Biguanide can refer to a molecule, or to a class of drugs based upon this molecule. Biguanides can function as oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment...
class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetesis a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Diabetes is often initially managed by increasing exercise and...
, in particular, in overweight
Overweight is generally defined as having more body fat than is optimally healthy. Being overweight is a common condition, especially where food supplies are plentiful and lifestyles are sedentary...
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems...
people and those with normal kidney function. Its use in gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy . It is widely accepted as a disease only in the United States, there is some question whether the condition is natural during pregnancy...
has been limited by safety concerns. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common female endocrine disorders. PCOS is a complex, heterogeneous disorder of uncertain aetiology, but there is strong evidence that it can to a large degree be classified as a genetic disease....
, and has been investigated for other diseases where insulin resistance
Insulin resistance is a physiological condition where the natural hormone insulin becomes less effective at lowering blood sugars. The resulting increase in blood glucose may raise levels outside the normal range and cause adverse health effects, depending on dietary conditions. Certain cell types...
may be an important factor. Metformin works by suppressing glucose production by the liver.
Metformin is the only antidiabetic drug that has been conclusively shown to prevent the cardiovascular complications of diabetes.