Neo-Nazism
Overview
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 or some variant thereof.
The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology
Ideology
An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things , as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies , or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to...

 of these movements.

Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including militant nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

, fascism
Fascism
Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to rejuvenate their nation based on commitment to the national community as an organic entity, in which individuals are bound together in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood...

, racism
Racism
Racism is the belief that inherent different traits in human racial groups justify discrimination. In the modern English language, the term "racism" is used predominantly as a pejorative epithet. It is applied especially to the practice or advocacy of racial discrimination of a pernicious nature...

, xenophobia
Xenophobia
Xenophobia is defined as "an unreasonable fear of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange". It comes from the Greek words ξένος , meaning "stranger," "foreigner" and φόβος , meaning "fear."...

, homophobia
Homophobia
Homophobia is a term used to refer to a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards lesbian, gay and in some cases bisexual, transgender people and behavior, although these are usually covered under other terms such as biphobia and transphobia. Definitions refer to irrational fear, with the...

 and anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
Antisemitism is suspicion of, hatred toward, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage. According to a 2005 U.S...

. Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in World War II, usually referred to as the Holocaust. The key claims of Holocaust denial are: the German Nazi government had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews, Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas...

 is a common feature, as is incorporation of Nazi symbols
Nazi symbolism
The twentieth century German Nazi Party was notable for its extensive use of graphic symbolism, most notably the Hakenkreuz , which it used as its principal symbol, and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany....

 and admiration of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

. It is related to the white nationalist
White nationalism
White nationalism is a political ideology which advocates a racial definition of national identity for white people. White separatism and white supremacism are subgroups within white nationalism. The former seek a separate white nation state, while the latter add ideas from social Darwinism and...

 and white power skinhead movements in many countries.

Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries, as well as international networks.
Encyclopedia
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 or some variant thereof.
The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology
Ideology
An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things , as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies , or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to...

 of these movements.

Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including militant nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

, fascism
Fascism
Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to rejuvenate their nation based on commitment to the national community as an organic entity, in which individuals are bound together in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood...

, racism
Racism
Racism is the belief that inherent different traits in human racial groups justify discrimination. In the modern English language, the term "racism" is used predominantly as a pejorative epithet. It is applied especially to the practice or advocacy of racial discrimination of a pernicious nature...

, xenophobia
Xenophobia
Xenophobia is defined as "an unreasonable fear of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange". It comes from the Greek words ξένος , meaning "stranger," "foreigner" and φόβος , meaning "fear."...

, homophobia
Homophobia
Homophobia is a term used to refer to a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards lesbian, gay and in some cases bisexual, transgender people and behavior, although these are usually covered under other terms such as biphobia and transphobia. Definitions refer to irrational fear, with the...

 and anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
Antisemitism is suspicion of, hatred toward, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage. According to a 2005 U.S...

. Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in World War II, usually referred to as the Holocaust. The key claims of Holocaust denial are: the German Nazi government had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews, Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas...

 is a common feature, as is incorporation of Nazi symbols
Nazi symbolism
The twentieth century German Nazi Party was notable for its extensive use of graphic symbolism, most notably the Hakenkreuz , which it used as its principal symbol, and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany....

 and admiration of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

. It is related to the white nationalist
White nationalism
White nationalism is a political ideology which advocates a racial definition of national identity for white people. White separatism and white supremacism are subgroups within white nationalism. The former seek a separate white nation state, while the latter add ideas from social Darwinism and...

 and white power skinhead movements in many countries.

Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries, as well as international networks. Some Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an and Latin America
Latin America
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages  – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken. Latin America has an area of approximately 21,069,500 km² , almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area...

n countries have laws prohibiting the expression of pro-Nazi, racist, anti-Semitic or anti-gay views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism.

Austria

Far right parties are among the strongest political parties in Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

. The success of the far right in Austria has not been the result of economic crisis or social conflict, but primarily of political factors, including the failure of denazification
Denazification
Denazification was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology. It was carried out specifically by removing those involved from positions of influence and by disbanding or rendering...

after World War II.

The major postwar far right party was the Austrian National Democratic Party (NDP)
Nationaldemokratische Partei (Austria, 1967–1988)
The National Democratic Party was a far-right political party in Austria from 1967 until 1988 when its status was revoked for violating the country's anti-Nazi legislation.- Party History :...

, until it was banned in 1988 for violating Austria's anti-Nazi legislation, Verbotsgesetz 1947
Verbotsgesetz 1947
The Verbotsgesetz 1947 abbreviated VerbotsG, is an Austrian constitutional law, which banned the Nazi Party and provided the legal framework for the process of denazification in Austria, as well as aiming to suppress any potential revival of Nazism.The law was amended in 1992 to prohibit denying...

. The Freedom Party of Austria
Freedom Party of Austria
The Freedom Party of Austria is a political party in Austria. Ideologically, the party is a direct descendant of the German national liberal camp, which dates back to the 1848 revolutions. The FPÖ itself was founded in 1956 as the successor to the short-lived Federation of Independents , which had...

 (FPÖ) served as a shelter for ex-Nazis almost from its inception. In 1980, scandals undermined Austria's two main parties, and the economy stagnated. Jörg Haider
Jörg Haider
Jörg Haider was an Austrian politician. He was Governor of Carinthia on two occasions, the long-time leader of the Austrian Freedom Party and later Chairman of the Alliance for the Future of Austria , a breakaway party from the FPÖ.Haider was controversial within Austria and abroad for comments...

 became leader of the FPÖ and offered partial justification for Nazism
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

, calling its employment policy effective. In 1994, the FPÖ won 33 percent of the vote in Carinthia
Carinthia (state)
Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps it is chiefly noted for its mountains and lakes.The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Austro-Bavarian group...

 and 22 percent in Vienna, showing that it had become a force capable of reversing the old pattern of Austrian politics. In the 1994 Austrian election
Austrian legislative election, 1994
Parliamentary elections were held in Austria on 9 October 1994. The Social Democratic Party won the most seats, and retained the grand coalition with the Austrian People's Party. Voter turnout was 81.9%.-Results:...

, the FPÖ won 22 percent of the vote.

Historian Walter Laqueur writes that even though Haider welcomed former Nazis at his meetings and went out of his way to address Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
The Schutzstaffel |Sig runes]]) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS under Heinrich Himmler's command was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity during World War II...

 (SS) veterans, the FPÖ is not a fascist party in the traditional sense, since it has not made anti-communism
Anti-communism
Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and the beginning of the Cold War in 1947.-Objections to communist theory:...

 an important issue, and does not advocate the overthrow of the democratic order or the use of violence. In his view, the FPÖ is "not quite fascist", although it is part of a tradition, similar to that of 19th century Viennese mayor Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna. The populist and anti-Semitic politics of his Christian Social Party are sometimes viewed as a model for Hitler's Nazism.- Career :...

, that involves nationalism, xenophobic populism, and authoritarianism. Professor Ali Mazrui
Ali Mazrui
Ali Al'amin Mazrui is an academic and political writer on African and Islamic studies and North-South relations. He is an Albert Schweitzer Professor in the Humanities and the Director of the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at Binghamton University in Binghamton, New York.-Education:Mazrui...

, however, identified the FPÖ as neo-Nazi in a BBC world lecture.

Haider, who in 2005 left the Freedom Party and formed the Alliance for Austria's Future, was killed in a traffic accident in October, 2008.

Barbara Rosenkranz
Barbara Rosenkranz
Barbara Rosenkranz is an Austrian politician for the Freedom Party of Austria , currently serving as the Minister of Building Law and Animal Protection of the State of Lower Austria...

, the Freedom Party's candidate for the Austrian presidential election, 2010
Austrian presidential election, 2010
The Austrian presidential election took place on 25 April 2010. It was the twelfth election of an Austrian head of state since 1951. The candidates were Heinz Fischer, Barbara Rosenkranz and Rudolf Gehring . Heinz Fischer won with just under 80% of the valid votes...

, is controversial for having made allegedly pro-Nazi statements. Rosenkranz is married to Horst Rosenkranz
Horst Rosenkranz
Horst Jakob Rosenkranz is an extreme right publisher and former politician in Austria. He is married to Freedom Party leader Barbara Rosenkranz.- Political Activity :...

, a key member of a banned neo-Nazi party, and known for publishing far-right books. Rosenkranz says she cannot detect anything "dishonourable" in her husband's activities.

The volume Rechtsextremismus in Österreich seit 1945 (Right-wing Extremism in Austria since 1945), issued by DÖW in 1979, listed nearly 50 active far right organizations in Austria. Their influence waned gradually, partly due to liberalization programs in secondary schools and universities that emphasized Austrian identity and democratic traditions. Votes for the RFS (Ring Freiheitlicher Studenten), the Freedom Party's academic student organization, in student elections fell from 30% in the 1960s to 2% in 1987. In the 1995 elections for the student representative body Österreichische Hochschülerschaft (Austrian Students' Association), the RFS got 4% of the vote. The FPÖ won 22% of the votes at the General Election in the same year.

A radical non-parliamentary, anti-democratic far-right organization active in Austria was the VAPO (Volkstreue Außerparlamentarische Opposition) founded by the Austrian neo-Nazi Gottfried Küssel in 1986, who publicly declared to be a member of the US-American neo-Nazi organization NSDAP/AO
NSDAP/AO (1972)
The NSDAP/AO is an American neo-Nazi organization. It was founded in 1972 by United States citizen Gary Rex Lauck in Lincoln, Nebraska. The organization stands for "NSDAP Aufbau- und Auslandsorganisation" . Lauck's organization claims to be a continuation of the original NSDAP/AO and supplies...

 since 1977. Neither an association nor a party, the VAPO was loosely organized in "Kameradschaften" (comradeships) and defined itself as a "battle alliance of nationalist groups and persons" with the aims of "reestablishing the NSDAP" and the "seizure of power". In 1993 Küssel was repeatedly convicted on charges of "NS-Wiederbetätigung" (re-engagement in national socialism) under the Austrian anti-Nazi law (Verbotsgesetz 1947
Verbotsgesetz 1947
The Verbotsgesetz 1947 abbreviated VerbotsG, is an Austrian constitutional law, which banned the Nazi Party and provided the legal framework for the process of denazification in Austria, as well as aiming to suppress any potential revival of Nazism.The law was amended in 1992 to prohibit denying...

) and sentenced to ten years of prison. The VAPO de facto disbanded in the course of the imprisonment of its leading figures, much due to its loose organizational structure. Due to procedural errors Küssel's sentence was revoked by the OGH (Austrian High Court) and the trial reheld in 1994 where Küssel was sentenced to eleven years in prison.

Belgium

A Belgian neo-Nazi organization, Bloed, Bodem, Eer en Trouw
Bloed, Bodem, Eer en Trouw
Bloed, Bodem, Eer en Trouw is a Flemish neo-Nazi group, created in 2004 from a splinter of the Flemish branch of the international Nazi skinhead organization Blood & Honour.- Activities :...

 (Blood, Land, Honour and Faithfulness), was created in 2004 after splitting from the international network (Blood and Honour
Blood and Honour
Blood & Honour is a neo-Nazi music promotion network and political group founded in 1987 with links to Combat 18 and composed of white power skinheads and other white nationalists....

). The group rose to public prominence in September 2006, after 17 members (including 11 soldiers) were arrested under the December 2003 anti-terrorist laws
Anti-terrorism legislation
Anti-terrorism legislation designs various types of laws passed in the aim of fighting terrorism. They usually, if not always, follow specific bombings or assassinations...

 and laws against racism
Racism
Racism is the belief that inherent different traits in human racial groups justify discrimination. In the modern English language, the term "racism" is used predominantly as a pejorative epithet. It is applied especially to the practice or advocacy of racial discrimination of a pernicious nature...

, anti-semitism and negationism. According to Justice Minister Laurette Onkelinx
Laurette Onkelinx
Laurette A.J. Onkelinx is a Belgian politician from the Francophone Socialist Party. She is the Minister of Social Affairs and Public Health in the Belgian federal government, i.e., the Van Rompuy I Government, which took office on 30 December 2008.-Biography:Born to Gaston Onkelinx and Germaine...

 and Interior Minister Patrick Dewael
Patrick Dewael
Patrick Yvonne Hugo Dewael, in Lier, Belgium is a liberal Belgian politician. He is a member of the Flemish Liberals and Democrats, or Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten . He is the nephew of the late liberal minister Herman Vanderpoorten and the cousin of Marleen Vanderpoorten, who also served as...

, the suspects (11 of whom were members of the military) were preparing terrorist attacks in order to "destabilize" Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

. According to journalist Manuel Abramowicz, of the Resistances network, the ultras of the radical right have always had as its aim to "infiltrate the state mechanisms," including the army in the 1970s and the 1980s, through Westland New Post
Westland New Post
Westland New Post was a Belgian extreme right-wing organization founded in March 1981 by Paul Latinus and members of the Front de la Jeunesse...

 and the Front de la Jeunesse
Front de la Jeunesse (Belgium)
The Front de la Jeunesse was a Belgian private militia. It was founded in 1973 by members of one of the so-called NEM-Clubs, situated around the Nouvel Europe Magazine....

.

A police operation, which mobilized 150 agents, searched five military barracks (in Leopoldsburg
Leopoldsburg
Leopoldsburg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. On January 1, 2006 Leopoldsburg had a total population of 14,403. The total area is 22.49 km² which gives a population density of 640 inhabitants per km².-External links:*...

 near the Dutch border: Kleine-Brogel, Peer
Peer, Belgium
Peer is a municipality located in the province of Limburg, Flemish Region, Belgium. On January 1, 2006 Peer had a total population of 15,810. The total area is 86.95 km² which gives a population density of 182 inhabitants per km²....

, Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 (Royal military school) and Zedelgem
Zedelgem
Zedelgem is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the villages of Aartrijke, Loppem, Veldegem and Zedelgem proper. On January 1, 2006 Zedelgem had a total population of 21,835...

– as well as 18 private addresses in Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

. They found weapons, munitions, explosives, and a homemade bomb large enough to make "a car explode." The leading suspect, B.T., was organizing the trafficking of weapons, and was developing international links, in particular with the Dutch far right movement De Nationale Alliantie.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The neo-Nazi White Nationalist organization Bosanski Pokret Nacionalnog Ponosa (Bosnian Movement of National Pride) was founded in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 in February 2010. Their model is the Handschar Division
13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian)
The 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar was one of the thirty-eight divisions fielded as part of the Waffen-SS during World War II. Its recruits were composed of Muslim Bosniaks. The Handschar division was a mountain infantry formation, the equivalent of the German "Gebirgsjäger" ...

. They proclaimed "Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

, Gypsies, Chetniks
Chetniks
Chetniks, or the Chetnik movement , were Serbian nationalist and royalist paramilitary organizations from the first half of the 20th century. The Chetniks were formed as a Serbian resistance against the Ottoman Empire in 1904, and participated in the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II...

, Extrene Islam, the Croatian separatists
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was an unrecognised entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina that existed between 1991 and 1994 during the Bosnian war. It was proclaimed on November 18, 1991 under the name Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, and claimed to be a separate or distinct "political,...

, Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
Marshal Josip Broz Tito – 4 May 1980) was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, Tito was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad, viewed as a unifying symbol for the nations of the Yugoslav federation...

, Communists, homosexuals and blacks
Blacks
Blacks may refer to:* All Blacks, New Zealand rugby union team* Black people* Blacks Leisure Group, owner of Blacks and Millets in the United Kingdom* The Blacks , a play by Jean Genet* Zamora, California, formerly called Blacks...

" as their main enemies.

Chile

Some neo-Nazis in Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

 derive their ideology from the writings of Nicolás Palacios
Nicolás Palacios
Nicolás Palacios was a Chilean physician and writer born in Santa Cruz, best known for his writings on the "Chilean race" and national identity...

, while others follow an orthodox Nazi ideology influenced by Miguel Serrano
Miguel Serrano
Miguel Serrano was a Chilean diplomat, explorer and author of poetry, books on spiritual questing and Esoteric Nazism...

 and German Nazis who fled to the country after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Traditional Nazism is more common among descendants of German or other European immigrants in southern Chile. Common targets of neo-Nazi hate crimes in Chile include Peruvians, Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

ns, Gypsies, homosexuals and prostitutes.

The approach influenced by Palacios elevates the Chilean Mestizo
Mestizo
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Latin America, Philippines and Spain for people of mixed European and Native American heritage or descent...

 in status, since he considered the "Chilean race" a mix of two bellicose master races: the Visigoth
Visigoth
The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. These tribes were among the Germans who spread through the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period...

s of Spain and the Mapuche
Mapuche
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina. They constitute a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage. Their influence extended...

 of Chile. He traced the origins of the Spanish component of the Chilean race to the coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

, specifically to Götaland
Götaland
Götaland , Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gautland or Geatland is one of three lands of Sweden and comprises provinces...

 in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, one of the supposed homeland
Homeland
A homeland is the concept of the place to which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association with —the country in which a particular national identity began. As a common noun, it simply connotes the country of one's origin...

s of the Goths
Goths
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

. Palacios claimed that both the blonde and the bronze coloured Chilean Mestizo share a "moral physonomy", and that both think and reason in an identical way. He opposed immigration from Southern Europe
Southern Europe
The term Southern Europe, at its most general definition, is used to mean "all countries in the south of Europe". However, the concept, at different times, has had different meanings, providing additional political, linguistic and cultural context to the definition in addition to the typical...

, and argued on medical grounds that Mestizos derived from south Europeans lack "cerebral control", and are a social load.

Croatia

Neo-Nazis in Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 base their ideology on the writings of Ante Starčević
Ante Starcevic
Ante Starčević , was a Croatian politician and writer whose activities and works laid the foundations for the modern Croatian state.His works are base for Croatian nationalism, he is often referred to as Father of the Fatherland by Croats.-Life:...

 and Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelic
Ante Pavelić was a Croatian fascist leader, revolutionary, and politician. He ruled as Poglavnik or head, of the Independent State of Croatia , a World War II puppet state of Nazi Germany in Axis-occupied Yugoslavia...

, and on Ustaše
Ustaše
The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement was a Croatian fascist anti-Yugoslav separatist movement. The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Nazism, and Croatian nationalism. The Ustaše supported the creation of a Greater Croatia that would span to the River Drina and to the border...

, a fascist anti-Yugoslav separatist movement. At the end of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, many of Pavelić's Ustaše members fled to the West
Western world
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident , is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe , the countries of the Americas, as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand...

, where they found sanctuary and continued their political
Politics
Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the...

 and terrorist
Terrorism
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition...

 activities (which were tolerated because of Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 hostilities). The resurgence of the Ustaše movement in post-war Croatia is partly due to significant financial support of the Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
The Croatian Democratic Union is the main center-right political party in Croatia. It is the biggest and strongest individual Croatian party since independence of Croatia. The Christian democratic HDZ governed Croatia from 1990 to 2000 and, in partial coalition, from 2003...

 by Ustaše emigrants. Jonathan Levy, a lawyer who represented plaintiffs in a 1999 lawsuit against the Ustaše and others, said: "Many are still terrified of the Ustashe, the Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 particularly. Unlike the Nazi Party
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

, the Ustashe still exist and have a party headquarters in Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

."

There have been instances of hate speech
Hate speech
Hate speech is, outside the law, any communication that disparages a person or a group on the basis of some characteristic such as race, color, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, religion, or other characteristic....

 in Croatia, such as the phrase Srbe na vrbe! (meaning "hang Serbs on the willow
Willow
Willows, sallows, and osiers form the genus Salix, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere...

 trees!"). In 2004, for example, an Orthodox church was spray-paint
Spray painting
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating through the air onto a surface. The most common types employ compressed gas—usually air—to atomize and direct the paint particles. Spray guns evolved from airbrushes, and the two are usually distinguished by their size and the...

ed with pro-Ustaše graffiti. Police have sped up responses to the appearance of extreme right wing graffiti and other hate-based vandalism. During some protests in Croatia, supporters of Ante Gotovina
Ante Gotovina
Ante Gotovina is a former Senior Corporal of the French Foreign Legion and former Lieutenant General of the Croatian Army who served in the Croatian War for Independence...

 and other suspected war criminals
War crime
War crimes are serious violations of the laws applicable in armed conflict giving rise to individual criminal responsibility...

 have carried nationalist
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

 symbols and pictures of Ante Pavelić.

In 2003, an attempt was made to amend the Croatian penal code by adding articles prohibiting the public display of Nazi symbols, the propagation of Nazi ideology, historical revisionism
Historical revisionism
In historiography, historical revisionism is the reinterpretation of orthodox views on evidence, motivations, and decision-making processes surrounding a historical event...

  and holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in World War II, usually referred to as the Holocaust. The key claims of Holocaust denial are: the German Nazi government had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews, Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas...

. However, this attempt was prevented by the Croatian constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

al court in the same year. An amendment was added in 2006 to prohibit any type of hate crime
Hate crime
In crime and law, hate crimes occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her perceived membership in a certain social group, usually defined by racial group, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, social status or...

 based on factors such as race, color
Human skin color
Human skin color is primarily due to the presence of melanin in the skin. Skin color ranges from almost black to white with a pinkish tinge due to blood vessels underneath. Variation in natural skin color is mainly due to genetics, although the evolutionary causes are not completely certain...

, gender
Gender
Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. Depending on the context, the discriminating characteristics vary from sex to social role to gender identity...

, sexual orientation
Sexual orientation
Sexual orientation describes a pattern of emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to the opposite sex, the same sex, both, or neither, and the genders that accompany them. By the convention of organized researchers, these attractions are subsumed under heterosexuality, homosexuality,...

, religion
Religion
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

 or nation
Nation
A nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, and/or history. In this definition, a nation has no physical borders. However, it can also refer to people who share a common territory and government irrespective of their ethnic make-up...

al origin. In 2007, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n authorities launched a criminal investigation into the widespread display of Ustaše symbols at the May 12 gathering of Croatian nationalists in Bleiburg
Bleiburg
Bleiburg is a small town in the south Austrian state of Carinthia , south-east of Klagenfurt , in the district of Völkermarkt, some four kilometres from the border with Slovenia....

, Austria.

On May 17, 2007, a concert in Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

 by Thompson
Thompson (band)
Thompson is a Croatian rock band. The group was founded by Marko Perković "Thompson", who is often identified with the band itself, "Thompson" being his stage name. Perković is the songwriter and lead vocalist...

, a popular Croatian singer, was attended by 60,000 people, many of them wearing Ustaše uniforms. Some gave Ustaše salutes and shouted the Ustaše slogan "Za dom spremni" (for the homeland – ready!). This event prompted the Jerusalem office of the Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
The Simon Wiesenthal Center , with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, was established in 1977 and named for Simon Wiesenthal, the Nazi hunter. According to its mission statement, it is "an international Jewish human rights organization dedicated to repairing the world one step at a time...

 to publicly issue a protest to the Croatian president, Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić is a Croatian politician and former President of Croatia. Before his ten-year presidential term between 2000 and 2010 he held the posts of Speaker of the Croatian Parliament , Prime Minister of Croatia , the last President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia , Secretary General...

.

Estonia

There have been alleged neo-Nazi activities in Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

. In November 2006, the government passed a law banning the display of Nazi symbols
Nazi symbolism
The twentieth century German Nazi Party was notable for its extensive use of graphic symbolism, most notably the Hakenkreuz , which it used as its principal symbol, and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany....

.

In 2006, Roman Ilin, a Jewish theatre director from St. Petersburg, Russia, was attacked by neo-Nazis when returning from an underground tunnel after a rehearsal. Ilin subsequently accused Estonian police of indifference after filing the incident. When a dark-skinned French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 student was attacked in Tartu
Tartu
Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual and cultural hub, especially since it is home to Estonia's oldest and most renowned university. Situated 186 km southeast of Tallinn, the...

, the head of an association of foreign students claimed the attack as characteristic of a wave of neo-Nazi violence. However an Estonian police official stated that there were only a few cases involving foreign students over the previous two years.

The United Nations Human Rights Council
United Nations Human Rights Council
The United Nations Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations System. The UNHRC is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights , and is a subsidiary body of the United Nations General Assembly...

 Special Rapporteur's Report of 2008 noted that non-governmental organizations devoted to human rights as well as community representatives had pointed out that neo-Nazi groups are currently active in Estonia—particularly in Tartu—and have perpetrated acts of violence against non-European minorities.

Parliamentary bodies of the member states of Inter-Parliamentary Union's geopolitical group Eurasia (comprising Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan) passed a resolution in 2007, in response to the relocation of a Soviet World War II war memorial
Bronze Soldier of Tallinn
The Bronze Soldier is the informal name of a controversial Soviet World War II war memorial in Tallinn, Estonia, built at the site of several war graves, which were relocated to the nearby Tallinn Military Cemetery in 2007...

 by the Government, expressing their collective "deep concern over the neo-Nazi sentiments in Estonia."

Neo-Nazi groups in Estonia and neighboring Latvia have staged parades celebrating the Nazi units of the Baltic states, which fought against the forces of the Soviet Union in the Second World War. Efraim Zuroff
Efraim Zuroff
Efraim Zuroff is an Israeli historian of American origin, who has played a role in bringing Nazis indicted for war crimes to trial...

 of the United States-based Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
The Simon Wiesenthal Center , with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, was established in 1977 and named for Simon Wiesenthal, the Nazi hunter. According to its mission statement, it is "an international Jewish human rights organization dedicated to repairing the world one step at a time...

 commented on some of the attendees: "dozens of foreign neo-Nazis clearly [demonstrated] the danger that they will encourage the rebirth of fascism and racist extremism."

France

Neo-Nazi organizations in France are outlawed, yet a significant number exist. Legal far-right groups are also numerous, and include the Bloc identitaire
Bloc identitaire
The Bloc Identitaire is a French nationalist political group. It was founded in 2003 by some former members of Unité Radicale and several other nationalist sympathizers, including Fabrice Robert, former Unité Radicale member, former elected representative of the National Front and also former...

, created by former members of Christian Bouchet
Christian Bouchet
Christian Bouchet is a French far right journalist and politician. An exponent of the Third Position, with sympathies to National Bolshevism....

's Unité Radicale
Unité Radicale
Unité Radicale was a French far-right political group close to the Third Position and National Bolshevism thesis. It was founded in June 1998 from the merger of Groupe Union Défense and Nouvelle Résistance/Jeune Résistance/Union des Cercles Résistance, issued from Nouvelle Résistance, and dissolved...

group. Close to National Bolshevism
National Bolshevism
National Bolshevism is a political movement that claims to combine elements of nationalism and Bolshevism. It is often anti-capitalist in tone, and sympathetic towards certain nationalist forms of communism and socialism...

 and Third Position
Third Position
Third Position is a revolutionary nationalist political ideology that emphasizes its opposition to both communism and capitalism. Advocates of Third Position politics typically present themselves as "beyond left and right", instead claiming to syncretize radical ideas from both ends of the...

 ideologies, Unité Radicale was dissolved in 2002 following Maxime Brunerie
Maxime Brunerie
Maxime Brunerie is a man who attempted to assassinate French President Jacques Chirac on July 14, 2002 in Paris, during the Bastille Day parade on the Champs-Élysées....

's assassination attempt on July 14, 2002 against then President Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
Jacques René Chirac is a French politician who served as President of France from 1995 to 2007. He previously served as Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988 , and as Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995.After completing his studies of the DEA's degree at the...

. Christian Bouchet had previously been a member of Nouvelle Résistance
Nouvelle Résistance
Nouvelle Résistance was a French far right group created in August 1991 by Christian Bouchet as an offshoot of Troisième Voie , which was headed by Bouchet. Dissolved in 1997, NR described themselves as "national revolutionary" and part of the National Bolshevism and Third Position movement...

(NR), an off-shoot of Troisième Voie (Third Way) which described itself as "nationalist revolutionary". Although Nouvelle Résistance at first opposed the "national conservatives" of Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French far right-wing and nationalist politician who is founder and former president of the Front National party. Le Pen has run for the French presidency five times, most notably in 2002, when in a surprise upset he came second, polling more votes in the first round than...

's National Front, it finally changed strategy, adopting the slogan "Less Leftism! More Fascism! " Nouvelle Résistance was also a successor to Jean-François Thiriart
Jean-François Thiriart
Jean-François Thiriart was a Belgian far right politician.-Youth:Initially a Socialist, Thiriart eventually adopted a form of non-Marxist, Nationalist Socialism....

's Jeune Europe
Jeune Europe
Jeune Europe was an Europeanist movement formed by Jean Thiriart in Belgium. Emile Lecerf, a later editor of the Nouvel Europe Magazine, was one of Thiriart's associates....

neo-Nazi Europeanist movement of the 1960s, which had participated in the National Party of Europe
National Party of Europe
The National Party of Europe was an initiative undertaken by a number of political parties in Europe during the 1960s to help increase cross-border co-operation and work towards European unity....

, along with Oswald Mosley
Oswald Mosley
Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet, of Ancoats, was an English politician, known principally as the founder of the British Union of Fascists...

's Union Movement
Union Movement
The Union Movement was a right-wing political party founded in Britain by Oswald Mosley. Where Mosley had previously been associated with a peculiarly British form of fascism, the Union Movement attempted to redefine the concept by stressing the importance of developing a European nationalism...

, Otto Strasser
Otto Strasser
Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser was a German politician and 'left-wing' member of the National Socialist German Workers Party. Strasser was part of the ‘left-wing’ faction of the party, along with his brother Gregor Strasser, and broke from the party due to disputes with the ‘Hitlerite’ faction...

 and other groups and individuals.

Germany

In Germany immediately after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Allied forces
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 and the new German government attempted to prevent the creation of new Nazi movements through a process known as denazification
Denazification
Denazification was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology. It was carried out specifically by removing those involved from positions of influence and by disbanding or rendering...

. The West German government had passed strict laws prohibiting Nazis from publicly expressing their beliefs as well as barring them from the political process. Displaying the swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing form in counter clock motion or its mirrored left-facing form in clock motion. Earliest archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient...

 was an offense punishable by up to one year imprisonment. There was little overt neo-Nazi activity in Europe until the 1960s. However, some former Nazis retained their political beliefs, and passed them down to new generations.

After German reunification
German reunification
German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany , and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23. The start of this process is commonly referred by Germans as die...

 in the 1990s, neo-Nazi groups gained more followers, mostly among disaffected teenagers in the former East Germany. These gangs were formed under their dislike of the communist system installed after WWII, then the system collapsed in 1989. Many of the groups that increased their membership this way were new, having arisen amidst the economic collapse and high unemployment in the former East Germany. They have also had an aversion to people from Slavic countries (especially Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

) and people of other national backgrounds who moved from the former West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

 into the former German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
The German Democratic Republic , informally called East Germany by West Germany and other countries, was a socialist state established in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city...

 after Germany was reunited. Much of their ideology was similar to Strasserism.

According to the preliminary version of the annual report of Germany's interior intelligence service (Verfassungsschutz) for 2010, there are currently 25,000 right-wing extremists living in Germany, including 5,600 neo-Nazis. Neo-Nazi organizations, related and derivative symbols and Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in World War II, usually referred to as the Holocaust. The key claims of Holocaust denial are: the German Nazi government had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews, Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas...

 are outlawed in Germany according to the German Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch § 86a
Strafgesetzbuch § 86a
The German Strafgesetzbuch in § 86a outlaws "use of symbols of unconstitutional organisations". This concerns Nazi symbolism in particular and is part of the denazification efforts following the fall of the Third Reich....

) and § 130 (public incitement).

Greece

The most notable Greek neo-Nazi political organization is Golden Dawn (Chrysi Avyi). According to numerous journalist accounts, the Greek police does very little – if anything – to quell Chrysi Avyi's violent activities, avoiding to arrest or bring the neo-Nazis to justice. Another Greek neo-Nazi group is the strasserist organization "Mavros Krinos" (Μαύρος Κρίνος – Black Lily).

A few Golden Dawn members participated in the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
The Bosnian War or the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides...

 in the Greek Volunteer Guard
Greek Volunteer Guard
The Greek Volunteer Guard was a unit of Greek volunteers that fought in the Bosnian War on the side of Bosnian Serbs...

 (GVG). A few GVG volunteers were present in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
Srebrenica is a town and municipality in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Bosnian Serb entity of Republika Srpska. Srebrenica is a small mountain town, its main industry being salt mining and a nearby spa. During the Bosnian War, the town was the site of the July 1995 massacre,...

 during the Srebrenica massacre. Spiros Tzanopoulos, a GVG sergeant who took part in the attack against Srebrenica, said many of the Greek volunteers participated in the war because they were members of Golden Dawn.

Israel

Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 has seen a surge of neo-Nazi activity in the past decade, linked to the arrival of over 1.2 million immigrants from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. In August 2007, Israeli police broke up Patrol 35
Patrol 35
Patrol 35 was an Israeli neo-Nazi organization led by Erik Bonite, who goes by the alias "Ely the Nazi". The group's members were aged 16 to 19 and it was based in Petah Tikva, near Tel Aviv...

, a cell in Petah Tikva
Petah Tikva
Petah Tikva known as Em HaMoshavot , is a city in the Center District of Israel, east of Tel Aviv.According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, at the end of 2009, the city's population stood at 209,600. The population density is approximately...

 made up of eight young immigrants from the former Soviet Union, which had been attacking foreign workers and homosexuals, and which had been vandalizing synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

s with Nazi images.

The Soviet Union-born neo-Nazis are reported to operate in cities across Israel, and have been described as of being influenced by the rise of neo-Nazism in Europe. Widely publicized arrests have led to a call to reform the Law of Return
Law of Return
The Law of Return is Israeli legislation, passed on 5 July 1950, that gives Jews the right of return and settlement in Israel and gain citizenship...

 to permit the revocation of Israeli citizenship for – and the subsequent deportation of – neo-Nazis.

Mongolia

Neo-Nazism is a growing political force in Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest...

. From 2008, Mongolian Neo-Nazi groups have defaced public and private buildings in Ulan Bator, smashed Chinese
Chinese people
The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following:*People with Han Chinese ethnicity ....

 shopkeepers' windows, and killed moderate Mongols. The Neo-Nazi Mongols' targets for violence are Chinese, Koreans, Mongol women who sleep with Chinese men, and LGBT
LGBT
LGBT is an initialism that collectively refers to "lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender" people. In use since the 1990s, the term "LGBT" is an adaptation of the initialism "LGB", which itself started replacing the phrase "gay community" beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, which many within the...

 people. They wear Nazi uniforms and revere the Mongolian Empire and Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

. Observers have noted the irony of Neo-Nazi Mongols, because Nazi Germany killed Soviet prisoners of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 with Mongolian features. Some have ascribed it to poor historical education
Education in Mongolia
Mongolia's education system has undergone major changes in the past century. The educational reforms during communist times were a stark break with traditional education that was often religious and esoteric. These reforms were modeled on Soviet education systems and greatly expanded access to...

. Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was Reichsführer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. As Chief of the German Police and the Minister of the Interior from 1943, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo...

, the head of the SS, did authorize during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 a public policy
Public policy
Public policy as government action is generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. In general, the foundation is the pertinent national and...

 study on the governmental methods of Genghis Khan so as to find out how best to administer the Eastern Territories
Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories
The Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories was created by Adolf Hitler on July 1941 and headed by the Nazi theoretical expert and Baltic German, Alfred Rosenberg. Alfred Meyer was Rosenberg's deputy. This ministry was created to control the vast areas captured by the Germans in...

.

Russia

Many Russian neo-Nazis, openly admire Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 and use the German Nazi swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing form in counter clock motion or its mirrored left-facing form in clock motion. Earliest archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient...

 as their symbol. Russian neo-Nazis are characterized by racism
Racism
Racism is the belief that inherent different traits in human racial groups justify discrimination. In the modern English language, the term "racism" is used predominantly as a pejorative epithet. It is applied especially to the practice or advocacy of racial discrimination of a pernicious nature...

, anti-Semitism, Islamophobia
Islamophobia
Islamophobia describes prejudice against, hatred or irrational fear of Islam or MuslimsThe term dates back to the late 1980s or early 1990s, but came into common usage after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States....

 and extreme xenophobia
Xenophobia
Xenophobia is defined as "an unreasonable fear of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange". It comes from the Greek words ξένος , meaning "stranger," "foreigner" and φόβος , meaning "fear."...

 towards people from Asia. Their ideology centers on defending Russian national identity against what they perceive as a takeover by minority groups such as Jews, Southern Caucasians
Caucasian peoples
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region. There are more than50 ethnic groups living in the region.-Peoples speaking Caucasian languages:...

 or Northern Caucasians
Caucasian peoples
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region. There are more than50 ethnic groups living in the region.-Peoples speaking Caucasian languages:...

 people, Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

ns, Roma people and Muslims.

Russian National Unity Group (RNE)
Russian National Unity
Russian National Unity or All-Russian civic patriotic movement "Russian National Unity" , is a far right, fascist political party and paramilitary organization based in Russia and operating in states with Russian-speaking populations. It was founded by the ultra-nationalist Alexander Barkashov...

, founded in 1990 and led by Alexander Barkashov
Alexander Barkashov
Alexander Petrovich Barkashov is a Russian political leader on the extreme right. In 1990, Barkashov founded an ultra-nationalist political party and paramilitary organization called Russian National Unity.-Biography:Born in Moscow, of peasant roots, Barkashov's father was an electrician and...

, claims to have members in 250 cities. RNE adopted the swastika as its symbol, and sees itself as the avant-garde of a coming national revolution. It is critical of other major far right organizations, such as the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
The Liberal Democratic Party of Russia , Liberal'no-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii is a political party in Russia. Since its founding in 1991, it has been led by the charismatic and controversial figure Vladimir Zhirinovsky...

 (LDPR). Historian Walter Laqueur calls RNE far closer to the Nazi model than the LDPR. RNE publishes several news sheets; one of them, Russky poryadok, claims to have a circulation of 150,000. Full members of RNE are called Soratnik (comrades in arms), receive combat training at locations near Moscow, and many of them work as security officers or armed guards.

The National-Social Union, led by Viktor Yakushev wants to establish a national state and an economy emphasizing Aryan
Aryan race
The Aryan race is a concept historically influential in Western culture in the period of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or...

 values, and aims to stop Zionists
Zionism
Zionism is a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state...

 from establishing global hegemony. Yakushev believes that all Freemasons
Freemasonry
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge...

 are homosexuals, that members of inferior races have one fewer chromosome than members of superior races, and that Jews are "biorobots" programmed to commit suicide.

Social roots

The collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 in the early 1990s caused great economic and social problems, including widespread unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment , as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks...

 and poverty
Poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

. Several far right
Far right
Far-right, extreme right, hard right, radical right, and ultra-right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. Far-right politics may involve anti-immigration and anti-integration stances towards groups that are...

 paramilitary
Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

 organizations were able to tap into popular discontent, particularly among marginalized, lesser educated and unemployed youths. Of the three major age groups — youths, adults, and the elderly — youths may have been hit the hardest. The elderly suffered due to inadequate (or unpaid) pensions, but they found effective political representation in the Communists
Communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

, and generally had their concerns addressed through better budget allocations. Adults, although often suffering financially and psychologically due to job losses, were generally able to find new sources of income. Moreover, Soviet-era indoctrination into the ideals of egalitarianism
Egalitarianism
Egalitarianism is a trend of thought that favors equality of some sort among moral agents, whether persons or animals. Emphasis is placed upon the fact that equality contains the idea of equity of quality...

 predisposed most adults against the message of right-wing extremists.
There are about 41% of russians that sympathise with the movement.

Activities

Russian neo-Nazis have made it an explicit goal to take over the country by force, and have put serious effort into preparing for this. Paramilitary
Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

 organizations operating under the guise of sports clubs have trained their members in squad tactics, hand to hand combat
Hand to hand combat
Hand-to-hand combat is a lethal or nonlethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range that does not involve the use of firearms or other distance weapons...

 and weapons handling. They have stockpiled and used weapons, often illegally.

On August 15, 2007, Russian authorities arrested a student for allegedly posting a video on the Internet which appears to show two Muslim migrant workers being beheaded in front of a red and black swastika flag. Alexander Verkhovsky, the head of a Moscow-based center that monitors hate crime in Russia, said, "It looks like this is the real thing. The killing is genuine ... There are similar videos from the Chechen war. But this is the first time the killing appears to have been done intentionally." A Russian neo-Nazi group called the Russian National Socialist Party
Russian National Socialist Party
The Russian National Socialist Party is a neo-Nazi party based in Russia. The group achieved international notoriety in 2007 when a video appeared on the internet purportedly showing members decapitating two immigrants.-Development:The party grew out of the followers of Konstantin Kasimovsky, a...

 claimed responsibility for the murders.

Serbia

Neo-Nazism in Serbia is mostly based on national and religious factors. Nacionalni stroj
Nacionalni stroj
Nacionalni stroj is the name of a Neo-Nazi organisation that was formed in Serbia and managed to attract some attention with their antisemitic demonstrations in 2005. Eighteen of its leading members were arrested and face lengthy prison terms...

 (National Alignment), a neo-Nazi organization from the Vojvodina
Vojvodina
Vojvodina, officially called Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province of Serbia. Its capital and largest city is Novi Sad...

 region, orchestrated several incidents. Charges were laid against 18 of the leading members, and each of them faced up to eight years in prison. This organization is now banned in Serbia.

Sweden

Neo-Nazi activities in Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 have been limited to sects and groups of white-supremacist "skinheads", none of which has more than a few hundred members.

United States

There are a number of small neo-Nazi groups in the United States. The earliest example of this ideological tendency can be traced back to 1924 and the formation of the Free Society of Teutonia
Free Society of Teutonia
The Free Society of Teutonia was a German American organisation that was associated with a strong support for Nazism.The FST was formed in 1924 by four German immigrants, including Nazi Party members Fritz and Peter Gissibl, based in Chicago...

. This organization merged with the Friends of New Germany
Friends of New Germany
Friends of New Germany was an organization founded in 1933 in support of the Nazi party in the United States.In May 1933, the Nazi Deputy Führer, Rudolf Hess, authorized a German citizen living in the United States, Heinz Spanknobel, to form a Nazi American organization. The result was the creation...

 to form the German-American Bund
German-American Bund
The German American Bund or German American Federation was an American Nazi organization established in the 1930s...

. The German-American Bund and similar groups achieved limited popularity in the 1930s (at one point staging a rally with over 20,000 people), but rapidly faded with the onset of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The groups either disbanded or were dismantled by force of law (such as the 1942 sedition trial) during the war period. After the war, new organizations formed, with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles.

The National States' Rights Party
National States' Rights Party
National States' Rights Party was a far right, white supremacist party that briefly played a minor role in the politics of the United States.-Foundation:...

, founded in 1958 by Edward Reed Fields and J. B. Stoner
J. B. Stoner
Jesse Benjamin "J.B." Stoner was an American segregationist who was convicted in 1980 of the bombing in 1958 of the Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama.J. B...

 countered racial integration in the American South with Nazi-inspired publications and iconography. The American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party
The American Nazi Party was an American political party founded by discharged U.S. Navy Commander George Lincoln Rockwell. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, Rockwell initially called it the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists , but later renamed it the American Nazi Party in...

 founded by George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell was the founder of the American Nazi Party. Rockwell was a major figure in the neo-Nazi movement in the United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis.-Early life:Rockwell was born in Bloomington,...

 in 1959 achieved high-profile coverage in the press through their public demonstrations.

Organizations which report upon American neo-Nazi activities include the Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
The Anti-Defamation League is an international non-governmental organization based in the United States. Describing itself as "the nation's premier civil rights/human relations agency", the ADL states that it "fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, defends democratic ideals and protects...

 and Southern Poverty Law Center
Southern Poverty Law Center
The Southern Poverty Law Center is an American nonprofit civil rights organization noted for its legal victories against white supremacist groups; legal representation for victims of hate groups; monitoring of alleged hate groups, militias and extremist organizations; and educational programs that...

. While a small minority of American neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground
Underground resistance
Underground resistance may refer to*Underground Resistance , a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan*Underground resistance during World War II, the inhabitants of various locales resisting the rule of the Nazis, the Empire of Japan, and Mussolini...

, so they can recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment.

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering...

 guarantees freedom of speech
Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without censorship. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used...

, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing Nazi, racist, anti-Semitic, homophobic, and, to an unaffiliated extent, Neo-Confederate
Neo-confederate
Neo-Confederate is a term used by some academics and political activists to describe the views of various groups and individuals who have a positive belief system concerning the historical experience of the Confederate States of America, the Southern secession, and the Southern United...

 views. A First Amendment landmark was the "Skokie Affair
National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie
National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie, 432 U.S. 43 , was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with freedom of assembly.-Facts of the case:...

", in which neo-Nazis threatened to march in a predominantly Jewish suburb of Chicago. The march never took place in Skokie, but the court ruling allowed the neo-Nazis to stage a series of demonstrations in the Chicago area. Neo-Nazis are known to attack and harass Jewish Americans, African Americans, homosexuals, Asian American
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

s, Latinos, Arab American
Arab American
An Arab American is a United States citizen or resident of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identifies themselves as Arab. Arab Americans trace ancestry to any of the various waves of immigrants of the countries comprising the Arab World...

s, Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, Catholics, and people with different political or religious opinions. American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations, and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere.

Religion

Neo Nazis have a variety of Religions, but do not practice Judaism. Some such as Aryan Nations practice the Christian Identity, whose beliefs claim that Whites are the true descendants of Israel and the Jesus Christ was an "Aryan" .

Other follow Neo pagan religion which has many varieties, such as Odinism, wicca, and wontanism.

See also

  • American History X
    American History X
    American History X is a 1998 American drama film directed by Tony Kaye and starring Edward Norton and Edward Furlong. It was distributed by New Line Cinema....

  • Aryan race
    Aryan race
    The Aryan race is a concept historically influential in Western culture in the period of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or...

  • The Believer
  • Esoteric Hitlerism
  • Far right
    Far right
    Far-right, extreme right, hard right, radical right, and ultra-right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. Far-right politics may involve anti-immigration and anti-integration stances towards groups that are...

  • Fascism
    Fascism
    Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to rejuvenate their nation based on commitment to the national community as an organic entity, in which individuals are bound together in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood...

  • Fourth Reich
    Fourth Reich
    The Fourth Reich is a term used to describe a theoretical future successor of the Third Reich.-Neo-Nazism:In terms of neo-Nazism, the Fourth Reich is envisioned as featuring Aryan supremacy, anti-Semitism, Lebensraum, aggressive militarism and totalitarianism...

  • Holocaust denial
    Holocaust denial
    Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in World War II, usually referred to as the Holocaust. The key claims of Holocaust denial are: the German Nazi government had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews, Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas...

  • List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as hate groups
  • List of neo-Nazi bands
  • List of neo-Nazi organizations
  • List of white nationalist organizations
  • National Socialist black metal
    National Socialist black metal
    National Socialist black metal is black metal that promotes National Socialist beliefs through their lyrics and imagery. These beliefs often include: white supremacy, racial separatism, antisemitism, heterosexism, and Nazi interpretations of paganism or Satanism...

  • Nazi chic
    Nazi chic
    Nazi chic refers to the approving use of Nazi-era style, imagery, and paraphernalia in clothing and popular culture, especially when used for taboo breaking or shock value rather than out of genuine nazist sympathies....

  • Nazi punk
    Nazi punk
    A Nazi punk is a neo-Nazi who is part of the punk subculture. The term also describes the related type of music. Nazi punk music sounds similar to most forms of punk rock, but it differs by having lyrics that express hatred of Jews, homosexuals, communists, anarchists, anti-racists and people who...

  • Nazism
    Nazism
    Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

  • Neo-fascism
    Neo-Fascism
    Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. The term neo-fascist may apply to groups that express a specific admiration for Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism or any other fascist leader/state...

  • Rock Against Communism
    Rock Against Communism
    Rock Against Communism started out as series of white power rock concerts in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s, and is also a name for the subsequent music genre. Despite its name, RAC song lyrics rarely focus on the specific topic of anti-communism...

  • Romper Stomper
    Romper Stomper
    -Awards:The film was nominated for nine Australian Film Institute Awards. It won Best Achievement in Sound, Best Actor in a Lead Role and Best Original Music Score.-Box office and Reception:Romper Stomper grossed $3,165,034 at the box office in Australia,...

  • Stormfront (website)
    Stormfront (website)
    Stormfront is a white nationalist and supremacist neo-Nazi Internet forum that has been described as the Internet's first major hate site.Stormfront began as an online bulletin board system in the early 1990s before being established as a website in 1995 by former Ku Klux Klan leader and white...

  • White nationalism
    White nationalism
    White nationalism is a political ideology which advocates a racial definition of national identity for white people. White separatism and white supremacism are subgroups within white nationalism. The former seek a separate white nation state, while the latter add ideas from social Darwinism and...

  • White power skinhead


Primary sources

  • Imperium by Francis Parker Yockey
    Francis Parker Yockey
    Francis Parker Yockey was an American political thinker and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium: The Philosophy of History and Politics, published under the pen name Ulick Varange in 1948. This 600-page book argues for a culture-based, totalitarian path for the...

     (using the pen name Ulick Varange, 1947, ISBN 0-911038-10-8)
  • The Lightning and the Sun
    The Lightning and the Sun
    The Lightning and the Sun is a book by Savitri Devi Mukherji which outlines her philosophy of history along with her critique of the modern world.-Brief summation:...

    by Savitri Devi, (1958 (written 1948–56; ISBN 0-937944-14-9)
  • White Power by George Lincoln Rockwell
    George Lincoln Rockwell
    George Lincoln Rockwell was the founder of the American Nazi Party. Rockwell was a major figure in the neo-Nazi movement in the United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis.-Early life:Rockwell was born in Bloomington,...

     (1967; John McLaughlin, 1996, ISBN 0-9656492-8-8)
  • This Time The World by George Lincoln Rockwell
    George Lincoln Rockwell
    George Lincoln Rockwell was the founder of the American Nazi Party. Rockwell was a major figure in the neo-Nazi movement in the United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis.-Early life:Rockwell was born in Bloomington,...

     (1961; Liberty Bell Publications
    Liberty Bell Publications
    Liberty Bell Publications is a publishing entity based in Reedy, West Virginia. It re-issued an imprint in the 1980s of the 299-page compilation of the Protocols of Zion expanded with excerpts from Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent...

    , 2004, ISBN 1-59364-014-5)
  • National Socialism: Vanguard of the Future
    National Socialism: Vanguard of the Future
    National Socialism: Vanguard of the Future - Selected Writings of Colin Jordan is a book collecting eleven essays advocating National Socialism...

    , Selected Writings of Colin Jordan
    Colin Jordan
    John Colin Campbell Jordan was a leading figure in postwar Neo-Nazism in Britain. In the far-right nationalist circles of the 1960s, Jordan represented the most explicitly 'Nazi' inclination in his open use of the styles and symbols of the Third Reich.Through organisations such as the National...

    (ISBN 87-87063-40-9)
  • Merrie England– 2000 by Colin Jordan
    Colin Jordan
    John Colin Campbell Jordan was a leading figure in postwar Neo-Nazism in Britain. In the far-right nationalist circles of the 1960s, Jordan represented the most explicitly 'Nazi' inclination in his open use of the styles and symbols of the Third Reich.Through organisations such as the National...

  • The Turner Diaries
    The Turner Diaries
    The Turner Diaries is a novel written in 1978 by William Luther Pierce under the pseudonym "Andrew Macdonald"...

    by William Pierce
    William Luther Pierce
    William Luther Pierce III was the leader of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and one of the most important ideologists of the white nationalist movement. Pierce originally worked as an assistant professor of physics at Oregon State University, before he became involved in...

     (under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald), novel (1978, ISBN 1-56980-086-3) .
  • Siege
    Siege (book)
    Siege is a book collecting the articles of American neo-Nazi James Mason, former leader of the National Socialist Liberation Front and Universal Order. It collects the text of Mason's SIEGE newsletter and other propaganda, arranging it according to topic...

    : The Collected Writings of James Mason
    James Mason (National Socialist)
    James N. Mason is an American National Socialist.- American National Socialist :When he was 14 years old he began communicating with George Lincoln Rockwell's American Nazi Party and became a youth member until his 18th birthday when he was sworn into the renamed National Socialist White People's...

    edited and introduced by Michael M. Jenkins (Storm Books, 1992) or introduced by Ryan Schuster (Black Sun Publications, ISBN 0-9724408-0-1)
  • Hunter by William Pierce
    William Luther Pierce
    William Luther Pierce III was the leader of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and one of the most important ideologists of the white nationalist movement. Pierce originally worked as an assistant professor of physics at Oregon State University, before he became involved in...

     (under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald), novel (National Vanguard Books, 1984, ISBN 0-937944-09-2)
  • Faith of the Future by Matt Koehl
    Matt Koehl
    Matt Koehl is the leader of a self-defined religious organization called the New Order. As deputy commander, in August 1967 Koehl succeeded the assassinated George Lincoln Rockwell as 'Commander' of the National Socialist White People's Party...

     (New Order; Rev edition, 1995, ISBN 0-9648533-0-2)
  • Serpent's Walk by Randolph D. Calverhall (pseudonym
    Pseudonym
    A pseudonym is a name that a person assumes for a particular purpose and that differs from his or her original orthonym...

    ), novel
    Novel
    A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....

     (National Vanguard Books, 1991, ISBN 0-937944-05-X)
  • The Nexus periodical edited by Kerry Bolton
    Kerry Bolton
    Kerry Raymond Bolton is a far-right , conservative and social credit writer in New Zealand who has been active in several organisations...

  • Deceived, Damned & Defiant– The Revolutionary Writings of David Lane by David Lane, foreword by Ron McVan, preface by Katja Lane (Fourteen Word Press, 1999, ISBN 0-9678123-2-1)
  • Resistance Magazine published by National Vanguard Books

Academic surveys

  • The Beast Reawakens
    The Beast Reawakens
    The Beast Reawakens is a book by investigative journalist Martin A. Lee. It tells the story of old-guard fascists' strategy for survival and the revival of fascism...

    by Martin A. Lee, (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1997, ISBN 0-316-51959-6)
  • Fascism
    Fascism (book)
    Fascism is a 1995 book edited by Roger Griffin. It is a reader, in the Oxford Readers series, which assembles the writings of various authors on the topic of fascism and the far-right...

    (Oxford Readers) by Roger Griffin
    Roger Griffin
    Roger D. Griffin is a British academic political theorist at Oxford Brookes University, England. His recent efforts have focused on a definition and examination of fascism...

     (1995, ISBN 0-19-289249-5)
  • Beyond Eagle and Swastika
    Beyond Eagle and Swastika
    Beyond Eagle and Swastika: German Nationalism Since 1945 is a book by Kurt P. Tauber. It is a history and analysis of anti-democratic nationalism in postwar Germany.It was completed in 1963 after ten years of research...

    : German nationalism since 1945
    by Kurt P. Tauber (Wesleyan University
    Wesleyan University
    Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college founded in 1831 and located in Middletown, Connecticut. According to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Wesleyan is the only Baccalaureate College in the nation that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and...

     Press; [1st ed.] edition, 1967)
  • Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890
    Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890
    The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890....

    edited by Philip Rees
    Philip Rees
    Philip Rees is a writer and librarian in charge of acquisitions at the J. B. Morrell Library, University of York. He has written books on fascism and the extreme right.-Works:...

    , (1991, ISBN 0-13-089301-3)
  • Hitler's Priestess
    Hitler's Priestess
    Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth and Neo-Nazism is a book by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. It is a biography of Savitri Devi....

    : Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism
    by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke
    Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke
    Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke B.A. , D.Phil. is a professor of Western Esotericism at University of Exeter and author of several books on esoteric traditions....

     (1998, ISBN 0-8147-3111-2 and ISBN 0-8147-3110-4)
  • Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey
    Francis Parker Yockey
    Francis Parker Yockey was an American political thinker and polemicist best known for his neo-Spenglerian book Imperium: The Philosophy of History and Politics, published under the pen name Ulick Varange in 1948. This 600-page book argues for a culture-based, totalitarian path for the...

     and the Postwar Fascist International
    by Kevin Coogan
    Kevin Coogan
    Kevin Coogan is an American investigative journalist. He is the author of the biography Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International....

    , (Autonomedia, Brooklyn, NY 1998, ISBN 1-57027-039-2)
  • Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party by William H. Schmaltz (Potomac Books, 2000, ISBN 1-57488-262-7)
  • American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party by Frederick J. Simonelli (University of Illinois Press
    University of Illinois Press
    The University of Illinois Press , is a major American university press and part of the University of Illinois system. Founded in 1918, the press publishes some 120 new books each year, plus 33 scholarly journals, and several electronic projects...

    , 1999, ISBN 0-252-02285-8)
  • Fascism in Britain: A History, 1918–1985 by Richard C. Thurlow (Olympic Marketing Corp, 1987, ISBN 0-631-13618-5)
  • Fascism Today
    Fascism Today
    Fascism Today: A World Survey is a book by historian Angelo Del Boca and Mario Giovana. It is a survey of radical right-wing movements, from the roots of fascism to a present day country-by-country discussion....

    : A World Survey
    by Angelo Del Boca and Mario Giovana (Pantheon Books, 1st American edition, 1969)
  • Swastika and the Eagle: Neo-Naziism in America Today by Clifford L Linedecker (A & W Pub, 1982, ISBN 0-89479-100-1)
  • The Silent Brotherhood: Inside America's Racist Underground by Kevin Flynn and Gary Gerhardt (Signet Book; Reprint edition, 1995, ISBN 0-451-16786-4)
  • "White Power, White Pride!": The White Separatist Movement in the United States by Betty A. Dobratz with Stephanie L. Shanks-Meile (hardcover, Twayne Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0-8057-3865-7); a.k.a. The White Separatist Movement in the United States: White Power White Pride (paperback, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8018-6537-9)
  • Encyclopedia of White Power
    Encyclopedia of White Power
    Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right is a reference book edited by Jeffrey Kaplan. It focuses on the White Power movement, mainly U.S...

    : A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right
    by Jeffrey Kaplan
    Jeffrey Kaplan (academic)
    Dr. Jeffrey Kaplan is an American academic who has authored and edited a number of books on religious violence, terrorism and the far right. He is an Associate Professor of Religion at the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh and a member of the Board of Academic Advisors of the university's Institute...

     (Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc, 2000, ISBN 0-7425-0340-2)
  • Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan
    Ku Klux Klan
    Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically...

    , Aryan Nations
    Aryan Nations
    Aryan Nations is a white supremacist religious organization originally based in Hayden Lake, Idaho. Richard Girnt Butler founded the group in the 1970s, as an arm of the Christian Identity organization Church of Jesus Christ–Christian...

    , Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture
    by James Ridgeway
    James Ridgeway
    James Ridgeway is a prominent American investigative journalist.-Career history:Ridgeway began his career as a contributor to The New Republic, Ramparts, and The Wall Street Journal....

     (Thunder's Mouth Press; 2nd edition, 1995, ISBN 1-56025-100-X)
  • A Hundred Little Hitlers: The Death of a Black Man, the Trial of a White Racist, and the Rise of the Neo-Nazi Movement in America by Elinor Langer (Metropolitan Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8050-5098-1)
  • The Racist Mind
    The Racist Mind
    The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen is a book by Raphael S. Ezekiel. It attempts to provide sociological and psychological insights into White supremacist groups and their members....

    : Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen
    by Raphael S. Ezekiel (Penguin (Non-Classics); Reprint edition, 1996, ISBN 0-14-023449-7)
  • Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke
    Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke
    Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke B.A. , D.Phil. is a professor of Western Esotericism at University of Exeter and author of several books on esoteric traditions....

     (2001, ISBN 0-8147-3155-4)
  • Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe by Paul Hockenos (Routledge; Reprint edition, 1994, ISBN 0-415-91058-7)
  • The Dark Side of Europe: The Extreme Right Today by Geoff Harris, (Edinburgh University Press; New edition, 1994, ISBN 0-7486-0466-9)
  • The Far Right in Western and Eastern Europe by Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan (Longman Publishing Group; 2nd edition, 1995, ISBN 0-582-23881-1)
  • The Radical Right in Western Europe
    The Radical Right in Western Europe
    The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis is a book written by Herbert Kitschelt in collaboration with Anthony J. McGann. It is a political science study of far right political party experiences in seven countries of Western Europe....

    : A Comparative Analysis
    by Herbert Kitschelt (University of Michigan Press; Reprint edition, 1997, ISBN 0-472-08441-0)
  • Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe edited by Martin Schain, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay (Palgrave Macmillan; 1st edition, 2002, ISBN 0-312-29593-6)
  • The Fame of a Dead Man's Deeds: An Up-Close Portrait of White Nationalist William Pierce by Robert S. Griffin (Authorhouse, 2001, ISBN 0-7596-0933-0)
  • Nation and Race
    Nation and Race
    Nation and Race: The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture is a book edited by Jeffrey Kaplan and Tore Bjørgo. It collects the papers of an international conference held in New Orleans, from December 8, 1995 to December 11, 1995....

    : The Developing Euro-American Racist Subculture
    by Jeffrey Kaplan, Tore Bjorgo (Northeastern University Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55553-331-0)
  • Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism by Mattias Gardell (Duke University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8223-3071-7)
  • The Nazi conception of law (Oxford pamphlets on world affairs) by J. Walter Jones, Clarendon (1939)
  • Hearst, Ernest, Chip Berlet, and Jack Porter. “Neo-Nazism.” Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 15. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 74–82. 22 vols. Thomson Gale.

External links

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