Magaza Masanchi
Magaza Masanchi or Magaza Masanchin (Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын) was a Dungan Communist revolutionary commander and Statesman in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. He participated in the Russian Revolution on the Bolshevik side. Karakunuz in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 was renamed Masanchi after him. He was executed during the Great Purge
Great Purge
The Great Purge was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin from 1936 to 1938...


Early Years

Masanchi was from Alma-Ata and his father worked on a farm.
His father sent him to Almaty
Almaty , also known by its former names Verny and Alma-Ata , is the former capital of Kazakhstan and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500...

 for secondary education in 1902, then to Tashkent
Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan and of the Tashkent Province. The officially registered population of the city in 2008 was about 2.2 million. Unofficial sources estimate the actual population may be as much as 4.45 million.-Early Islamic History:...

 in 1905, where he began to learn Marxism. Later he joined the Communist Party of Russia
Communist Party of Russia
Communist Party of Russia could reasonably refer to:* Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, the first incarnation of the Communist Party* Russian Communist Party , the second incarnation of the Communist Party...

 in 1918 as a Bolshevik.

Masanchi took part in World War I as a member of the Russian Imperial Army. After the Tsar
Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism...

 was overthrown he went to Tashkent.

Career and leadership

During the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

 the Communists were interested in seeking the support of the non Russian Central Asians. Dungans were invited to join the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...


Dungans urban residents joined the Red Army after serving in the Tsarist forces when going back to Bishkek
Bishkek , formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan.Bishkek is also the administrative centre of Chuy Province which surrounds the city, even though the city itself is not part of the province but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan.The name is thought to...

, fighting for the Soviets in Semirech'ye. At the beginning, many Dungan peasants were apathetic to both sides in the Civil War. However, after the White Russians
White movement
The White movement and its military arm the White Army - known as the White Guard or the Whites - was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces.The movement comprised one of the politico-military Russian forces who fought...

 made alliance with the Uzbeks, whose relationship is tense with the Dungans, almost all Dungans decided to support the Bolsheviks, except some Dungan clerics who insisted on Islamism.

Following the orders of Lenin, Masanchi sake on organising Red Army in Middle Asia. On 14 February, 1920, he founded the Dungan Cavalry Regiment, a large majority of Dungan young men joined this division to resist the invasion from White Russians and Uzbek rebels. The Dungan Cavalry Regiment, by the command of Masanchi, launched several key battles, including the Battle of Semirechye (Семиреченская), the Battle of Orenburg(Оренбу́рг), and the battle of Ferghana (Ферганская). On 28 May, 1922, Basmachi army was annihilated. According to the reports of Soviet newspapers, the Uighurs in Ferghana Valley welcomed Dungan army with intensive respect, for the Basmachi army abused women and children in their villages.

After civil war, Masanchi held high position in the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created from the Turkestan Krai of Imperial Russia...

, later in Kazakhstan government. He was also a member of the Soviet secret police.


Masanchi was executed in the Great Purge
Great Purge
The Great Purge was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin from 1936 to 1938...

 on 30 April, 1938. He was rehabilitated
Rehabilitation (Soviet)
Rehabilitation in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states, was the restoration of a person who was criminally prosecuted without due basis, to the state of acquittal...

 in 1965.

External links

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