Microfluidics
Overview
 
Microfluidics deals with the behavior, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale.
Typically, micro means one of the following features:
  • small volumes (nl, pl, fl)
  • small size
  • low energy consumption
  • effects of the micro domain

It is a multidisciplinary field intersecting engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

, physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, microtechnology
Microtechnology
Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre .In the 1960s, scientists learned that by arraying large numbers of microscopic transistors on a single chip, microelectronic circuits could be built that dramatically improved performance, functionality, and reliability, all while...

 and biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

, with practical
applications to the design of systems in which such small volumes of fluids will be used.
Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips
DNA microarray
A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome...

, lab-on-a-chip
Lab-on-a-chip
A lab-on-a-chip is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size. LOCs deal with the handling of extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters. Lab-on-a-chip devices are a subset of MEMS devices...

 technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is a physical science that studies the effects on material bodies, and on radiation in regions of space, of transfer of heat and of work done on or by the bodies or radiation...

 technologies.
The behavior of fluids at the microscale can differ from 'macrofluidic' behavior in that factors such as surface tension
Surface tension
Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. It is revealed, for example, in floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects to run on the water surface...

, energy dissipation, and fluidic resistance start to dominate the system.
Encyclopedia
Microfluidics deals with the behavior, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale.
Typically, micro means one of the following features:
  • small volumes (nl, pl, fl)
  • small size
  • low energy consumption
  • effects of the micro domain

It is a multidisciplinary field intersecting engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

, physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, microtechnology
Microtechnology
Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre .In the 1960s, scientists learned that by arraying large numbers of microscopic transistors on a single chip, microelectronic circuits could be built that dramatically improved performance, functionality, and reliability, all while...

 and biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

, with practical
applications to the design of systems in which such small volumes of fluids will be used.
Microfluidics emerged in the beginning of the 1980s and is used in the development of inkjet printheads, DNA chips
DNA microarray
A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome...

, lab-on-a-chip
Lab-on-a-chip
A lab-on-a-chip is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size. LOCs deal with the handling of extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters. Lab-on-a-chip devices are a subset of MEMS devices...

 technology, micro-propulsion, and micro-thermal
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is a physical science that studies the effects on material bodies, and on radiation in regions of space, of transfer of heat and of work done on or by the bodies or radiation...

 technologies.

Microscale behavior of fluids

The behavior of fluids at the microscale can differ from 'macrofluidic' behavior in that factors such as surface tension
Surface tension
Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. It is revealed, for example, in floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects to run on the water surface...

, energy dissipation, and fluidic resistance start to dominate the system. Microfluidics studies how these behaviors change, and how they can be worked around, or exploited for new uses.

At small scales (channel diameters of around 100 nanometers to several hundred micrometers) some interesting and sometimes unintuitive properties appear. In particular, the Reynolds number (which compares the effect of momentum of a fluid to the effect of viscosity
Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear or tensile stress. In everyday terms , viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity...

) can become very low. A key consequence of this is that fluids, when side-by-side, do not necessarily mix in the traditional sense; molecular transport between them must often be through diffusion
Diffusion
Molecular diffusion, often called simply diffusion, is the thermal motion of all particles at temperatures above absolute zero. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, viscosity of the fluid and the size of the particles...

.

High specificity of chemical and physical properties (concentration, pH, temperature, shear force, etc.) can also be ensured resulting in more uniform reaction conditions and higher grade products in single and multi-step reactions.

Effects of micro domain

  • laminar flow
    Laminar flow
    Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers. At low velocities the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are no cross currents...

  • surface tension
    Surface tension
    Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. It is revealed, for example, in floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects to run on the water surface...

  • electrowetting
    Electrowetting
    Electrowetting is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface with an applied electric field.-History:...

  • fast thermal relaxation
  • electrical surface charges
  • diffusion
    Diffusion
    Molecular diffusion, often called simply diffusion, is the thermal motion of all particles at temperatures above absolute zero. The rate of this movement is a function of temperature, viscosity of the fluid and the size of the particles...


Key application areas

Microfluidic structures include micropneumatic systems, i.e. microsystems for the handling of off-chip fluids (liquid pumps, gas valves, etc.), and microfluidic structures for the on-chip handling of nano- and picolitre volumes. To date, the most successful commercial application of microfluidics is the inkjet printhead
Inkjet printer
An inkjet printer is a type of computer printer that creates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper. Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer and range from small inexpensive consumer models to very large professional machines that can cost up to thousands of...

. Significant research has been applied to the application of microfluidics for the production of industrially relevant quantities of material.

Advances in microfluidics technology are revolutionizing molecular biology
Molecular biology
Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry...

 procedures
for enzymatic analysis (e.g., glucose
Glucose
Glucose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate...

 and lactate
Lactic acid
Lactic acid, also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in various biochemical processes and was first isolated in 1780 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Lactic acid is a carboxylic acid with the chemical formula C3H6O3...

 assays), DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 analysis
(e.g., polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction
The polymerase chain reaction is a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence....

 and high-throughput sequencing
Sequencing
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure of an unbranched biopolymer...

), and proteomics
Proteomics
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. The term "proteomics" was first coined in 1997 to make an analogy with...

.
The basic idea of microfluidic biochips is to integrate assay
Assay
An assay is a procedure in molecular biology for testing or measuring the activity of a drug or biochemical in an organism or organic sample. A quantitative assay may also measure the amount of a substance in a sample. Bioassays and immunoassays are among the many varieties of specialized...

 operations such as detection,
as well as sample pre-treatment and sample preparation on one chip.

An emerging application area for biochips is clinical pathology
Clinical pathology
Clinical pathology , Laboratory Medicine , Clinical analysis or Clinical/Medical Biology , is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as...

,
especially the immediate point-of-care diagnosis of diseases.
In addition, microfluidics-based devices, capable of continuous sampling and real-time
testing of air/water samples for biochemical toxins and other dangerous
pathogens, can serve as an always-on "bio-smoke alarm" for early warning.

Continuous-flow microfluidics

These technologies are based on the manipulation of continuous
liquid flow through microfabricated channels.
Actuation of liquid flow is implemented either by external pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 sources, external mechanical pumps,
integrated mechanical micropump
Micropump
Although any kind of small pump is often referred to as micropump, a more accurate and up-to-date definition restricts this term to pumps with functional dimensions in the micrometre range. Such pumps are of special interest in microfluidic research, and have become available for industrial product...

s, or by combinations of capillary forces and electrokinetic mechanisms. Continuous-flow microfluidic operation is the mainstream approach because it is easy to implement and less sensitive to protein fouling problems. Continuous-flow devices
are adequate for many well-defined and simple biochemical applications, and for certain tasks such
as chemical separation, but they are less suitable for tasks requiring a high
degree of flexibility or ineffect fluid manipulations. These closed-channel
systems are inherently difficult to integrate and scale because the parameters
that govern flow field vary along the flow path making the fluid flow at any
one location dependent on the properties of the entire system. Permanently etched microstructures also lead to limited reconfigurability and poor fault tolerance capability.

Process monitoring capabilities in continuous-flow systems can be achieved with highly sensitive microfluidic flow sensors based on MEMS
Microelectromechanical systems
Microelectromechanical systems is the technology of very small mechanical devices driven by electricity; it merges at the nano-scale into nanoelectromechanical systems and nanotechnology...

 technology which offer resolutions down to the nanoliter range.

Digital (droplet-based) microfluidics

Alternatives to the above closed-channel continuous-flow systems include novel open structures, where discrete, independently controllable droplets
are manipulated on a substrate using electrowetting
Electrowetting
Electrowetting is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface with an applied electric field.-History:...

. Following the analogy of digital microelectronics, this approach is referred to as digital microfluidics
Digital microfluidics
Digital microfluidics is an alternative technology for lab-on-a-chip systems based upon micromanipulation of discrete droplets. Microfluidic processing is performed on unit-sized packets of fluid which are transported, stored, mixed, reacted, or analyzed in a discrete manner using a standard set of...

. Le Pesant et al. pioneered the use of electrocapillary forces to move droplets on a digital track. The "fluid transistor" pioneered by Cytonix
Cytonix
Cytonix is an American manufacturing company.The company was founded in 1984 as "Cyto Fluidics" at the University of Maryland's technology incubator to develop materials and applications for a "fluid transistor" concept based on electrowetting and digital microfluidics...

 also played a role. The technology was subsequently commercialized by Duke University. By using discrete unit-volume droplets, a microfluidic function can be reduced to a set of repeated basic operations, i.e., moving one unit of fluid over one unit of
distance. This "digitization" method facilitates the use of a hierarchical
and cell-based approach for microfluidic biochip design. Therefore, digital
microfluidics offers a flexible and scalable system architecture as well as
high fault-tolerance capability. Moreover, because each droplet can be
controlled independently, these systems also have dynamic reconfigurability,
whereby groups of unit cells in a microfluidic array can be reconfigured to
change their functionality during the concurrent execution of a set of
bioassays. Although droplets are manipulated in confined microfluidic channels, since the control on droplets is not independent, it should not be confused as "digital microfluidics". One common actuation method for digital microfluidics is electrowetting
Electrowetting
Electrowetting is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface with an applied electric field.-History:...

-on-dielectric (EWOD). Many lab-on-a-chip applications have been demonstrated within the digital microfluidics paradigm using electrowetting. However, recently other techniques for droplet manipulation have also been demonstrated using Surface Acoustic Wave
Surface acoustic wave
]A surface acoustic wave is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elasticity, with an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the substrate.-Discovery:...

s, optoelectrowetting, mechanical actuation, etc.

DNA chips (microarrays)

Early biochips were based on the idea of a DNA microarray
DNA microarray
A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome...

,
e.g., the GeneChip DNAarray from Affymetrix
Affymetrix
Affymetrix is a company that manufactures DNA microarrays; it is based in Santa Clara, California, United States. The company was founded by Dr. Stephen Fodor in 1992. It began as a unit in Affymax N.V...

, which is a piece of glass,
plastic or silicon substrate on which pieces of DNA (probes) are affixed in a microscopic
array. Similar to a DNA microarray
DNA microarray
A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome...

, a protein array is a miniature array
where a multitude of different capture agents, most frequently monoclonal
antibodies, are deposited on a chip surface; they are used to determine the
presence and/or amount of proteins in biological samples, e.g., blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

. A
drawback of DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 and protein arrays is that they are neither
reconfigurable nor scalable after manufacture. Digital microfluidics
Digital microfluidics
Digital microfluidics is an alternative technology for lab-on-a-chip systems based upon micromanipulation of discrete droplets. Microfluidic processing is performed on unit-sized packets of fluid which are transported, stored, mixed, reacted, or analyzed in a discrete manner using a standard set of...

 has been described as a means for carrying out Digital PCR.

Molecular biology

In addition to microarrays biochips have been designed for two-dimensional electrophoresis
Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis, also called cataphoresis, is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. This electrokinetic phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1807 by Reuss , who noticed that the application of a constant electric...

, transcriptome
Transcriptome
The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules, including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and other non-coding RNA produced in one or a population of cells.-Scope:...

 analysis, and PCR amplification. Other applications include various electrophoresis and liquid chromatography applications for proteins and DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

, cell separation, in particular blood cell separation, protein analysis, cell manipulation and analysis including cell viability analysis and microorganism
Microorganism
A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters, or no cell at all...

 capturing.

Evolutionary biology

By combining microfluidics with landscape ecology
Landscape ecology
Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between urban development and ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems...

 and nanofluidics
Nanofluidics
Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer characteristic dimensions...

, a nano/micro fabricated fluidic landscape can be constructed by building local patches of bacterial habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

 and connecting them by dispersal corridors. The resulting landscapes can be used as physical implementations of an adaptive landscape, by generating a spatial mosaic of patches of opportunity distributed in space and time. The patchy nature of these fluidic landscapes allows for the study of adapting bacterial cells in a metapopulation
Metapopulation
A metapopulation consists of a group of spatially separated populations of the same species which interact at some level. The term metapopulation was coined by Richard Levins in 1970 to describe a model of population dynamics of insect pests in agricultural fields, but the idea has been most...

 system. The evolutionary ecology
Evolutionary ecology
Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection of ecology and evolutionary biology. It approaches the study of ecology in a way that explicitly considers the evolutionary histories of species and the interactions between them. Conversely, it can be seen as an approach to the study of evolution that...

 of these bacterial systems in these synthetic ecosystems allows for using biophysics
Biophysics
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems. Studies included under the branches of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems...

 to address questions in evolutionary biology.

Microbial behavior

The ability to create precise and carefully controlled chemoattractant gradients makes microfluidics the ideal tool to study motility and chemotaxis
Chemotaxis
Chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food by swimming towards the highest concentration of food molecules,...

 of microorganisms, including bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

  and the broad range of organisms that form the marine microbial loop
Microbial loop
The microbial loop describes a trophic pathway in the marine microbial food web where dissolved organic carbon is returned to higher trophic levels via the incorporation into bacterial biomass, and coupled with the classic food chain formed by phytoplankton-zooplankton-nekton. The term microbial...

, responsible for regulating much of the oceans' biogeochemistry.

Cellular biophysics

By rectifying the motion of individual swimming bacteria, microfluidic structures can be use to extract mechanical motion from a population of motile bacterial cells. This way, bacteria-powered rotors can be built.

Optics

The merger of microfluidics and optics is typical known as optofluidics
Optofluidics
Optofluidics is research field using microfluidics and optics. While the idea of fluid-optical devices can be traced back at least as far as the 18th century, and devices such as liquid mirror telescopes and dye lasers are relatively mature technologies, modern microfluidics presents a unique...

. An example of an optofluidic device is a Tuneable Microlens Array

Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE)

Acoustic droplet ejection
Acoustic droplet ejection
Acoustic droplet ejection uses a pulse of ultrasound to move low volumes of fluids without any physical contact. This technology focuses acoustic energy into a fluid sample in order to eject droplets as small as a picoliter...

 uses a pulse of ultrasound
Ultrasound
Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is thus not separated from "normal" sound based on differences in physical properties, only the fact that humans cannot hear it. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is...

 to move low volumes of fluids (typically nanoliters or picoliters) without any physical contact. This technology focuses acoustic energy into a fluid sample in order to eject droplets as small as a millionth of a millionth of a liter (picoliter = 10−12 liter). ADE technology is a very gentle process, and it can be used to transfer proteins, high molecular weight DNA and live cells without damage or loss of viability. This feature makes the technology suitable for a wide variety of applications including proteomics
Proteomics
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. The term "proteomics" was first coined in 1997 to make an analogy with...

 and cell-based assays.

Fuel cells

Microfluidic fuel cells can use laminar flow to separate the fuel and its oxidant to control the interaction of the two fluids without a physical barrier as would be required in conventional fuel cells.

Ceramic Pot Water Filters

In recent times, developing nations are adopting clay based ceramic water filters for cost effective water filtration. These water filters made from molds manufactured by mixing clay and waste plant materials such as rice husk, sawdust,dried plant biomass etc. in some volumetric or weight proportions. These vessels are in use from very early ages in Africa and Asia. The initial water percolation through there clay pots are alkaline. Recently it was found that this alkaline nature can be easily predicted by use of simple models incorporating micro/nano fluid transport processes such as Capillary Osmosis, Thermo Osmosis, Electro-osmosis and Discharge from these clay ceramic devices.

A tool for cell biological research

Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular environement, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We can list here diverse advantages for microbiology of these tools:
  • Microenvironmental control: ranging from mechanical environment to chemical environment
  • Precise spatiotemporal concentration gradients
  • Mechanical deformation
  • Force measurements of adherent cells
  • Confining cells
  • Exerting a controlled force
  • Fast and precise temperature control
  • Electric field integration
  • Cell culture

See also

  • Fluidics
    Fluidics
    Fluidics or Fluidic logic is the use of a fluid to perform analog or digital operations similar to those performed with electronics.The physical basis of fluidics is pneumatics and hydraulics, based on the theoretical foundation of fluid dynamics...

  • Nanofluidics
    Nanofluidics
    Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer characteristic dimensions...

  • List of microfluidics research groups
  • List of microfluidics related companies
  • Lab on a chip
  • Digital microfluidics
    Digital microfluidics
    Digital microfluidics is an alternative technology for lab-on-a-chip systems based upon micromanipulation of discrete droplets. Microfluidic processing is performed on unit-sized packets of fluid which are transported, stored, mixed, reacted, or analyzed in a discrete manner using a standard set of...

  • μFluids@Home
  • Micropump
    Micropump
    Although any kind of small pump is often referred to as micropump, a more accurate and up-to-date definition restricts this term to pumps with functional dimensions in the micrometre range. Such pumps are of special interest in microfluidic research, and have become available for industrial product...


Review Papers


External links

  • Biomicrofluidics, an open access, peer reviewed journal published by the American Institute of Physics
    American Institute of Physics
    The American Institute of Physics promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies. The AIP is made up of various member societies...

  • MEMSuniverse, a Videos and animations of Microfluidic devices and their applications
  • Supercool microfluidics - Our understanding of life and technology at extreme temperatures could become clearer thanks to a microfluidic device that studies ice formation – reported in Chemical Technology from the Royal Society of Chemistry
    Royal Society of Chemistry
    The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences." It was formed in 1980 from the merger of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new...

  • From microfluidic applications to nanofluidic phenomena - a Chem Soc Rev themed issue showcasing the latest advances in microfluidic and nanofluidic research, guest edited by Albert van den Berg, Harold Craighead and Peidong Yang. Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry
    Royal Society of Chemistry
    The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences." It was formed in 1980 from the merger of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new...


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