Mandrill
Overview
The mandrill is a primate
Primate
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates , which contains prosimians and simians. Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment...

 of the Old World monkey
Old World monkey
The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. The Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, inhabiting a range of environments from tropical rain forest to savanna, shrubland and mountainous...

 (Cercopithecidae) family, closely related to the baboon
Baboon
Baboons are African and Arabian Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. There are five species, which are some of the largest non-hominoid members of the primate order; only the mandrill and the drill are larger...

s and even more closely to the drill
Drill (mammal)
The Drill is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae , closely related to the Baboons and even more closely to the Mandrill.-Description:...

. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in genus Papio
Baboon
Baboons are African and Arabian Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. There are five species, which are some of the largest non-hominoid members of the primate order; only the mandrill and the drill are larger...

, but recent research has determined they should be separated into their own genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

, Mandrillus
Mandrillus
Mandrillus is the genus of the mandrill and its close relative the drill. These two species are closely related to the baboons, and until recently were lumped together as a single species of baboon. Both Mandrillus species have long furrows on either side of their elongated snouts. The adult male...

. The mandrill is the world's largest species of monkey. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin FRS was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.He published his theory...

 wrote, "no other member in the whole class of mammals is coloured in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrills".
The mandrill is perhaps the most colorful primate.
Encyclopedia
The mandrill is a primate
Primate
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates , which contains prosimians and simians. Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment...

 of the Old World monkey
Old World monkey
The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. The Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, inhabiting a range of environments from tropical rain forest to savanna, shrubland and mountainous...

 (Cercopithecidae) family, closely related to the baboon
Baboon
Baboons are African and Arabian Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. There are five species, which are some of the largest non-hominoid members of the primate order; only the mandrill and the drill are larger...

s and even more closely to the drill
Drill (mammal)
The Drill is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae , closely related to the Baboons and even more closely to the Mandrill.-Description:...

. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in genus Papio
Baboon
Baboons are African and Arabian Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. There are five species, which are some of the largest non-hominoid members of the primate order; only the mandrill and the drill are larger...

, but recent research has determined they should be separated into their own genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

, Mandrillus
Mandrillus
Mandrillus is the genus of the mandrill and its close relative the drill. These two species are closely related to the baboons, and until recently were lumped together as a single species of baboon. Both Mandrillus species have long furrows on either side of their elongated snouts. The adult male...

. The mandrill is the world's largest species of monkey. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin FRS was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.He published his theory...

 wrote, "no other member in the whole class of mammals is coloured in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrills".

Description

The mandrill is perhaps the most colorful primate. It has an olive green or dark grey pelage with yellow and black bands and a white belly. Its hairless face has an elongated muzzle with distinctive characteristics such as a red stripe down the middle and protruding blue ridges on the sides. It also has red nostrils and lips, a yellow beard and white tuffs. The areas around the genitals and the anus are multi-colored, being colored red, pink, blue, scarlet, and purple. They also have pale pink ischial callosities
Callosity
A callosity is another name for callus, a piece of skin that has become thickened as a result of repeated contact and friction.- Monkeys :When occurring on an animal's buttocks, as with baboons, they are specifically called ischial callosities...

. The coloration of the animal is more pronounced in dominant adult males. Both sexes have a patch of skin, surrounded by bristly hairs, on their chests that are used in olfactory communication. These, too, are more pronounced in dominant adult males. Males also have longer canines than females, with an average of 4.5 cm (1.8 in) and 1.0 cm, respectively.

Males average 25–35 kg (55-77 lb), females are less than half that weight (11–14 kg, or 25-30 lb). Unusually large males can weigh 50 kg (110 lb). The average male is 81–90 cm (32–36 in) and the female is 56–66 cm (22–26 in), with the tail adding another 5–8 cm (2–3 in). They can survive up to 31 years in captivity. Females reach sexual maturity at about 3.5 years. The mandrill has one of the greatest sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Examples of such differences include differences in morphology, ornamentation, and behavior.-Examples:-Ornamentation / coloration:...

s among the primates.

Ecology and activities

The mandrill is found in southern Cameroon
Cameroon
Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon , is a country in west Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon's coastline lies on the...

, Gabon
Gabon
Gabon , officially the Gabonese Republic is a state in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, and with the Republic of the Congo curving around the east and south. The Gulf of Guinea, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean is to the west...

, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a state located in Central Africa. It is the second largest country in Africa by area and the eleventh largest in the world...

. Its distribution is bounded by the Sanaga River to the north and the Ogooué and White rivers to the east. Recent research suggests that mandrill populations north and south of the Ogooué river are so genetically different as to be separate subspecies
Subspecies
Subspecies in biological classification, is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species, ora taxonomic unit in that rank . A subspecies cannot be recognized in isolation: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or two or more, never just one...

. Mandrills prefer to live in tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest
A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator . This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall...

s and forest-savanna mosaic
Forest-savanna mosaic
Forest-savanna mosaic is an transitory ecotone between the tropical moist broadleaf forests of Equatorial Africa and the drier savannas and open woodlands to the north and south of the forest belt...

s. They also live in gallery forest
Gallery forest
Gallery forests are evergreen forests that form as corridors along rivers or wetlands and project into landscapes that are otherwise only sparsely treed such as savannas, grasslands or deserts....

s with savanna areas, riparian forests, rocky forests, agricultural areas and inundated forests and stream beds. Mandrills will cross grass areas within their forest habitat.

The mandrill has an omnivorous diet. It mostly consumes plant matter and consumes over hundred species of plant. It mostly eats fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

, but will also eat leaves
Leaves
-History:Vocalist Arnar Gudjonsson was formerly the guitarist with Mower, and he was joined by Hallur Hallsson , Arnar Ólafsson , Bjarni Grímsson , and Andri Ásgrímsson . Late in 2001 they played with Emiliana Torrini and drew early praise from the New York Times...

, liana
Liana
A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. Lianas are especially characteristic of tropical moist deciduous...

s, bark, stem
Stem
-Science:* Plant stem, the above ground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers   Also see similar:**Stipe **Stipe * Stem cell...

s and fiber
Fiber
Fiber is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread.They are very important in the biology of both plants and animals, for holding tissues together....

s. It also consumes mushrooms and soil. With animals, mandrills mostly eat invertebrates, particularly ant
Ant
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

s, beetle
Beetle
Coleoptera is an order of insects commonly called beetles. The word "coleoptera" is from the Greek , koleos, "sheath"; and , pteron, "wing", thus "sheathed wing". Coleoptera contains more species than any other order, constituting almost 25% of all known life-forms...

s, termite
Termite
Termites are a group of eusocial insects that, until recently, were classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera , but are now accepted as the epifamily Termitoidae, of the cockroach order Blattodea...

s, cricket
Cricket (insect)
Crickets, family Gryllidae , are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers, and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets . They have somewhat flattened bodies and long antennae. There are about 900 species of crickets...

s, spider
Spider
Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs, and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other groups of organisms...

s, snail
Snail
Snail is a common name applied to most of the members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells in the adult stage. When the word is used in its most general sense, it includes sea snails, land snails and freshwater snails. The word snail without any qualifier is however more often...

s and scorpion
Scorpion
Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. They have eight legs and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping claws and the narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger...

s. It will also eat eggs, and occasionally vertebrates such as bird
Bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

s, tortoise
Tortoise
Tortoises are a family of land-dwelling reptiles of the order of turtles . Like their marine cousins, the sea turtles, tortoises are shielded from predators by a shell. The top part of the shell is the carapace, the underside is the plastron, and the two are connected by the bridge. The tortoise...

s, frog
Frog
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura , formerly referred to as Salientia . Most frogs are characterized by a short body, webbed digits , protruding eyes and the absence of a tail...

s, porcupine
Porcupine
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that defend or camouflage them from predators. They are indigenous to the Americas, southern Asia, and Africa. Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents, behind the capybara and the beaver. Most porcupines are about long, with...

s, rat
Rat
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. "True rats" are members of the genus Rattus, the most important of which to humans are the black rat, Rattus rattus, and the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus...

s and shrew
Shrew
A shrew or shrew mouse is a small molelike mammal classified in the order Soricomorpha. True shrews are also not to be confused with West Indies shrews, treeshrews, otter shrews, or elephant shrews, which belong to different families or orders.Although its external appearance is generally that of...

s. Mandrills likely will eat larger vertebrates, such as juvenile bay duiker
Bay Duiker
The Bay Duiker is a forest dwelling Duiker found in Gabon, southern Cameroon and northern Congo as well as Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the southern parts of Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Benin...

s and small antelope. One study found that the Mandrill’s diet was composed of fruit (50.7%), seeds (26.0%), leaves (8.2%), pith (6.8%), flowers (2.7%), and animal foods (4.1%), with other foods making up the remaining (1.4%). Mandrills themselves are preyed on by leopard
Leopard
The leopard , Panthera pardus, is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera, the other three being the tiger, lion, and jaguar. The leopard was once distributed across eastern and southern Asia and Africa, from Siberia to South Africa, but its...

s, crowned eagle
Crowned Eagle
The Crowned Eagle or Crowned Hawk-eagle , is a very large, powerful, crested bird of prey found in sub-Saharan Africa; in Southern Africa it is restricted to suitable habitat in the eastern areas. It is the only extant member of the genus Stephanoaetus...

s and certain snake
Snake
Snakes are elongate, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales...

 species.

While mandrills are mostly terrestrial, they are more arboreal than baboons, and have been found in all forest levels. When on the ground, mandrills walk by digitigrade
Digitigrade
A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes. Digitigrades include walking birds , cats, dogs, and many other mammals, but not plantigrades or unguligrades...

 quadrupedalism. When in the trees, they move by lateral jumps. Mandrills are mostly diurnal, with activities starting in the morning and continuing into the evening. At night they sleep in trees. They sleep at a different site each night. In the wild and in captivity mandrills have been observed using sticks to clean themselves. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/14227783 http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/14215621

Social behavior and reproduction

Mandrills seem to live in large stable groups called "hordes". Hordes often number in the hundreds, possibly averaging around 620 individuals and reaching as many as 845. It is difficult to accurately estimate group size
Group size measures
Many animals, including humans, tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, bands, packs, shoals, or colonies of conspecific individuals. The size of these groups, as expressed by the number of participant individuals, is an important aspect of their social environment...

 in the forest, but filming a group crossing a gap between two forest patches or crossing a road is a reliable way of estimating group size. The largest group verifiably observed in this way contained over 1300 individuals, in Lopé National Park, Gabon — the largest aggregation
Swarm
Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by animals of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction. As a term, swarming is applied particularly to insects, but can also be applied to...

 of non-human primates ever recorded. Year-round residents of these groups are adult females and their dependent offspring. Males live a solitary lifestyle, and only enter hordes during female seasonal sexual cycling, which last three months each year. In addition to hordes and solitary males, smaller groups of 50 individuals have been recorded, though rarely, but never all-male bachelor groups.

The mating season of the mandrill takes place from June to October, which is when sexual swellings occur. They breed every two years. When breeding, a male will follow and guard a female in estrus. Adult males exist in two different forms; the brightly colored and "fatted" dominant males and the paler and "non-fatted" subordinate males. Both males exchange in mating, but only the dominant males are able to sire offspring. Gaining dominance results in an increase testicular volume, reddening of sexual skin on the face and genitalia and heightened secretion of the sternal cutaneous gland. When a male loses dominance, the reverse happens, although the blue ridges remain brightened. When subordinates mate guard a female, the competition between them allows the dominant males to have a greater chance of siring offspring since subordinates outnumber dominates 21 to 1. There is also a dominance hierarchy among females, with reproductive success being displayed in shorter interbirth intervals amongst these alpha figures and the beginning of reproduction at earlier ages.

Mandrill births occur from January to May. Most births in Gabon occur in the wet season, from January to March, and gestation usually lasts 175 days. The inter-birth intervals last 405 days. Young are born with a black natal coat and pink skin. The females do most of the raising of the young. Alloparenting exists in this species, with aunts, sisters and cousins providing care for the young. This allows females to obtain necessary food resources and defend against predation. Males leave their natal groups when they are six years old and become peripheral to the social group.

Mandrills will make a "silent bared-teeth face", where it exposes its teeth by curling back the lips, erects the crest of the head, while shaking the head. This has a peaceful function. A mandrill submits by presenting the rump. With aggression, mandrills will stare, bob their heads and slap the ground. Long distance calls that are made include the roars, crowings and "two-phase grunts", while short distance calls that are made include "yaks", grunts, "k-alarms", "k-sounds", screams, girneys, and grinds.

Status and conservation

The mandrill is considered vulnerable
Vulnerable species
On 30 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 9694 Vulnerable species, subspecies and varieties, stocks and sub-populations.-References:...

, and is affected by the destruction of its evergreen forest habitat, since this reduces the capacity of environments to support mandrill populations. However, the most immediate threat is posed by hunting for their meat (which is highly prized in Gabon). Commercial bushmeat
Bushmeat
Bushmeat initially referred to the hunting of wild animals in West and Central Africa and is a calque from the French viande de brousse. Today the term is commonly used for meat of terrestrial wild animals, killed for subsistence or commercial purposes throughout the humid tropics of the Americas,...

 hunters pose a particular threat to populations which are located close to main roads and towns. Mandrills appear to be most seriously threatened in Congo (Brazzaville
Brazzaville
-Transport:The city is home to Maya-Maya Airport and a railway station on the Congo-Ocean Railway. It is also an important river port, with ferries sailing to Kinshasa and to Bangui via Impfondo...

). Nevertheless, there have been captive-bred individuals that have been successfully reintroduced into the wild.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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