel Iago and Joanna PettetJoanna PettetJoanna Pettet is a British actress.-Biography:Her parents, Harold Nigel Edgerton Salmon, a British Royal Air Force pilot killed in World War II, and mother, Cecily J. Tremaine, were married in London in 1940...
- 1995 OthelloOthello (1995 film)Othello is a 1995 film based on William Shakespeare's tragedy of the same name. It was directed by Oliver Parker and stars Laurence Fishburne as Othello, Irène Jacob as Desdemona, and Kenneth Branagh as Iago...
with Kenneth BranaghKenneth BranaghKenneth Charles Branagh is an actor and film director from Northern Ireland. He is best known for directing and starring in several film adaptations of William Shakespeare's plays including Henry V , Much Ado About Nothing , Hamlet Kenneth Charles Branagh is an actor and film director from...
, Laurence FishburneLaurence FishburneLaurence John Fishburne III is an American film and stage actor, playwright, director, and producer. He is perhaps best known for his roles as Morpheus in the Matrix science fiction film trilogy, as Cowboy Curtis on the 1980's television show Pee-wee's Playhouse, and as singer-musician Ike Turner...
, and Irene JacobIrène JacobIrène Marie Jacob is a French-born Swiss actress considered one of the preeminent French actresses of her generation. Jacob gained international recognition and acclaim through her work with Polish film director Krzysztof Kieślowski, who cast her in the lead role of The Double Life of Véronique...
. Directed by Oliver ParkerOliver ParkerOliver Parker is an English film director.-Biography:Parker was born in London, the son of Jillian, Lady Parker, a writer and GP , and Sir Peter Parker, formerly Chief executive of British Rail...
- 1997 KaliyattamKaliyattamKaliyattam is a 1997 Malayalam film directed by Jayaraaj, and starring Suresh Gopi, Lal, and Manju Warrier. The film is an adapted version of William Shakespeare's play Othello against the backdrop of the Hindu Theyyam performance...
in MalayalamMalayalam languageMalayalam , is one of the four major Dravidian languages of southern India. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India with official language status in the state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. It is spoken by 35.9 million people...
, a modern update, set in KeralaKeralaor Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....
, starring Suresh GopiSuresh GopiSuresh Gopinathan Nair , often credited as Suresh Gopi , is an Indian film actor who works mainly in Malayalam cinema; he is famous for his roles in police dramas. He is noted for his leading roles as much as his character roles...
as Othello, which won him the national award for best actor, Lal as Iago, Manju WarrierManju WarrierManju Warrier is an Indian film actress. She was among the popular lead actress in Malayalam cinema during the mid to late-1990s.She made her debut in Saakshyam...
as Desdemona, directed by Jayaraaj.
- 2001 OO (film)O is a 2001 American drama film, and a loose modern adaptation of William Shakespeare's Othello.The film's intended release date was April 1999, but due to the Columbine High School massacre, the film was shelved for two years by its original distributor, Miramax Films. Ultimately, it was sold...
, a modern update, set in an American high school. Stars Mekhi PhiferMekhi PhiferMekhi Thira Phifer is an American actor. He is perhaps best known for his multi-year role as Dr. Greg Pratt on NBC's long-running medical drama ER and his co-starring role opposite Eminem in the feature film 8 Mile...
as Odin (Othello), Julia StilesJulia StilesJulia O'Hara Stiles is an American actress.After beginning her career in small parts in a New York City theatre troupe, she has moved on to leading roles in plays by writers as diverse as William Shakespeare and David Mamet...
as Desi (Desdemona), and Josh HartnettJosh HartnettJoshua Daniel "Josh" Hartnett is an American actor and aspiring producer. He first came to audiences' attention in 1997 as "Michael Fitzgerald" in the television series Cracker. He made his feature film debut in 1998, co-starring with Jamie Lee Curtis in Halloween H20: 20 Years Later for Miramax...
as Hugo (Iago).
- 2002 EloiseEloise (2002 film)Eloise is a 2002 low-budget digital feature film written and directed by Australian film director Brenden Dannaher and starring Melanie Holt, Mark Jensen and Paul Parker....
a modern update, set in Sydney, Australia.
- 2006 OmkaraOmkara (film)Omkara is a 2006 Indian film adaptation of Shakespeare’s Othello, co-written and directed by Vishal Bhardwaj. It starred Ajay Devgan, Saif Ali Khan, and Kareena Kapoor in the lead roles, supported by Vivek Oberoi, Naseeruddin Shah, and Konkona Sen Sharma with a cameo role from Bipasha Basu...
, a Hindi film adaptation of Othello directed by Vishal BhardwajVishal BhardwajVishal Bhardwaj is an Indian film director, writer, screenwriter, music composer and playback singer.-Early life:Bhardwaj was born in Bijnor but raised in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh to Satya Bhardwaj, a homemaker, and Ram Bhardwaj, a popular poet and lyricist. His father was a government employee and...
- 2008 Jarum HalusJarum HalusJarum Halus is a 2008 Malaysian drama film. It is a modern day adaptation of William Shakespeare's Othello. The film’s title is derived from a Malay idiom meaning web of deceit or conspiracy, which is a major theme in the plot of the film....
a modern updated Malaysian version, in English and Malay by Mark Tan.
- 1981 OthelloBBC Television ShakespeareThe BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of William Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985.-Origins:...
part of the BBCBBCThe British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...
's complete works Shakespeare. Starring Anthony HopkinsAnthony HopkinsSir Philip Anthony Hopkins, KBE , best known as Anthony Hopkins, is a Welsh actor of film, stage and television...
and Bob HoskinsBob HoskinsRobert William "Bob" Hoskins, Jr. is an English actor known for playing Cockney rough diamonds, psychopaths and gangsters, in films such as The Long Good Friday , and Mona Lisa , and lighter roles in family films such as Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Hook .- Early life :Hoskins was born in Bury St...
- 1990 OthelloOthello (1990 television)Othello is a film produced by the Royal Shakespeare Company. It is based on Shakespeare's Othello. It was shot in a black box theater, so minimal props or scenery were needed. Also, the uniforms worn by characters seem reminiscent of United States Civil War uniforms....
(1990) A film version of the last Royal Shakespeare CompanyRoyal Shakespeare CompanyThe Royal Shakespeare Company is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. The company employs 700 staff and produces around 20 productions a year from its home in Stratford-upon-Avon and plays regularly in London, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and on tour across...
production at The Other PlaceThe Other Place (theatre)The Other Place was a black box theatre on Southern Lane, near to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. It was owned and operated by the Royal Shakespeare Company....
starring Michael GrandageMichael GrandageMichael Grandage CBE is a British theatre director and producer, and current Artistic Director at the Donmar Warehouse, London. Grandage won the 2010 Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play for Red.-Early years:...
, Ian McKellenIan McKellenSir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE is an English actor. He has received a Tony Award, two Academy Award nominations, and five Emmy Award nominations. His work has spanned genres from Shakespearean and modern theatre to popular fantasy and science fiction...
, Clive SwiftClive SwiftClive Walter Swift is an English character comedy actor and songwriter. He is best known for his role as character Richard Bucket in the British television series Keeping Up Appearances. He is less known for his role as character Roy in the British television series The Old Guys...
, Willard WhiteWillard WhiteSir Willard Wentworth White, OM, CBE is a Jamaican-born British bass-baritone.-Early life:He was born into a poor but supportive Jamaican family in Kingston. His father was a dockworker, his mother a housewife. White first began to learn music by listening to the radio and singing Nat King Cole...
, Sean BakerSean BakerSean Baker, a native of Lawrenceburg, Kentucky, is a United States Air Force veteran and former member of the Kentucky National Guard, who served during the first Gulf War, and as a member of the 438th Military Police at Guantanamo Bay....
, and Imogen StubbsImogen StubbsImogen Stubbs, Lady Nunn is an English actress and playwright.-Early life:Imogen Stubbs was born in Northumberland, lived briefly in Portsmouth, where her father was a naval officer, and then moved with her parents to London, where they lived on an elderly river barge on the Thames...
. Directed by Trevor NunnTrevor NunnSir Trevor Robert Nunn, CBE is an English theatre, film and television director. Nunn has been the Artistic Director for the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Royal National Theatre, and, currently, the Theatre Royal, Haymarket. He has directed musicals and dramas for the stage, as well as opera...
- 2001 OthelloOthello (2001 TV film)Othello is a 2001 British television film starring Eamonn Walker, Christopher Eccleston and Keeley Hawes. It is an adaptation in modern English of William Shakespeare's play Othello...
. British made-for-TV film. A modern-day adaptation in modern English, in which Othello is the first black Commissioner of London's Metropolitan PoliceMetropolitan policeMetropolitan Police is a generic title for the municipal police force for a major metropolitan area, and it may be part of the official title of the force...
. Made for ITVITVITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK...
by LWTLondon Weekend TelevisionLondon Weekend Television was the name of the ITV network franchise holder for Greater London and the Home Counties including south Suffolk, middle and east Hampshire, Oxfordshire, south Bedfordshire, south Northamptonshire, parts of Herefordshire & Worcestershire, Warwickshire, east Dorset and...
. Scripted by Andrew DaviesAndrew Davies (writer)Andrew Wynford Davies is a British author and screenwriter. He was made a Fellow of BAFTA in 2002.-Education and early career:...
. Directed by Geoffrey SaxGeoffrey SaxGeoffrey Sax is a British film and television director, who has worked on a variety of critically acclaimed and popular drama productions in both the UK and the United States....
. Starring Eamonn WalkerEamonn WalkerEamonn Walker is an English film, television and theatre actor. In the United States, he is known for playing Kareem Said in the HBO television series Oz, for which he won a CableACE Award, and elsewere as Winston, the gay, black thorn in Alf Garnett's side in In Sickness and in Health and John...
, Christopher EcclestonChristopher EcclestonChristopher Eccleston is an English stage, film and television actor. His films include Let Him Have It, Shallow Grave, Elizabeth, 28 Days Later, Gone in 60 Seconds, The Others, and G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra...
and Keeley HawesKeeley HawesKeeley Hawes is an English actress and model, known for many television roles. She is best known for her roles as Zoe Reynolds in Spooks and Alex Drake in Ashes to Ashes and Lady Agnes in the remake of Upstairs, Downstairs...
Graphic novelsOthello, an adaptation by Oscar Zarate
, Oval Projects Ltd (1985). It was reprinted in 2005 by Can of Worms Press and includes the complete text of the play.
In January 2009, a manga
adaptation was published in the United Kingdom, with art by Ryuta Osada. It is part of the Manga Shakespeare series by Richard Appiganesi, and is set in Venice in carnival season.
, a series of 60 paintings executed in 1985 by Nabil Kanso
. It was published in 1996 by NEV Editions.
- Othello Navigator—Includes the annotated text, a search engine, and scene summaries.
- Cinthio's Tale—A Nineteenth Century English translation of Shakespeare's primary source.
- Othello—analysis, explanatory notes, and lectures.
- Othello—text by PublicLiterature.org
- Othello—Scene-indexed and searchable version of the text.
- Othello at IBDB—lists numerous productions.
- Othello study guide, themes, quotes, multimedia, and teacher resources