Lanzhou
Overview
 
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 Province
Province (China)
A province, in the context of Chinese government, is a translation of sheng formally provincial level divisions, which is an administrative division. Provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and the special administrative regions, make up the four types of province of administrative division...

 in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country.
Lanzhou is home to 3,616,163 inhabitants at the 2010 census and 2,177,130 in the built up area (urban) on 1,088 Km².
Originally in the territory of the Western Qiang peoples, Lanzhou became part of the territory of Qin (state)
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

 in the 6th century BC.

In 81 BC, under the Han dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 (206 BC–220 AD), it was taken from the Huns' Huandi Chanyu and made the seat of Jincheng
Jincheng
Jincheng is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi province of north China. It is an industrial city in an area where coal mining is an important industry. It has a population of 2.2 million....

 commandery (jùn), and later of the Jincheng
Jincheng
Jincheng is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi province of north China. It is an industrial city in an area where coal mining is an important industry. It has a population of 2.2 million....

 county (xiàn), later renamed Yunwu.
Encyclopedia
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 Province
Province (China)
A province, in the context of Chinese government, is a translation of sheng formally provincial level divisions, which is an administrative division. Provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and the special administrative regions, make up the four types of province of administrative division...

 in Northwest China. A prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

, it is a key regional transportation hub, allowing areas further west to maintain railroad connections to the eastern half of the country.
Lanzhou is home to 3,616,163 inhabitants at the 2010 census and 2,177,130 in the built up area (urban) on 1,088 Km².

History

Originally in the territory of the Western Qiang peoples, Lanzhou became part of the territory of Qin (state)
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

 in the 6th century BC.

In 81 BC, under the Han dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 (206 BC–220 AD), it was taken from the Huns' Huandi Chanyu and made the seat of Jincheng
Jincheng
Jincheng is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi province of north China. It is an industrial city in an area where coal mining is an important industry. It has a population of 2.2 million....

 commandery (jùn), and later of the Jincheng
Jincheng
Jincheng is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi province of north China. It is an industrial city in an area where coal mining is an important industry. It has a population of 2.2 million....

 county (xiàn), later renamed Yunwu. The city used to be called the Golden City, and since at least the first millennium BC it was a major link on the ancient Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
The Northern Silk Road is a prehistoric trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the Taklamakan Desert to reach the ancient kingdoms of Parthia, Bactria and eventually Persia and Rome. It is the northern-most branch of several Silk Roads providing...

, and also an important historic Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 crossing site. To protect the city, the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups...

 was extended as far as Yumen.

After the fall of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, Lanzhou became the capital of a succession of tribal states. In the 4th century it was briefly the capital of the independent state of Earlier Liang. The Northern Wei dynasty (386–534) reestablished Jincheng
Jincheng
Jincheng is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi province of north China. It is an industrial city in an area where coal mining is an important industry. It has a population of 2.2 million....

 commandery, renaming the county Zicheng. Mixed with different cultural heritages, the area at present-day Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

 province, from the 5th to the 11th century, became a center for Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 study. Under the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty was a powerful, but short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it ended nearly four centuries of division between rival regimes. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty....

 (581–618) the city became the seat of Lanzhou prefecture for the first time, retaining this name under the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 (618–907). In 763 the area was overrun by the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
The historic name for the Tibetan Empire is different from Tibet's present name.Traditional Tibetan history preserves a lengthy list of rulers, whose exploits become subject to external verification in the Chinese histories by the seventh century. From the 7th to the 11th century a series of...

 and in 843 was conquered by the Tang
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

. Later it fell into the hands of the Western Xia Dynasty (which flourished in Qinghai
Qinghai
Qinghai ; Oirat Mongolian: ; ; Salar:) is a province of the People's Republic of China, named after Qinghai Lake...

 from the 11th to 13th century) and was subsequently absorbed by the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 (960–1126) in 1041. The name Lanzhou was reestablished, and the county renamed Lanzhuan.

After 1127 it fell into the hands of the Jin Dynasty
Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234
The Jīn Dynasty ; Khitan language: Nik, Niku; ; 1115–1234), also known as the Jurchen Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later...

, and after 1235 it came into the possession of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire , initially named as Greater Mongol State was a great empire during the 13th and 14th centuries...

.

Under the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 (1368–1644) the prefecture was demoted to a county and placed under the administration of Lintao superior prefecture, but in 1477 Lanzhou was reestablished as a political unit.

The city acquired its current name in 1656, during the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

. When Gansu was made a separate province in 1666, Lanzhou became its capital.

In 1739 the seat of Lintao was transferred to Lanzhou, which was later made a superior prefecture called Lanzhou.

Lanzhou was badly damaged during the Dungan revolt in 1864–1875. In the 1920s and 1930s it became a center of Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 influence in northwestern China
Northwestern China
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.-Administrative divisions:ProvincesAutonomous Regions-Outer Northwest China:...

. During the Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

 (1937–1945) Lanzhou, linked with Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 by highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

 in 1935, became the terminus of the 3200 km (1,988.4 mi) Chinese-Soviet highway, used as a route for Soviet supplies destined for the Xi'an area. This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Urumqi
Ürümqi
Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

. During the war Lanzhou was heavily bombed by the Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese.

During the Japan's invasion of China in 1937, the Guominjun
Guominjun
The Guominjun , a.k.a Nationalist Army, KMC, or Northwest Army , refers to the military faction founded by Feng Yuxiang, Hu Jingyi and Sun Yue during China's Warlord Era. It was formed when Feng betrayed the Zhili clique during the Second Zhili-Fengtian War with the Fengtian clique in 1924...

 Generals Ma Hongkui
Ma Hongkui
Ma Hongkui , was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the northwestern province of Ningxia. His rank was Lieutenant-general. His courtesy name was Shao-yun .- Life :...

 and Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the northwestern province of Qinghai. His rank was Lieutenant-general...

 of Muslim faith protected Lanzhou with their cavalry troops, and put up resistance, the Japanese never captured Lanzhou.

The city is the seat of a currently vacant Roman Catholic diocese
Diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

 and was previously the center of a vicariate apostolic (Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Kan-Su).

Geography

  • Area
    Area
    Area is a quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional surface or shape in the plane. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat...

    : 13,300 km²
  • Elevation
    Elevation
    The elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface ....

    : 1,600 m above sea level
  • China's northwest
    Northwestern China
    Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.-Administrative divisions:ProvincesAutonomous Regions-Outer Northwest China:...

     geographical center
  • More than 20 km of urbanisation along the southern banks of the Yellow River
    Yellow River
    The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

    .
  • Zonary basin
  • Location of mountain
    Mountain
    Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

    s, located on the south and north sides of the city:
    • Qilian Ranges, Mt. Pingliang and Mt. Kongtong (the most famous in Taoism
      Taoism
      Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

      )
  • River
    River
    A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

    s:
    • The Yellow River
      Yellow River
      The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

       flows through from west to east.


Lanzhou is situated on the upper course of the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

, where the river emerges from the mountains. It has been a center since early times, being at the southern end of the route leading via the Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China. As part of the Northern Silk Road running northwest from the bank of the Yellow River, it was the most important route from North China to the Tarim Basin and Central Asia for traders and the military. The...

 across Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

. It also commands the approaches to the ancient capital area of Chang'an
Chang'an
Chang'an is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an literally means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese. During the short-lived Xin Dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; yet after its fall in AD 23, the old name was restored...

 (modern Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

) in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

 province from both the west and the northwest, as well as from the area of Qinghai Lake
Qinghai Lake
Qinghai Lake , is a saline lake situated in the province of Qinghai, and is the largest lake in China. The names Qinghai and Kokonor both mean "Blue/Teal Sea/Lake" in Chinese and Mongolian. It is located about west of the provincial capital of Xining at 3,205 m above sea level in a depression...

 via the upper waters of the Yellow River and its tributaries.

Climate and environment

Lanzhou is situated in the temperate zone and enjoys a semi-arid climate (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk) with hot summers and cold and dry winters. Diurnal temperature ranges tend to be somewhat large due to the high elevation and aridity. The mean annual temperature is 9.8 °C (49.6 °F), while annual rainfall is 315 millimetres (12.4 in), almost all of which falls from May to October. The winters are so dry that snow is extremely rare.

In regard to air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

 Lanzhou has some of the worst air quality of all cities in China. According to the Blacksmith Institute
Blacksmith Institute
Founded in 1999, Blacksmith Institute is an international non-for-profit organization dedicated to eliminating life-threatening pollution in the developing world. Blacksmith identifies and cleans up the world's worst polluted places, focusing on communities where children are most at risk. Based in...

, Lanzhou is one of the 30 most polluted cities in the world, with its TSP (total suspended particle) rating 247% above that of the Gansu State recommendation. The air quality is so poor that at times one can not see Lanshan
Lanshan (Gansu)
Lanshan mountain range is a mountain range along northern shore of the Huanhe east from the capital Lanzhou of the Gansu province in northwestern China.The area of the Lanshan mountains played a prominent role in the history of early China,...

, the mountain rising straight up along the south side of the city. At one point, a controversial suggestion was put forward to bulldoze a mountain adjacent to the city, in order to let fresh air in to the bowl where Lanzhou is situated. It was suggested on the premise that the surrounding mountains block a free flow of air in the city. The city is located in a narrow river
River
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

 valley
Valley
In geology, a valley or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep river valley may be called a canyon or gorge.The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys...

 with an unfortunate curve causing it to be hemmed in with no free air flow. Lanzhou is also the home of many factories, including some involved in petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 processing, and suffers from large dust storm
Dust storm
A dust / sand storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil to move from one place and deposition...

s kicked up from the Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
The Gobi is a large desert region in Asia. It covers parts of northern and northwestern China, and of southern Mongolia. The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altai Mountains and the grasslands and steppes of Mongolia on the north, by the Hexi Corridor and Tibetan Plateau to the...

, especially in the winter and spring. In 2011 the World Health Organization (based on Chinese statistics) reported that Lanzhou has the worst air quality (annual mean PM10 ug/m3 of 150) among eleven western China cities, and is even worse that Beijing (121).

The reach of the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 at Lanzhou carries a high load of silt, giving the river its characteristic muddy appearance; however water quality in this reach is better than the "fetid outflow that barely passes for water two hours downstream".

Administrative divisions

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
City proper
1 Chengguan District
Chengguan District, Lanzhou
The Chengguan District is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 17 districts of Gansu. It is located mostly on the southern side of the Yellow River, and includes the downtown Lanzhou...

城关区 Chéngguān Qū 880,000 220 4,000
2 Qilihe District
Qilihe District
The Qilihe District is an administrative district in the city of Lanzhou, which is the capital of the Gansu Province, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 17 administrative districts of Gansu....

七里河区 Qīlǐhé Qū 450,000 397 1,134
3 Xigu District
Xigu District
The Xigu District is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 17 districts of Gansu. It is part of the Lanzhou prefecture, with the city of the same name being the prefecture seat.-Economy:...

西固区 Xīgù Qū 320,000 385 831
4 Anning District
Anning District
The Anning District is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 17 districts of Gansu. It is part of the Lanzhou prefecture, with the city of the same name being the prefecture seat.-See also:...

安宁区 Ānníng Qū 210,000 86 2,442
Suburban
5 Honggu District
Honggu District
Honggu District is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 17 districts of Gansu. It is part of the Lanzhou prefecture, with the city of the same name being the prefecture seat.-References:...

红古区 Hónggǔ Qū 140,000 575 243
Rural
6 Yongdeng County
Yongdeng County
Yongdeng County is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 58 counties of Gansu. It is part of the Lanzhou prefecture, with the city of the same name being the prefecture seat...

永登县 Yǒngdēng Xiàn 500,000 6,090 82
7 Gaolan County
Gaolan County
Gaolan County is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 58 counties of Gansu. It is part of the Lanzhou prefecture, with the city of the same name being the prefecture seat...

皋兰县 Gāolán Xiàn 170,000 2,556 67
8 Yuzhong County
Yuzhong County
Yuzhong County is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China. It is one of 58 counties of Gansu. It is part of the Lanzhou prefecture, with the city of the same name being the prefecture seat...

榆中县 Yúzhōng Xiàn 420,000 3,362 125

Economy

Productivity

Since 1949 Lanzhou has been transformed from the capital of a poverty
Poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

-stricken province into the center of a major industrial area. The GDP per capita of Lanzhou was 25,566 yuan (RMB
Renminbi
The Renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China . Renminbi is legal tender in mainland China, but not in Hong Kong or Macau. It is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of the PRC...

) (US$3,681) in 2008, ranked no. 134 among 659 Chinese cities.

Natural resources

  • Minerals: coal
    Coal
    Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

    , gold
    Gold
    Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

    , silver
    Silver
    Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

    , zinc
    Zinc
    Zinc , or spelter , is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2...

    , nickel
    Nickel
    Nickel is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile...

    , manganese
    Manganese
    Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

    , clay
    Clay
    Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

    , and dolomite
    Dolomite
    Dolomite is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg2. The term is also used to describe the sedimentary carbonate rock dolostone....

  • Hydropower
    Hydropower
    Hydropower, hydraulic power, hydrokinetic power or water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of falling water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as...



There is a thermal generating plant supplied with coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 from fields in Qinghai
Qinghai
Qinghai ; Oirat Mongolian: ; ; Salar:) is a province of the People's Republic of China, named after Qinghai Lake...

. In addition, there is a hydroelectric station at Zhulama Gorge in Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

, and a large multipurpose dam
Dam
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are...

 has been built in the Liujia Gorge on the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 above Lanzhou.

Industry

Main industries include textile
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

 mills, rubber
Rubber
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, is an elastomer that was originally derived from latex, a milky colloid produced by some plants. The plants would be ‘tapped’, that is, an incision made into the bark of the tree and the sticky, milk colored latex sap collected and refined...

, fertilizer
Fertilizer
Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. A recent assessment found that about 40 to 60% of crop yields are attributable to commercial fertilizer use...

 plants, oil refinery
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

, petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

, machinery, and metallurgical
Metallurgy
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. It is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to their practical use...

 industry.

Gansu has one of the largest oil refineries in the country and Lanzhou itself is the center of the province's petrochemical industry. Lanzhou has a large refinery
Refinery
A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.-Types of refineries:Different types of refineries are as follows:...

 linked to the fields at Yumen by pipeline
Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquids and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air are also used....

. It also manufactures equipment for the oil industry.

Lanzhou has a large textile industry
Textile industry
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the production of yarn, and cloth and the subsequent design or manufacture of clothing and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry....

, particularly noted for the production of woolens and leather
Leather
Leather is a durable and flexible material created via the tanning of putrescible animal rawhide and skin, primarily cattlehide. It can be produced through different manufacturing processes, ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.-Forms:...

 goods. In addition, Lanzhou produces locomotives and rolling stock
Rolling stock
Rolling stock comprises all the vehicles that move on a railway. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives, railroad cars, coaches and wagons...

 for the northwestern railways, as well as machine
Machine
A machine manages power to accomplish a task, examples include, a mechanical system, a computing system, an electronic system, and a molecular machine. In common usage, the meaning is that of a device having parts that perform or assist in performing any type of work...

 tools and mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 equipment. Aluminum products, industrial chemicals, and fertilizers are produced on a large scale, and there is a large rubber
Rubber
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, is an elastomer that was originally derived from latex, a milky colloid produced by some plants. The plants would be ‘tapped’, that is, an incision made into the bark of the tree and the sticky, milk colored latex sap collected and refined...

 industry. Copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

 is mined in nearby Gaolan.

Lanzhou has been one of the centers of China's national nuclear power
Nuclear power
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity...

 industry since the 1960s.

Industrial zones:
  • Lanzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Lanzhou High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Agriculture

Lanzhou is the collecting center and market for agricultural produce and livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

 from a wide area.
  • Spring wheat, vegetable
    Vegetable
    The noun vegetable usually means an edible plant or part of a plant other than a sweet fruit or seed. This typically means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant....

    s, bean
    Bean
    Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae used for human food or animal feed....

    s, oil-boiling, melon
    Melon
    thumb|200px|Various types of melonsThis list of melons includes members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae with edible, fleshy fruit e.g. gourds or cucurbits. The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit...

    , peach
    Peach
    The peach tree is a deciduous tree growing to tall and 6 in. in diameter, belonging to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach...

    es, and tobacco
    Tobacco
    Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

  • Rose
    Rose
    A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows...

    s and lilies

Transportation

Airlines

  • Lanzhou Airport
    Lanzhou Airport
    Lanzhou Zhongchuan Airport is an airport serving Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China. It is located north of downtown Lanzhou.It was opened in 1970 and serves as a major air hub for the province of Gansu and western China. Currently it serves a total of 35 air routes within China.-Airlines...

     serves as the main airport and is located 70 km north of Lanzhou. Flights from more than 20 cities depart and arrive at the airport.

Railroad

Lanzhou is a major railway hub of western China. It has the following railway connections:
  • Longhai Railway to the east (Xi'an
    Xi'an
    Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

    , Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou
    Zhengzhou , is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north-central China. A prefecture-level city, it also serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational centre of the province, as well as a major transportation hub for Central China...

    , Lianyungang
    Lianyungang
    Lianyungang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. It borders Yancheng to its southeast, Huai'an and Suqian to its south, Xuzhou to its southwest, and the province of Shandong to its north...

    ), with connection to the main railway of Eastern China supporting direct trains to Beijing
    Beijing
    Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

    , Shanghai
    Shanghai
    Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

    , etc. This was the first railway to reach Lanzhou (1953).
  • Lanxin Railway
    Lanxin railway
    The Lanzhou−Xinjiang Railway or Lanxin Railway is the longest railway in northwestern China. It runs from Lanzhou, Gansu, through the Hexi Corridor, to Ürümqi, in the Xinjiang. It is Xinjiang's only rail link with the rest of China...

     to the west and northwest (with direct trains to western Gansu and Ürümqi
    Ürümqi
    Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

    , and further connections to other points in Xinjiang
    Xinjiang
    Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

     and to Kazakhstan
    Kazakhstan
    Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

    )
  • Lanqing Railway
    Lanqing railway
    Lanqing railway was built as the first step of an ambitious plan set by the People's Republic of China to connect Tibet with the rest of China by railway. LanQing railway, designed in 1956 and built from May 1958 to September 1959, runs 188 Kilometers long, connecting Lanzhou, the capital city of...

     to the west and southwest, with direct service to Xining
    Xining
    Xining is the capital of Qinghai province, People's Republic of China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. It has 2,208,708 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 1,198,304 live in the built up area made of 4 urban districts.-History:...

     and Lhasa
    Lhasa
    Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

  • A line to the north and northeast, with direct service to Yinchuan and Baotou
    Baotou
    Baotou is a mid-sized industrial city in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Governed as a prefecture-level city, its urban areas are home to a population of approximately 1.78 million, with a total population of over 2.65 million accounting for counties under...



Construction of new high-speed passenger-only railway lines is carried out both toward the east (the Xulan Passenger Dedicated Line
Xulan Passenger Dedicated Line
Xulan Passenger Dedicated Line is a route network system the compare of several sections and it is part of one across of the Four Straight Four Across national grid systems....

) and the west (the Lanxin High-Speed Railway
Lanxin High-Speed Railway
The Lanzhou–Urumqi High-Speed Railway, also known as Lanxin Second Railway, is a high-speed rail under construction in northwestern China. It will connect Lanzhou in Gansu Province and Ürümqi in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region....

).

Lanzhou train station's coordinate is 36°02′06.54"N 103°50′55.41"E.

Highways

  • Linked to neighboring provinces
  • China National Highway 212
    China National Highway 212
    China National Highway 212 runs from Lanzhou in Gansu to Chongqing. It is 1302 kilometres in length.The section from Lanzhou to Lintao has been converted into an expressway, designated G75 . From Lanzhou to the junction at Huichuan Town , G212 also doubles as China National Highway 316.-Route and...

  • China National Highway 213
    China National Highway 213
    China National Highway 213 runs from Lanzhou in Gansu to Mohan in Yunnan. It is 2827 kilometres in length and runs via Chengdu, Sichuan and Kunming, Yunnan.-Route and distance:...

  • China National Highway 312
    China National Highway 312
    China National Highway 312 , also referred to as Route 312 or The Mother Road, is an important highway that runs east-west across the breadth of People's Republic of China. It begins at the port city Shanghai and ends at Khorgas in the Ili River valley, on the border with Kazakhstan. In total it...


Places of interest

  • Gansu Provincial Museum
  • Wuquan Mountain
  • Baita Mountain
  • Xinglong Mountain
  • Lutusi ancient government

Media

  • Gansu People's Press, in Lanzhou, publishes Duzhe, the most widely circulated magazine in the People's Republic of China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

    .
  • Lanzhou Radio
    Lanzhou Radio
    Lanzhou Radio consists of four radio stations serving Lhasa and the greater Lanzhou Province area.-List of Lanzhou radio stations:-External links:* *...

     serves the Lhasa
    Lhasa
    Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

     and Lanzhou province regions with news and music.

Culture

The city is the cultural centre of Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

.
  • Chinese opera
    Chinese opera
    Chinese opera is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back as far as the third century CE...

    : Qinqiang Drama
  • Cuisine
    Chinese Islamic cuisine
    Chinese Islamic cuisine is the cuisine of the Hui and other Muslims living in China.-History:Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to, or are run by, Muslims. Northern Chinese Islamic cuisine originated in China proper...

    : Lanzhou beef lamian
    Lamian
    Lamian is a type of hand-made or hand-pulled Chinese noodle. It is also the name of the dishes that use these noodles.-Etymology and preparation:...

     noodles

Colleges and universities

The city is the seat of Lanzhou University
Lanzhou University
Lanzhou University, founded in 1909, is a university located in Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. It provides programs for undergraduate, graduate students on four campuses--three in Lanzhou city centre and one in Yuzhong , which is about 30 miles away from the main campus. Total enrollment is...

, founded in 1909. The National Minorities Institute at Lanzhou and a number of scientific institutes are also located there.In particular, Northwest Normal University
Northwest Normal University
Northwest Normal University is an institution of higher learning in Lanzhou, Gansu Province of the People's Republic of China.The predecessor of the Northwest Normal University was the National Beiping Normal University, originating from the Normal College of the Capital Grand Academy founded in...

 has been the key university at the provincial level, which has prepared over 100,000 teachers in schools across the province Gansu.

Other public institutions

  • Northwest Nationalities University (西北民族大学)
  • Eastern Gansu University (陇东学院)
  • Gansu Institute of Political Science and Law (甘肃政法学院)
  • Northwest Normal University
    Northwest Normal University
    Northwest Normal University is an institution of higher learning in Lanzhou, Gansu Province of the People's Republic of China.The predecessor of the Northwest Normal University was the National Beiping Normal University, originating from the Normal College of the Capital Grand Academy founded in...

     (西北师范大学), founded 1902
  • Lanzhou University of Technology
    Lanzhou University of Technology
    Lanzhou University of Technology is a scientific and technological university located in Lanzhou, the provincial capital of Gansu Province, China.- History :...

     (兰州理工大学), founded 1919 (formerly Gansu University of Technology)
  • Lanzhou Jiaotong University (兰州交通大学), founded 1958
  • Gansu Agricultural University
    Gansu Agricultural University
    Gansu Agricultural University is a university located in Lanzhou, Gansu province, People's Republic of China.Many of the University graduates are associated with Yasheng Group.-External links:*...

     (甘肃农业大学), founded 1958
  • Lanzhou Medical College (兰州医学院) (Lanzhou Medical Institute)
  • Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (甘肃中医学院)
  • Lanzhou Commercial College (兰州商学院) (Lanzhou Business Institute)
  • Gansu Political Science and Law Institute (甘肃政法学院)
  • Lanzhou Niuroumian Cultural Research Institute (兰州牛肉面文化研究所)
  • Lanzhou City University (兰州城市学院)
  • Tianshui Normal University (天水师范学院)
  • Gansu Lianhe University (甘肃联合大学)

Healthcare

  • Lanzhou Heavy Ion Cancer Treatment Center, joint venture by Sheng De Group, the city government and Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Chinese Academy of Sciences , formerly known as Academia Sinica, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It is an institution of the State Council of China. It is headquartered in Beijing, with institutes all over the People's Republic of China...

    ' Institution of Modern Physics


According to the provincial health bureau, about 42,000 people die of cancer every year in Gansu
Gansu
' is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China.It lies between the Tibetan and Huangtu plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east...

, accounting for 25 percent of the province's overall deaths. More than 1 billion yuan (146 million U.S. dollars) is spent annually on treating cancer in the province.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Lanzhou is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Albuquerque, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Akita, Akita
Akita, Akita
is the capital city of Akita Prefecture in the Tohoku region of Japan.As of June 11, 2005, with the merger of the former Kawabe District , the city has an estimated population of 323,310 and density of...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 Christchurch
Christchurch
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the country's second-largest urban area after Auckland. It lies one third of the way down the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula which itself, since 2006, lies within the formal limits of...

, New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...


External links

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