Ma Hushan
Ma Hu-shan was the half-brother and follower of Ma Chung-ying, a Ma Clique
Ma clique
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Muslim warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia from the 1910s until 1949. There were 3 families in the Ma clique , each of them respectively controlled 3 areas, Gansu,...

 warlord. He ruled over an area of southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

, nicknamed Tunganistan by westerners from 1934 to 1937.


Ma Hushan fought against the Russian Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 and White Russian forces during the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang
Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang
The Soviet invasion of Xinjiang was a military campaign in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934. White Russian forces assisted the Soviet Red Army.- Background :...

 and defeated them in battle.

Ma Hushan also took part in the war to destroy the First East Turkestan Republic
First East Turkestan Republic
The First Eastern Turkestan Republic , or Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan , or, Republic of Uyghurstan, was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933...

, commanding the 36th division at the Battle of Kashgar
Battle of Kashgar (1934)
The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars. Turkic Muslim Uighur and Kirghiz fighters under Emir Abdullah Bughra and the other Turkic separatists began four separate attacks over a six-day period on Hui and Han Chinese soldiers led by General...

 and Battle of Khotan.

The 36th division under General Ma Hushan crushed a the Charkhlik Revolt
Charkhlik Revolt
The Charkhlik Revolt was an Uighur uprising in 1935 against the Chinese Muslim dominated Tunganistan, which was administered by the 36th Division . The Chinese Muslim troops quickly and brutally defeated the Uighur revolt. Over 100 uighurs were executed. The revolt leader's family were transformed...

 by the Uighurs in the Charkhlik oasis.

The 36th division under General Ma Hushan controlled southern Xinjiang's oasis and was nicknamed "Tunganistan" by Peter Fleming. Ma Hushan and the 36th division declared their loyalty to the Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 government in Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

 and sent emissaries to Nanjing requesting aid to fight against Sheng Shicai's provincial forces and the Soviet Union.

Hotan , or Hetian , also spelled Khotan, is the seat of the Hotan Prefecture in Xinjiang, China. It was previously known in Chinese as 于窴/於窴 and to 19th-century European explorers as Ilchi....

 was the base of Ma Hu-shan during his rule over the southern oases.

Ma Hushan's troops were said to be "strongly anti-Japanese", and the territory they ruled was covered with "most of the stock anti-Japanese slogans from China proper", and Ma made "Resistance to Japanese Imperialism", part of his governing doctrine. Ma Hushan was described by Ella Maillart
Ella Maillart
Ella Maillart was a French-speaking Swiss adventurer, travel writer and photographer, as well as a sportswoman.- Life :...

 as a "well-set-up long-legged man".

Carpet Factory

Ma's regime forced the switch from the old style to the manufacture of Chinese style carpets by the government owned factory.

Ma Hu-shan ordered for the created of "small blue carpets", "woven in Khotan". They were of Chinese design, with Chinese writing on them. Peter Birchler mistakenly said that Ma Hushan's borther in law Ma Zhongying was the client of the carpet factory.

Xinjiang War (1937)

After Ma's troops were defeated by Sheng Shicai and the Soviets, or deserted or defected, Ma fled to British India. He brought thousands of ounces in gold, which was confisticated by the British. The British kept the money used on detaining Ma Hushan's troops and also for the alleged "looting" of British property in Kashgar, then sent the money "back" to Sheng Shicai's regime. He was detained by the British, then he took a steamer from Calcutta back to China, Qinghai
Qinghai ; Oirat Mongolian: ; ; Salar:) is a province of the People's Republic of China, named after Qinghai Lake...

 province in 1938.

A memorial was set up by the Soviet puppet Sheng Shicai
Sheng Shicai
Sheng Shicai was a Chinese warlord who "ruled" Xinjiang province from April 12, 1933 to August 29, 1944....

 to dead Russians who were killed in combat by Ma Hushan.

Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950-1958)

Ma led the Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950-1958) against the PLA
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 from 1950-1954 using guerilla tactics. He was captured in 1954 and executed at Lanzhou
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country....


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