Almaty
Overview
 
Almaty also known by its former names Verny (Russian: Верный, "Faithful," prior to 1921) and Alma-Ata , is the former capital of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500 (as of September 1, 2008). This represents approximately 9% of the population of the country.

Almaty was the capital of the Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Kazakh SSR for short, was one of republics that made up the Soviet Union.At in area, it was the second largest constituent republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata . Today it is the independent state of...

 and its successor Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1997.
Encyclopedia
Almaty also known by its former names Verny (Russian: Верный, "Faithful," prior to 1921) and Alma-Ata , is the former capital of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

 and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500 (as of September 1, 2008). This represents approximately 9% of the population of the country.

Almaty was the capital of the Kazakh SSR
Kazakh SSR
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Kazakh SSR for short, was one of republics that made up the Soviet Union.At in area, it was the second largest constituent republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata . Today it is the independent state of...

 and its successor Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1997. Despite losing its status as the capital to Astana
Astana
Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

 in 1997, Almaty remains the major commercial center of Kazakhstan. The city is located in a mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan, near the border with Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan , officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the world's six independent Turkic states . Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east...

.

Status

From 1927 to 1936, Almaty was the capital of Kazakh ASSR. From 1936 to 1991, it was the capital of Kazakh SSR. From 1991 to 1997, it was the capital of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

. Almaty remains the largest, most developed, and most ethnically and culturally diverse city in Kazakhstan. The city is located in the foothills of Trans-Ili Alatau
Trans-Ili Alatau
Trans-Ili Alatau , , also spelt as Zailiyski Alatau, Zailiysk Alatau, etc., is a part of the Northern Tian Shan mountain system in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It is the northernmost mountain range of Tian Shan stretching for about 350 km with maximal elevation of 4,973m . The term "Alatau" refers...

 (or Zailiysky Alatau
Trans-Ili Alatau
Trans-Ili Alatau , , also spelt as Zailiyski Alatau, Zailiysk Alatau, etc., is a part of the Northern Tian Shan mountain system in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It is the northernmost mountain range of Tian Shan stretching for about 350 km with maximal elevation of 4,973m . The term "Alatau" refers...

) in the extreme south-east and has a peculiar, relatively mild climate regime with a difficult environmental situation.

In 1997, the capital moved to Astana
Astana
Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

; since then, Almaty has been referred to as the southern capital of Kazakhstan.

Toponymy

The name "Almaty" derives from the Kazakh
Kazakh language
Kazakh is a Turkic language which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages, closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak....

 word for 'apple' (алма), and thus is often translated as "full of apples;" alma is also 'apple' in other Turkic languages, as well as in Hungarian
Hungarian language
Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

. The older Soviet-era
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

 version of its name, Alma-Ata, is an arbitrary composition of two Kazakh words, literally Apple-Father, which does not make sense.
There is great genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity, the level of biodiversity, refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary....

 among the wild apples in the region surrounding Almaty; the region is thought to be the ancestral home of the apple, and the wild Malus sieversii
Malus sieversii
Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, eastern Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Northern Afghanistan and Xinjiang, China. It has recently been shown to be the sole ancestor of most cultivars of the domesticated apple...

is considered a likely candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple. The area is often visited by researchers and scientists from around the world in order to learn more about the complex systems of genetics, and also to discover the true beginnings of the domestic apple.

Nowadays many pop artists from Kazakhstan refer to Almaty as Apple City in their songs.

Prehistoric Almaty

During 1000–900 BC in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements on the territory of Almaty.

During the Saka’s period
Saka
The Saka were a Scythian tribe or group of tribes....

 (from 700 BC to the beginning of the Common Era), these lands were chosen for residence by Saka
Saka
The Saka were a Scythian tribe or group of tribes....

 tribes and later Uisun
Wusun
The Wūsūn were a nomadic steppe people who, according to the Chinese histories, originally lived in western Gansu in northwest China west of the Yuezhi people...

 tribes inhabiting the territory north of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
The Tian Shan , also spelled Tien Shan, is a large mountain system located in Central Asia. The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Victory Peak , ....

 mountain range. The evidences of these times are numerous burial tumuli
Tumulus
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgrab or kurgans, and can be found throughout much of the world. A tumulus composed largely or entirely of stones is usually referred to as a cairn...

 and ancient settlements, especially giant burial mounds of Saka tsars. The most famous archaeological finds are the Golden man from the Issyk Kurgan
Issyk kurgan
The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, is a burial mound discovered in 1969. It has a height of six meters and a circumference of sixty meters. It is dated to the 4th or 3rd century BC . A notable item is a silver cup...

, Zhalauly treasure, Kargaly diadem, Zhetysu arts bronze (boilers, lamps and altars). During the period of Saka and uisun governance, Almaty became the early education center.

Middle Ages

The next stage of Almaty evolution is attributed to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 (8–10th centuries) and is characterized by city culture development, transfer to a settled way of living, farming and handicraft development, and the emergence of a number of towns and cities in the territory of Zhetysu.

In the 10–14th centuries, settlements in the territory of the so called "Big Almaty" became part of the trade routes of the Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

. At that time, Almaty became one of the trade, craft and agricultural centers on the Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

 and possessed an official mint
Mint (coin)
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins for currency.The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins. One difference is that the history of the mint is usually closely tied to the political situation of an era...

. The city was first mentioned as Almatu in books from the 13th century.

15th–18th centuries

In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was on the way to degradation as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

. Notwithstanding, this period was saturated with very important political events that had significant impact on the history of Almaty and Kazakhstan as a whole. It was a period of crucial ethnic and political transformations. The Kazakh state and nation
Kazakhs
The Kazakhs are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia ....

 were founded here, close to Almaty.

These lands also witnessed the tragic developments related to the Dzungar intervention and rigorous efforts of the Kazakh
Kazakhs
The Kazakhs are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia ....

 to protect their land and preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 km to north-west from Almaty. It was a critical moment of the Patriotic War between Kazakhs and Dzungars.

Foundation of Verniy

On 4 February 1854 the modern history of the city began with the strengthening of the Russian piedmont Fort Verniy nearby the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between Bolshaya and Malaya Almatinka rivers. The construction of the Verniy Fort was almost finished by autumn 1854. It was a fenced pentagon and one of its sides was built along the Malaya Almatinka. Later, wood fence was replaced with the wall of brick with embrasures. Main facilities were erected around the big square for training and parading.

In 1855 the first displaced Kazakh appeared in Verniy. Since 1856, Verniy started accepting Russian peasants. They founded the Bolshaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa (Cossack
Cossack
Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in what is today Ukraine and Southern Russia inhabiting sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins and who played an important role in the...

 village) nearby the fortification. The inflow of migrants was increasing and led to construction of the Malaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa
Stanitsa
Stanitsa is a village inside a Cossack host . Stanitsas were the primary unit of Cossack hosts.Historically, the stanitsa was a unit of economic and political organisation of the Cossack peoples primarily in the southern regions of the Russian Empire.Much of the land was held in common by the...

 and Tatarskaya (Tashkentskaya) sloboda
Sloboda
Sloboda was a kind of settlement in the history of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The name is derived from the early Slavic word for "freedom" and may be vaguely translated as "free settlement"....

. It was the place of settlement for Tatar mechants and craftsmen.

In 1867 the Verniy Fort was transformed into the town and called Almatinsk. However, the population did not like the new name of the town and soon the town was re-named as Verniy.

According to the First City Plan, the city perimeters were 2 km on the south along Almatinka river, and 3 km on the west. The new city area was divided into residential parts, and the latter — into districts. Three categories of the city buildings were distinguished. Buildings of the first and second categories were two-storied or, at least, one-storied constructions with the high semi-basement. Buildings of categories I and II were erected around and in the center of the city, others — on the outskirts
Outskirts
Outskirts may refer to:* The outskirts of a city, also known as the rural-urban fringe* Outskirts, by the Canadian country rock band Blue Rodeo* The Outskirts, a 1933 Soviet film directed by Boris Barnet...

.

On 28 May 1887, at 4 a.m., an earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

 almost totally destroyed Verniy in 11–12 minutes. Brick buildings were mostly damaged. As a result, people were inclined to build up one-storied construction made of wood or adobe
Adobe
Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material , which the builders shape into bricks using frames and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for...

.

The Soviet Era

In 1918, Verniy established Soviet
Soviet (council)
Soviet was a name used for several Russian political organizations. Examples include the Czar's Council of Ministers, which was called the “Soviet of Ministers”; a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia; and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union....

 power. The city with the region became part of the Turkestan autonomy (Tatarstan) in the RSFSR
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created from the Turkestan Krai of Imperial Russia...

.

February 5, 1921, it was decided to rename Verniy to Alma-Ata, which was one of the ancient name of the area: Almaty - "apple."

On April 3, 1927 the capital of Kazak ASSR moved from Kyzylorda to Alma-Ata, within the RSFSR. This was an additional impetus for intensive development. From 1936 (since the formation of the Kazakh SSR), Alma-Ata was the capital of the first Kazakh SSR, and then it used to be a capital of an independent Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

.

Industrialization in the Soviet period

After 1941, due to the mass evacuation of factories and workers from the European part of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 during World War II, Alma-Ata of administrative and trading center with a border-security destination and an underdeveloped industry has become one of the largest industrial centers of the Soviet Union. A special role in this process was played by the location of the city, which was in the rearward. During the years 1941-1945 the industrial potential of the city has increased significantly. The economically active population of the city has grown from 104 thousand in 1919 to 365,000 in 1968. In 1967 the city had 145 enterprises, with the bulk of their weight - light
Light industry
Light industry is usually less capital intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented...

 and food industry, which is slightly different from a typical Soviet city bias towards heavy industry and capital goods production. The main industries are food processing (36% of gross industrial output), based largely on local abundant fruit and vegetable raw materials, and light industry (31%). The main plants and the food industry: Meat, flour and cereals (pasta with a factory), milk, sparkling wines, canned fruit, tobacco factories, confectionery, distillery plants, wine, brewery, yeast, tea-packing factory, light industry, textile and fur mills, factories, cotton spinning, knitting, carpets, footwear, apparel, printing and a Almaty Cotton combine. Heavy industry accounted for 33% of the production was presented by the enterprises of heavy engineering, electrical engineering there are factories, foundry and engineering, car repair, repair bearing, building materials, woodworking, concrete structures and structural elements, house-building.

Almaty from the Revolution of 1917 to World War II

In 1921, the joint solemn sitting was summoned for the participation of the representative of government regional and sub-regional institutions, professional trades, the Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 people to make a decision to assign a new name to Verniy — Alma-Ata.

In 1926, the Council of Labour and Defence approved the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway
Turkestan-Siberia Railway
The Turkestan–Siberian Railway is a broad gauge railway that connects Central Asia with Siberia. It starts north of Tashkent in Uzbekistan at Arys, where it branches off from the Trans-Caspian Railway. It heads roughly northeast through Shymkent, Taraz, Bishkek to the former Kazakh capital of...

 railway that was a crucial element of the republic reconstruction, specifically on the east and southeast of the republic. The Turkestan-Siberia Railway
Turkestan-Siberia Railway
The Turkestan–Siberian Railway is a broad gauge railway that connects Central Asia with Siberia. It starts north of Tashkent in Uzbekistan at Arys, where it branches off from the Trans-Caspian Railway. It heads roughly northeast through Shymkent, Taraz, Bishkek to the former Kazakh capital of...

 construction was also a decisive economic aspect that foreordained the destiny of Alma-Ata as a capital of Kazakh ASSR
Kazakh ASSR
The Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic existing from 1925 until 1936....

. In 1930 the construction of the highway and railway to the Alma-Ata station was completed.

On 2 March 1927, It was the initiative of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh Republic to transfer the capital from Kyzyl-Orda to Alma-Ata. The VI Kazakhstani Congress approved this initiative.

On 29 April 1927, it was officially decided on the sitting of the Russian SFSR Committee to transfer the capital of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from Kyzyl-Orda to Alma-Ata.

Besides, the Alma-Ata airport was opened in 1930 and people from the capital of Kazakhstan could fly now from Alma-Ata to Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. Alma-Ata became the air gate to Kazakhstan. Transformation of the small town into the capital of the Republic was supplied by the large-scaled construction of new administrative and government facilities and housing.
Given the transfer of the capital of Kazakhstan to Alma-Ata, in 1936 the Architecture and Planning Bureau elaborated the General Plan aimed at re-creating Alma-Ata as the new cultural and comfortable capital of Kazakhstan. The Plan was based on the existing rectangular system of districts that would further be strengthened and reconstructed.

Almaty in World War II

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the city territory was changed to a large extent. To organize the home front and concentrate industrial and material resources, the residential stock was compressed to arrange accommodation for 26,000 persons evacuated. Alma-Ata hosted over 30 industrial facilities from the front areas, 8 evacuated hospitals, 15 institutes, universities and technical schools, around 20 cultural institutions, etc. Motion picture production companies from Leningrad
Leningrad
Leningrad is the former name of Saint Petersburg, Russia.Leningrad may also refer to:- Places :* Leningrad Oblast, a federal subject of Russia, around Saint Petersburg* Leningrad, Tajikistan, capital of Muminobod district in Khatlon Province...

, Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

 and Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 were also evacuated to Alma-Ata.

Over 52,000 Alma-Ata residents received the title: Owing to self-denying labour. 48 residents were granted the title of Hero of The Soviet Union. Three rifle
Rifle
A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile , imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the...

 divisions
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

 were raised in Alma-Ata, including the well-known 8th Guards Rifle Division
8th Guards Rifle Division
The 8th Guards Panfilov Division originally the 316th Rifle Division, is a motorized infantry division of the Military of Kyrgyzstan,...

 'Panfilov
Ivan Panfilov
Not to be confused with Major General Alexei Pavlovich Panfilov, who is known for negotiating the creation of the Anders Army.In Allen Paul's book Katyn: Stalin's Massacre and the Triumph of Truth , page 172, it is written that the name of the assistant chief of the General Staff of the Red Army...

', along with 2 rifle
Rifle
A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile , imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the...

 battalions and 3 aviation
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

 regiments that were raised on the bases of the air club of Alma-Ata.

Almaty from 1945 to 2000

From 1966 to 1971, 1,400,000 square meters of public
Public housing
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the...

 and cooperative housing
Housing cooperative
A housing cooperative is a legal entity—usually a corporation—that owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit, sometimes subject to an occupancy agreement, which is similar to a lease. ...

 were built. Annually, around 300,000 square meters of dwellings were under construction, and most of the buildings made during this time were earthquake-proof
Seismic analysis
Seismic Analysis is a subset of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a building structure to earthquakes...

 multi-storied buildings. Furthermore, construction unification and type-design practice diversified architectural forms, leading to a more varied cityscape. During this period, lots of schools, hospitals, cultural and entertainment facilities were constructed, including Lenin’s Palace, Kazakhstan Hotel
Hotel Kazakhstan
Hotel Kazakhstan is the largest building in the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan. It is 129.8 meters tall. It is situated in the southern center of Almaty. It is located on Dostyk Avenue, a major road in the east part of the city which runs all the way from Medeo to Panfilov Park, in the north part of...

, and the “Medeo
Medeo
The Medeu , or Medeo , is an outdoor speed skating and bandy rink. It is located in a mountain valley on the south-eastern outskirts of Almaty, Kazakhstan. Medeu sits 1,691 metres above sea level, making it the highest skating rink in the world...

” sports complex.

The Medeu Dam
Medeu Dam
Medeu Mudflow Control Dam is a dam across the Medeu Valley south-east of Almaty, Kazakhstan, designed to protect the city from devastating debris flows .- The mudflow threat :...

, designed to protect the city of Almaty and the Medeo skating rink from catastrophic mudflow
Mudflow
A mudslide is the most rapid and fluid type of downhill mass wasting. It is a rapid movement of a large mass of mud formed from loose soil and water. Similar terms are mudflow, mud stream, debris flow A mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h, or 50 mph) and fluid type of downhill mass...

s, was built in 1966 and reinforced a number of times in the 1960s and 1970s.

The supersonic transport Tupolev Tu-144 went into service on 26 December 1975, flying mail and freight between Moscow and Alma-Ata in preparation for passenger services, which commenced in November 1977. The Aeroflot flight on 1 June 1978 was the Tu-144's 55th and last scheduled passenger service.

Since 1981, the underground
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 Almaty Metro
Almaty Metro
Almaty Metro is a rapid transit system currently under construction in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The first branch of the system is currently opened on 1 December 2011...

 construction project has been in development.

On 16 December 1986 Jeltoksan
Jeltoqsan
The Jeltoqsan or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Konayev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and the subsequent appointment of Gennady...

 riot took place in response to General Secretary
General Secretary
The office of general secretary is staffed by the chief officer of:*The General Secretariat for Macedonia and Thrace, a government agency for the Greek regions of Macedonia and Thrace...

 Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunayev.

In 1993 the government made a decision to rename Alma-Ata. The new name of the city is Almaty.

In 1997 the President
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the nation received its independence in 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union...

 approved the Decree to transfer the capital from Almaty to Astana
Astana
Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

.

On 1 July 1998 a Law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

 was passed concerning the special status of Almaty as a scientific, cultural, historical, financial and industrial center.

21st century Almaty

The new 2030 General Plan of Almaty was developed in 1998 and aims at forming ecologically safe, secure and socially comfortable living conditions. The main objective is to promote Almaty’s image as a garden-city. One of the components of the General Plan is to continue multi-storied
Skyscraper
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, often designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper...

 and individual construction, reorganize industrial territories, improve transport
Transport
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, cattle, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations...

 infrastructure
Infrastructure
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function...

 and launch Almaty Metro
Almaty Metro
Almaty Metro is a rapid transit system currently under construction in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The first branch of the system is currently opened on 1 December 2011...

.

Climate

The climate in Almaty is humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 with very warm summers and cold winters. It’s characterized by the influence of mountain-valley circulation, which is especially evident in the northern part of the city, located directly in the transition zone of the mountain slopes to the plains.

Average temperature of air is equal to 9 °C, the coldest month is January -7 °C (at average), the warmest month (July) 23 °C (at average). In average years frost starts at about October 14 ends at about April 18 and sustained extreme cold from about December 19 to about February 23, a period of about 67 days. Weather with temperature above 30 °C is average for about 36 days a year. In the center of Almaty, like any large city, there is a "heat island" - average daily temperature contrast between the northern and southern suburbs of the city is 3.8% and 0.8 °C in the coldest and 2.2% and 2.6 °C in the hottest five days. Therefore, frost in the city center starts about 7 days later and finishes 3 days earlier than in the northern suburbs. Annual precipitation is about 600 to 650 mm (23.6 to 25.6 ). April and May are the wettest months during which about a third of the city’s annual precipitation is received, smallest amount of precipitation are in October and November. Driest season occurs in August and September. Average date of the formation of stable snow is 30 of October, though its appearance varies from 5 of October until 21 of November. The average date of snowmelt is April 2 (ranging from 26 of February to 12 of May). The city and its suburbs have fog for about 50–70 days annually.

It is not uncommon for snow and a cold snap to hit Almaty as late as the end of May. For example in the last quarter century, such snowfalls were recorded on 5/13/1985, 01/05/1989, 05/05/1993 and 18/05/1998. The record latest snowfall in Almaty was on 17 of June, 1987.

Almaty sometimes experiences winter rain, despite heavy preceding snowfall and low temperatures. The most memorable winter rain took place at December 16, 1996 during a military parade to celebrate the 5th anniversary of the Independence of the Republic.

Almaty Weather Station’s GM mostly records south-easterly wind (30%), its resistance increases during the summer (37%) and falls in winter (19%). Wind speeds exceed 15 m/s on about 15 days a year, on average.

Demographics

Ethnic groups (2003):

  • Kazakh
    Kazakhs
    The Kazakhs are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia ....

    : 51.5%
  • Russian
    Russians
    The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

    : 30.0%
  • Uyghur: 5.8%
  • Tatar
    Tatars
    Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

    : 2.0%
  • Korean: 2.0%
  • Ukrainian
    Ukrainians
    Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

    : 1.0%
  • German
    Germans
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

    : 1.0%
  • India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    ns: 1.0%
  • Chinese
    Chinese people in Kazakhstan
    The number of Chinese people in Kazakhstan is not very clear. There have been various migrations of ethnic minorities from China to Kazakhstan in the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as that of the Dungan people fleeing Qing Dynasty forces after a failed 1862–1877 rebellion in northwest China,...

    : 1.0%
  • Others: 5%

According to the USSR Census of 1989, population of Almaty was 1,071,900; Kazakhstan Census of 1999 reported 1,129,400.

Economy

Almaty generates approximately 20 per cent of Kazakhstan's GDP(or $36 billion in 2010); Almaty is a key financial centre in Central Asia and it's considered to be a Gamma Global City
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 at a similar level to Detroit, Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, San Salvador
San Salvador
The city of San Salvador the capital and largest city of El Salvador, which has been designated a Gamma World City. Its complete name is La Ciudad de Gran San Salvador...

, St. Petersburg, Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of with a population of 414,940. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list...

, Port Louis
Port Louis
-Economy:The economy is dominated by its port, which handles Mauritius' international trade. The port was founded by the French who preferred Port Louis as the City is shielded by the Port Louis/Moka mountain range. It is the largest container handling facility in the Indian Ocean and can...

, San Diego, Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

, Doha
Doha
Doha is the capital city of the state of Qatar. Located on the Persian Gulf, it had a population of 998,651 in 2008, and is also one of the municipalities of Qatar...

, Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

, Columbus
Columbus, Ohio
Columbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...

.

One of the largest industries in Almaty is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the Kazakhstan's balance of payments. Almaty is home to the BTA Bank, which is the largest bank in Central Asia, Kaz Kom Bank
Kazkommertsbank
Kazkommertsbank is the largest private bank in Kazakhstan with a total market share of 24%.-About:Kazkommertsbank is a large provider of banking services and other financial products to large and medium-sized corporations in all sectors of Kazakh economy....

 and other major banks. The Kazakhstan Stock Exchange
Kazakhstan Stock Exchange
The Kazakhstan Stock Exchange is the principal stock exchange in Kazakhstan. It is located in Almaty and was founded in 1993 as the Kazakh Interbank Currency Exchange...

 is based in Almaty.

Almaty is also developing as the regional financial and business centre — RFCA
RFCA
Regional Financial Centre of Almaty City - business and financial centre in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Chairman - Arken Arystanov.The Regional Financial Centre of Almaty acts as a financial hub, attracting international investment funds as well as listed companies...

..

Currently under construction is 'Almaty Financial District and Esentai Park'. This was designed by T.J. Gottesdiener
T.J. Gottesdiener
T.J. Gottesdiener, FAIA, is an architect and Managing Partner of the New York office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill . A graduate of Cooper Union’s Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture, Gottesdiener joined SOM in 1980 and was made Partner in 1994...

, who designed 7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center is a building in New York City located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. It is the second building to bear that name and address in that location. The original structure was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks...

 in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Time Warner Center
Time Warner Center
The Time Warner Center is a mixed-use skyscraper developed by AREA Property Partners and The Related Companies in New York City. Its design, by David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, consists of two 750 ft towers bridged by a multi-story atrium containing upscale retail shops...

 in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 and Tokyo Midtown. Its publicised aim is to become the largest business centre in Central Asia. Esentai Tower, a building in the park, is the tallest mixed-use building in Kazakhstan.

Along with professional services, media companies are concentrated in Almaty as well. The media distribution industry has been growing rapidly since 2006. Major broadcasting channels KTK and NTK are based in Almaty, as are several national newspapers.

There are plans to construct a Western Europe-Western China highway, passing through Almaty. A new port in Almaty expects to handle about 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.

Air Astana
Air Astana
Air Astana is the flag carrier and the national airline of Kazakhstan with its head office in Almaty. It is the national carrier of Kazakhstan and operates scheduled domestic and international services. Its main bases are Astana International Airport and Almaty International Airport...

 is headquartered in the Air Astana Centre 1 in Almaty. Prior to their dissolution, Air Kazakhstan
Air Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan Airlines was the national airline of Kazakhstan. It ended operations in 1997. It operated domestic and international services. It had its head office in Almaty.-Code data:*IATA Code: K4*ICAO Code: KZA *Callsign: Kazakh-History:...

 and Kazakhstan Airlines were also headquartered in Almaty.

Kök Töbe

An aerial tramway
Aerial tramway
An aerial tramway , cable car , ropeway or aerial tram is a type of aerial lift which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion...

 line connects downtown Almaty with a popular recreation area at the top of Kök Töbe
Kok Tobe
Kok Tobe is a mountain on the south-eastern outskirts of Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city. It is also the name of the popular recreation area on the top of the mountain....

 , a mountain just to the southeast. The city television tower, Alma-Ata Tower
Alma-Ata Tower
The Almaty Tower was built between 1975 and 1983 in Almaty city, Kazakhstan. The tower is located on high slopes of Kok Tobe mountain south-east of downtown Almaty.Unlike other similar TV towers, it is not a concrete, but a steel tubular structure...

, is located on the hill, as well as a variety of amusement-park type attractions and touristy restaurants.

Fountains

According to the city's Department of Natural Resources and Resource Use Management, as of 2007 the city has 125 fountain groups or isolated fountains. Among them is the "Oriental Calendar" Fountain, whose 12 sculpture figures represent the 12 animals of the Kazakh 12-year animal cycle (similar to its Chinese counterpart
Earthly Branches
The Earthly Branches provide one Chinese system for reckoning time.This system was built from observations of the orbit of Jupiter. Chinese astronomers divided the celestial circle into 12 sections to follow the orbit of Suìxīng . Astronomers rounded the orbit of Suixing to 12 years...

).

Universities of Almaty

  • International IT University (IITU)
  • Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU)
  • University of International Business
  • Kazakh National Medical University
  • Almaty Institute of Power Engineering and Telecommunications
  • Kazakh-American University
  • Kazakh National Technical University (KazNTU)
  • Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (KazNU)
  • Suleyman Demirel University
    Suleyman Demirel University
    Süleyman Demirel University is a university located in Almaty, Kazakhstan. It is named after Süleyman Demirel, the former prime minister and president of Turkey...

     (SDU)
  • KIMEP
    Kimep
    The Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics and Strategic Research is an institution of higher education in Almaty, Kazakhstan. KIMEP is a private, non-profit university offering credit-based, North American-style degree curricula...

     (Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics, and Strategic Research)
  • Kazakh-American University (KAU)
  • Kazakh National Academy of Arts named by T.Zhurgenov
  • Kazakh Academy of Sciences
  • Kazakh Academy of Labour and Social Relations
  • Almaty State University (named after Abay)
  • Turan University
  • Kazakhstan University of Global Relationships and Languages (КазУМОиМЯ)
  • Central Asian University (ЦАУ)
  • Kazakh-German University (КНУ)
  • Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering
    Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering
    Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering is a top institution among the higher educational institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan in fields of Architecture, Design, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Economics and Management in Construction.- Departments and...

  • Kazakh Econimic University named after T. Ryskulov (KazEU, Narxoz)


Sports

The historic bandy
Bandy
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.The rules of the game have many similarities to those of association football: the game is played on a rectangle of ice the same size as a football field. Each team has 11 players,...

 team Dinamo won the Soviet Championships in 1977 and 1990 and the European Cup in 1978. Their home ground was Medeo
Medeo
The Medeu , or Medeo , is an outdoor speed skating and bandy rink. It is located in a mountain valley on the south-eastern outskirts of Almaty, Kazakhstan. Medeu sits 1,691 metres above sea level, making it the highest skating rink in the world...

, where bandy was the only sport at the 2011 Winter Asian Games
2011 Winter Asian Games
The 2011 Asian Winter Games was a multi sporting event that was being held in Astana and Almaty, Kazakhstan and that began on January 30, 2011 and ended on February 6, 2011. It was the first time that Kazakhstan hosted such a large event since independence from the Soviet Union...

.http://astana-almaty2011.kz/gis/menu/en/News_Center/news.aspx?pagenum=1&tid=2 Medeo will be the main arena at the 2012 Bandy World Championships
Bandy World Championships
The Bandy World Championships are a competition between bandy-playing nations. The tournament is administrated by the Federation of International Bandy....

.http://worldbandy-2011.com/en/news/2011/01/29/138/

It is also home to Almaty United Football club.,
Also Winter Universiade
Universiade
The Universiade is an International multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation . The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"...

 of 2017 will be held in Almaty.

Olympic aspirations

Almaty was a bidder to host the XXII Olympic Winter Games
2014 Winter Olympics
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event scheduled to be celebrated from 7 to 23 February 2014, in Sochi, Russia with some events held in the resort town of Krasnaya Polyana. Both the Olympic and...

 in 2014, but was eliminated from consideration, not making the "short list" of candidate cities. Almaty won its bid to host the 2011 Winter Asian Games
2011 Winter Asian Games
The 2011 Asian Winter Games was a multi sporting event that was being held in Astana and Almaty, Kazakhstan and that began on January 30, 2011 and ended on February 6, 2011. It was the first time that Kazakhstan hosted such a large event since independence from the Soviet Union...

. It´s a bid city for the 2017 Winter UniversiadeThe city was exploring possible future bids, such as the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games, is a winter multi-sport event scheduled to take place in Pyeongchang, South Korea, between 9 and 25 February 2018. The elected host city was announced on 6 July 2011 by the International Olympic Committee , after the...

, but did not actually submit a bid.

People from Almaty

  • Altynai Asylmuratova
    Altynai Asylmuratova
    Altynai Asylmuratova is a former Soviet and Kazakhstaniprima ballerina with the Kirov Ballet/Mariinsky Theatre and a guest artist all over the world. Asylmuratova was born in Alma-Ata, Kazakstan, and after graduation from the Vaganova Choreographic Institute she joined the Kirov Ballet in 1978...

     (* 1961), prima ballerina with the Kirov ballet
  • Dima Pak (*1990), Awesome Person/Great Friend
  • Eugen Bauder
    Eugen Bauder
    -Early life:Bauder was born in Almaty, Kazakhstan on March 5, 1986. He moved to Germany at the age of five with his mother. Throughout his life he lived in various locations around Germany...

     (* 1986), model in Germany
  • Alexander Brener
    Alexander Brener
    Alexander Davidovič Brener born 1957 in Alma-Ata, is a Russian-Jewish performance artist. His performances of note include defecating in front of a painting by Vincent Van Gogh at the Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, having sex on city streets, and vandalizing art work.He was jailed in 1997 for...

     (* 1957), film star in Russia
  • Dmitri Chvykov (* 1974), ski jumper
  • Nagima Eskalieva
    Nagima Eskalieva
    Nagima Eskalieva is a Kazakhstani singer and awarded national artist of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.-Career:...

     (* 1954), singer and entertainer
  • Stanislav Filimonov (* 1979), ski jumper
  • Dmitri Fofonov (* 1976), Racing cyclist
  • Pavel Gaiduk (* 1976), ski jumper
  • Valery Yurlov (* 1933), actor in Russia
  • Alexey Korolev (* 1987), ski jumper
  • Nikolay Karpenko
    Nikolay Karpenko
    Nikolay Karpenko is a Kazakhstani ski jumper who has been competing since 2005. Competing in two Winter Olympics, he earned his best finish of 12th in the team large hill at Turin in 2006 while earning his best individual finish was 29th in the individual normal hill event at Vancouver in four...

     (* 1981), ski jumper
  • Ruslana Korshunova
    Ruslana Korshunova
    Ruslana Sergeyevna Korshunova was a Kazakh model of Russian descent. After establishing herself as a rising figure in the fashion industry by posing for magazines like Vogue and designers such as Vera Wang and Nina Ricci....

     (1987–2008), model in Russia
  • Olessya Kulakova (* 1977), volleyball representative for Germany
  • Regina Kulikova
    Regina Kulikova
    Regina Kulikova is a professional Russian tennis player. Her highest WTA singles ranking is 65th, which she reached on May 3, 2010. Her career high in doubles is 417th, which she reached on September 28, 2009...

     (* 1989), tennis player
  • Dinmukhamed Konayev (1912–1993), politician
  • Yelena Lichovzeva (* 1975), tennis player in Russia
  • Fuat Mansurov
    Fuat Mansurov
    Fuat Mansurov was a Soviet and Russian conductor.National artist of Russia, Tatarstan, and Kazakhstan.In 1991 Mansurov conducted the Bolshoi at the New York Met for performances of Mlada and Eugene Onegin....

     (1928–2008), Soviet and Russian conductor
  • Katya Nikitina (* 1987), bartender in New York
  • Dmitriy Ogai
    Dmitriy Ogai
    Dmitriy Ogai was a Kazakh professional football midfielder and currently manager of FC Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast. He is one of the most successful coaches in Kazakhstan...

     (* 1960), soccer trainer and Soviet soccer player
  • Sergei Ostapenko
    Sergei Ostapenko
    Sergei Sergeyevich Ostapenko is a Kazakh footballer, who currently plays for FC Lokomotiv Astana.-Career:In 2003, Ostapenko had graduated from FC Almaty football academy and had been starting in the first team since then, before his transfer to FC Tobol in 2007. That was definitely an upward...

     (* 1986), soccer player
  • Alexander Parygin
    Alexander Parygin
    Alexander Parygin is a Kazakhstani modern pentathlete and Olympic champion. He competed at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta where he received a gold medal in modern pentathlon....

     (* 1973), olympic athlete
  • Alexander Petrenko
    Alexander Petrenko
    Alexander Petrenko was a Russian professional basketball player. He most recently played for BC Khimki in the Russian Super League. He was born in Almaty, Kazakh SSR, and held Russian citizenship. Petrenko died in a car crash near Samara, Russia, on July 21, 2006.- References :*...

     (1976–2006), basketball representative for Russia
  • Dennis Pohl (* 1986), cycle racer in Germany
  • Oxana Rakmatulina (* 1976), basketball player in Russia
  • Vadim Sayutin
    Vadim Sayutin
    Vadim Aleksandrovich Sayutin is a former speed skater who represented the Soviet Union, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Kazakhstan, and Russia, in that order...

     (* 1970), ice speed skater in Russia
  • Thomas Schertwitis (* 1972), water polo
  • Olga Shishigina
    Olga Shishigina
    Olga Shishigina is a retired Kazakh athlete who mainly competed in the 100 metres hurdles. She won an Olympic gold medal in 2000, and many on regional and continental level.She was banned between 1996 and 1998 for failing a drug test.-Personal bests:...

     (* 1968), Olympic Champion in hurdling
  • Susanna Simon (* 1968), actress in Germany
  • Assan Tachtachunov (* 1986), ski jumper
  • Denis Ten
    Denis Ten
    Denis Yurievich Ten is a Kazakhstani figure skater. He is the 2011 Asian Winter Games champion and 2006 Kazakhstan national champion. At the 2008-2009 ISU Junior Grand Prix event in Belarus, he became the first skater from Kazakhstan to win an International Skating Union competition...

     (* 1993), figure skater
  • Taimuraz Tigiev (* 1982), gymnast
  • Anatoly Vaisser
    Anatoly Vaisser
    Anatoly Vaisser is a French chess Grandmaster and currently Senior Chess Champion of the World....

     (* 1949), French chess grandmaster
  • Irina Vygusova (* 1974), diver
  • Radik Zhaparov
    Radik Zhaparov
    Radik Zhaparov is a Kazakh ski jumper who has competed since 2003. At the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, he finished 11th in the team large hill and 26th in the individual norma hill events....

     (* 1984), ski jumper
  • Vladimir Zhirinovsky
    Vladimir Zhirinovsky
    Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky is a Russian politician, colonel of the Russian Army, founder and the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia , Vice-Chairman of the State Duma, and a member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe....

     (* 1946), politician
  • Elena Zoubareva
    Elena Zoubareva
    Elena Zoubareva is a Russian American soprano specializing in opera and classical crossover. Zoubareva is also a voice expert and a creator of the FitVoice program...

     (* 1972), opera singer
  • Konstantin Sokolenko
    Konstantin Sokolenko
    Konstantin Sokolenko is a Kazakh Nordic combined skier.He is one of the best Nordic combined skiers in Kazakhstan and is anchor of the Kazakhstani team.-Career:...

     (* 1987), Nordic combined skier/ski jumper
  • Aizhana Tleubayeva (*1989), once met Andrew Donnelly

See also

  • Almaty International Airport
    Almaty International Airport
    Almaty International Airport is the largest international airport in Kazakhstan. It is located about from the centre of Almaty, the country's largest city and commercial capital. Almaty airport accounts for half of passenger traffic and 68% of cargo traffic to Kazakhstan...

  • Jeltoqsan
    Jeltoqsan
    The Jeltoqsan or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Konayev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and the subsequent appointment of Gennady...

     — Kazakh nationwide revolt of 1986
  • Kazakhstan Stock Exchange
    Kazakhstan Stock Exchange
    The Kazakhstan Stock Exchange is the principal stock exchange in Kazakhstan. It is located in Almaty and was founded in 1993 as the Kazakh Interbank Currency Exchange...

  • Medeo
    Medeo
    The Medeu , or Medeo , is an outdoor speed skating and bandy rink. It is located in a mountain valley on the south-eastern outskirts of Almaty, Kazakhstan. Medeu sits 1,691 metres above sea level, making it the highest skating rink in the world...

     — bandy
    Bandy
    Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.The rules of the game have many similarities to those of association football: the game is played on a rectangle of ice the same size as a football field. Each team has 11 players,...

     and speed skating
    Speed skating
    Speed skating, or speedskating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in traveling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating...

     rink
  • Shymbulak
    Shymbulak
    Shymbulak , also known as Chimbulak is a ski resort near Almaty, the largest city of Kazakhstan. It is located in the upper part of the Medeu Valley in the Zaiilisky Alatau mountain range, at the elevation of 2200 meters above sea level. The resort area is about 25 km south of Almaty city by...

     — ski resort
  • Kazakhstan International School
    Kazakhstan International School
    Kazakhstan International School is a nonprofit international school in Almaty, Kazakhstan. KIS is an International Baccalaureate Primary Years Program Authorized school. English is not only the language of instruction, but is also the common language that students from a variety of multicultural...

  • FC Kairat Almaty
    FC Kairat Almaty
    FC Kairat Almaty is a Kazakh football club, playing in Almaty Central Stadium, Almaty.Like many clubs in the Soviet Union they went through a number of name changes in their history. They were known Dinamo Almaty when founded in 1952, before changing in 1954 to Lokomotiv Almaty, and later Urozhai...

  • Alma Ata Declaration
    Alma Ata Declaration
    The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care , Almaty , currently in Kazakhstan, 6-12 September 1978. It expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the...



General



Travel-related

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