Miguel Trovoada
Miguel dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa Trovoada (born December 27, 1936) was Prime Minister
Heads of government of São Tomé and Príncipe
-Prime Ministers of São Tomé and Príncipe :-Affiliations:-See also:*São Tomé and Príncipe**Heads of State of São Tomé and Príncipe...

 (1975–1979) and President (1991-2001) of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is a Portuguese-speaking island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two islands: São Tomé and Príncipe, located about apart and about , respectively, off...

. Currently he is the Executive Secretary of the Gulf of Guinea Commission.


Born in the city of São Tomé
São Tomé
-Transport:São Tomé is served by São Tomé International Airport with regular flights to Europe and other African Countries.-Climate:São Tomé features a tropical wet and dry climate with a relatively lengthy wet season and a short dry season. The wet season runs from October through May while the...

, Trovoada attended secondary school in Angola
Angola (Portugal)
Angola is the common name by which the Portuguese colony in southwestern Africa was known across different periods of time...

 before studying law at the University of Lisbon in Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

. In 1960 he cofounded, with former classmate Manuel Pinto da Costa
Manuel Pinto da Costa
Manuel Pinto da Costa is a Santoméan economist and politician who served as the first President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1975 to 1991. He was again elected as President in August 2011 and took office on 3 September 2011....

, the Committee for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe (CLSTP) - which was renamed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe
Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe
The Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party or Movimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe/Partido Social Democrata, in Portuguese, is one of the main political parties in São Tomé and Príncipe...

 in 1972. Operating out of its headquarters in Gabon
Gabon , officially the Gabonese Republic is a state in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, and with the Republic of the Congo curving around the east and south. The Gulf of Guinea, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean is to the west...

, Trovoada served as the movement's foreign affairs director from 1961 to 1975 and was instrumental in gaining Organization of African Unity (OAU) recognition for the MLSTP in 1972.

After the fall of the Estado Novo regime in Portugal due to the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

, Trovoada served as the São Tomé and Príncipe first Prime Minister (12 July 1975 - March 1979). However, relations between the President and Prime Minister soon deteriorated, culminating in 1979 when President da Costa abolished the post of Prime Minister. Several months later, Trovoada was charged with plotting against the government. After being arrested and detained for 21 months, Trovoada went into exile in France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. In May 1990, following the adoption of a democratic constitution, he returned to his country and campaigned for president.

In 1991, Trovoada was elected President in the country's first multiparty presidential election
São Tomé and Príncipe presidential election, 1991
Presidential elections were held for the first time in São Tomé and Príncipe on 3 March 1991, as previously the President had been elected by the National Assembly. Ultimately only one candidate, Miguel Trovoada, ran for office, and was elected unopposed...

; he was re-elected
São Tomé and Príncipe presidential election, 1996
Presidential elections were held in São Tomé and Príncipe on 30 June 1996. The election was contested by four candidates; incumbent President Miguel Trovoada, former President Manuel Pinto da Costa, Alda Bandeira, a former Foreign Minister, and former Prime Minister Carlos da Graça...

 in 1996. When he first ran for President, he was not a member of any political party, but by the end of his first term he had formed a new political party - Independent Democratic Action
Independent Democratic Action
The Independent Democratic Action is a political party in São Tomé and Príncipe. It was established in 1991 and is a politically centrist party....


His government was briefly overthrown in a coup d'etat
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

from 15 August 1995 to 21 August 1995.

President Trovoada's term ended on 3 September 2001 when Fradique de Menezes
Fradique de Menezes
Fradique Bandeira Melo de Menezes was the President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 2003 to 2011.-Early life:Menezes was born on the then Portuguese colony of São Tomé in 1942, the son of a Portuguese man and a local woman. He attended high school in Portugal...

 was sworn in as the new head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...


Trovoada took office as Executive Secretary of the Gulf of Guinea Commission on 21 January 2009.

Miguel Trovoada's son Patrice Trovoada
Patrice Trovoada
Patrice Emery Trovoada is a São Toméan politician. He has been Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe since 14 August 2010; previously he was Prime Minister from February 2008 to June 2008.Trovoada was born in Libreville, Gabon...

 is also a politician and served as Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe in 2008.
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