. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence
salesman Johann Tetzel
with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X
in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
at the Diet of Worms
in 1521 resulted in his excommunication
by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw
by the Emperor.
Luther taught that salvation
is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ
as redeemer from sin.
1512 Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (''Doctor in Biblia'').
1512 Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
1517 Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
1520 Pope Leo X threatens to excommunicate Martin Luther in papal bull ''Exsurge Domine''.
1520 Martin Luther burns his copy of the papal bull ''Exsurge Domine'' outside Wittenberg's Elster Gate.
1521 Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull ''Decet Romanum Pontificem''.
1521 Martin Luther's first appearance before the Diet of Worms to be examined by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the other estates of the empire.
1521 Martin Luther speaks to the assembly at the Diet of Worms, refusing to recant his teachings.
1521 The Diet of Worms ends when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw.
1525 Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns.
When we are inclined to boast of our position [as Christians] we should remember that we are but Gentiles, while the Jews are of the lineage of Christ. We are aliens and in-laws; they are blood relatives, cousins, and brothers of our Lord. Therefore, if one is to boast of flesh and blood the Jews are actually nearer to Christ than we are.