Nadir (topography)

Encyclopedia

In topography, a

than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically

, a nadir is a local minimum

of elevation. A nadir may be the lowest point of a dry basin

or depression

, or the deepest point of a body of water

or ice

. The nadir of a body of water is often called a "deep", as in the Challenger Deep

, the nadir of the Earth's oceans.

**nadir**is a point on a surface that is lower in elevationElevation

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface ....

than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically

Mathematics

Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, a nadir is a local minimum

Maxima and minima

In mathematics, the maximum and minimum of a function, known collectively as extrema , are the largest and smallest value that the function takes at a point either within a given neighborhood or on the function domain in its entirety .More generally, the...

of elevation. A nadir may be the lowest point of a dry basin

Depression (geology)

A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions may be formed by various mechanisms.Structural or tectonic related:...

or depression

Depression (geology)

A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions may be formed by various mechanisms.Structural or tectonic related:...

, or the deepest point of a body of water

Body of water

A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, usually covering the Earth or another planet. The term body of water most often refers to large accumulations of water, such as oceans, seas, and lakes, but it may also include smaller pools of water such as ponds, puddles or...

or ice

Glacier

A glacier is a large persistent body of ice that forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. At least 0.1 km² in area and 50 m thick, but often much larger, a glacier slowly deforms and flows due to stresses induced by its weight...

. The nadir of a body of water is often called a "deep", as in the Challenger Deep

Challenger Deep

The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the oceans, with a depth of to by direct measurement from submersibles, and slightly more by sonar bathymetry . It is located at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group...

, the nadir of the Earth's oceans.

## See also

- Depression (geology)Depression (geology)A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions may be formed by various mechanisms.Structural or tectonic related:...
- Endorheic basin
- GeoidGeoidThe geoid is that equipotential surface which would coincide exactly with the mean ocean surface of the Earth, if the oceans were in equilibrium, at rest , and extended through the continents . According to C.F...
- List of places on land with elevations below sea level
- Maxima and minimaMaxima and minimaIn mathematics, the maximum and minimum of a function, known collectively as extrema , are the largest and smallest value that the function takes at a point either within a given neighborhood or on the function domain in its entirety .More generally, the...
- Summit (topography)Summit (topography)In topography, a summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation...

(antonym) - TopographyTopographyTopography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those ofplanets, moons, and asteroids...