A microarray is a multiplex
Multiplex (assay)
A multiplex assay is a type of laboratory procedure that simultaneously measures multiple analytes in a single assay. It is distinguished from procedures that measure one or a few analytes at a time...

A lab-on-a-chip is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size. LOCs deal with the handling of extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters. Lab-on-a-chip devices are a subset of MEMS devices...

. It is a 2D array on a solid substrate (usually a glass slide or silicon thin-film cell) that assays large amounts of biological material
Biological material
Biological material may refer to:* Tissue , or just tissue* Biomass, living or dead biological matter, often plants grown as fuel* Biomass , the total mass of living biological matter* Biomaterials...

 using high-throughput screening
High-throughput screening
High-throughput screening is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry. Using robotics, data processing and control software, liquid handling devices, and sensitive detectors, High-Throughput Screening allows a...


Types of microarrays include:
  • DNA microarray
    DNA microarray
    A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome...

    s, such as cDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide microarrays and SNP microarrays
  • MMChips, for surveillance of microRNA populations
  • Protein microarray
    Protein microarray
    A protein microarray, sometimes referred to as a protein binding microarray,provides a multiplex approach to identify protein–protein interactions, to identify the substrates of protein kinases, to identify transcription factor protein-activation, or to identify the targets of biologically active...

  • Tissue microarray
    Tissue microarray
    Tissue microarrays consist of paraffin blocks in which up to 1000 separate tissue cores are assembled in array fashion to allow multiplex histological analysis.-History:...

  • Cellular microarray
    Cellular microarray
    A cellular microarray, is a laboratory tool that allows for the multiplex interrogation of living cells on the surface of a solid support. The support, sometimes called a "chip", is spotted with varying materials, such as antibodies, proteins, or lipids, which can interact with the cells, leading...

    s (also called transfection microarrays)
  • Chemical compound microarray
    Chemical Compound Microarray
    A chemical compound microarray is a collection of organic chemical compounds spotted on a solid surface, such as glass and plastic. This microarray format is very similar to DNA microarray, protein microarray and antibody microarray...

  • Antibody microarray
    Antibody microarray
    An antibody microarray is a specific form of protein microarrays, a collection of capture antibodies are spotted and fixed on a solid surface, such as glass, plastic and silicon chip for the purpose of detecting antigens...

  • Carbohydrate arrays (glycoarrays)
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