Open air concert
An open air concert is a concert taking place outside a hall in the open air.


Open air concerts can range from small, acousitic gatherings taking place at a municipal park, to large multi-day music festival
Music festival
A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday. They are commonly held outdoors, and are often inclusive of other attractions such as food and merchandise vending machines,...

s, involving some of the most famous music acts in the world. Nearly any type of music can be played at one of these concerts, and they frequently feature pop
Pop music
Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

, folk
Folk music
Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional folk music and contemporary folk music. The term originated in the 19th century. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers....

, classical
Classical music
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times...

, or jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 artists. Largely electronic music, such as techno, are seldom featured because of the difficulties of staging the event. Some open air concerts known as festivals take place over several days and feature a large number of different artists.


Open air concerts take great amounts of planning, to make sure that the stage
Stage (theatre)
In theatre or performance arts, the stage is a designated space for the performance productions. The stage serves as a space for actors or performers and a focal point for the members of the audience...

  is visible from the entire audience
An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature , theatre, music or academics in any medium...

 seating area. Frequently, the area directly in front of the stage is kept clear for dancing. In the case of punk concerts and other energetic music, this area becomes a mosh pit filled with a violently moving crowd. Generally, care is taken to keep the dancers off the stage, however at punk concerts, stagediving and other audience interaction are more common.

Open air concerts can be free for the audience, or may sell ticket
Ticket (admission)
A ticket is a voucher that indicates that one has paid for admission to an event or establishment such as a theatre, movie theater, amusement park, zoo, museum, concert, or other attraction, or permission to travel on a vehicle such as an airliner, train, bus, or boat, typically because one has...

s for entrance. With ticketed events, these concerts are staged in planned, fenced-in areas, to avoid non-paying visitors. The fencing
A fence is a freestanding structure designed to restrict or prevent movement across a boundary. It is generally distinguished from a wall by the lightness of its construction: a wall is usually restricted to such barriers made from solid brick or concrete, blocking vision as well as passage .Fences...

 used is often temporary.

Rain can wreak havoc at an open air concert. The grass in front of the stage is often heavily damaged by concert-goers, and may need replanted after the event. Therefore it is common, that visitors at some ticketed open air concerts get a part of their money back, when they donate a sack of grass seed at the entrance of the open air concert.

Concerts can take place at a location not served by the public electricity grid. In these cases, the concert promoters set up emergency power generators.

Many open air concerts are very loud, and without the insulation of a building or arena to contain the noise
In common use, the word noise means any unwanted sound. In both analog and digital electronics, noise is random unwanted perturbation to a wanted signal; it is called noise as a generalisation of the acoustic noise heard when listening to a weak radio transmission with significant electrical noise...

, this also takes an amount of planning, to assure that the concert does not bother the neighbors. Often, these events are staged at a distance from residential areas. Many areas have noise regulation
Noise regulation
Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations...

s in place limiting the areas in which these large events can take place.

For larger events, the stage is built from scaffolding
Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes or tubes, although it can be from other materials...

 and often includes a roof to protect electrical equipment from potential rain. This scaffolding rig holds lighting and other special effects equipment. Loudspeaker
A loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful...

s are frequently mounted to the right and left of the stage in towers, with the mixing console
Mixing console
In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board, mixing desk, or mixer is an electronic device for combining , routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals. A mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer...

 placed before the stage.

Support functions are often placed in areas surrounding the audience. Concessions
Concession stand
A concession stand , snack kiosk or snack bar is the term used to refer to a place where patrons can purchase snacks or food at a cinema, fair, stadium, or other entertainment venue. Some events or venues contract out the right to sell food to third parties...

 are sold from trailers and other temporary structures. If plumbing facilities are available, toilets are found in this area; in areas without plumbing, chemical portable toilet
Portable toilet
Portable toilet are simple portable enclosures containing a chemical toilet which are typically used as a temporary toilet for construction sites and large gatherings and events. Most of the portable toilets have black open-front-U-shaped toilet seat with cover...

s are used.
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