Lydia Litvyak
Overview
 
Lydia Vladimirovna Litvyak (Лидия Владимировна Литвяк, (Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, August 18, 1921 – Krasnyi Luch
Krasnyi Luch
Krasnyi Luch is a city in the Luhansk Oblast of south-eastern Ukraine. The city is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast.The current estimated population is 89,688 ..-History:...

  August 1, 1943), also known as Lydia Litviak or Lilya Litviak, was a fighter pilot
Fighter pilot
A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained in air-to-air combat while piloting a fighter aircraft . Fighter pilots undergo specialized training in aerial warfare and dogfighting...

 in the Soviet Air Force
Soviet Air Force
The Soviet Air Force, officially known in Russian as Военно-воздушные силы or Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily and often abbreviated VVS was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces...

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. With 12 solo victories (but some authors say 11 or even 13 ) and either two, or four, shared gained in 66 combat missions, she is one of the world's only two female fighter ace
Fighter Ace
Fighter Ace was a massively multiplayer online computer game in which one flies World War II fighter and bomber planes in combat against other players and virtual pilots...

s, along with Katya Budanova
Katya Budanova
Yekaterina Vasylievna Budanova , also known as Katya Budanova , , was a fighter pilot in the Soviet Air Force during World War II...

.
Born in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Litvyak became interested in aviation at an early age.
Encyclopedia
Lydia Vladimirovna Litvyak (Лидия Владимировна Литвяк, (Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, August 18, 1921 – Krasnyi Luch
Krasnyi Luch
Krasnyi Luch is a city in the Luhansk Oblast of south-eastern Ukraine. The city is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast.The current estimated population is 89,688 ..-History:...

  August 1, 1943), also known as Lydia Litviak or Lilya Litviak, was a fighter pilot
Fighter pilot
A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained in air-to-air combat while piloting a fighter aircraft . Fighter pilots undergo specialized training in aerial warfare and dogfighting...

 in the Soviet Air Force
Soviet Air Force
The Soviet Air Force, officially known in Russian as Военно-воздушные силы or Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily and often abbreviated VVS was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces...

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. With 12 solo victories (but some authors say 11 or even 13 ) and either two, or four, shared gained in 66 combat missions, she is one of the world's only two female fighter ace
Fighter Ace
Fighter Ace was a massively multiplayer online computer game in which one flies World War II fighter and bomber planes in combat against other players and virtual pilots...

s, along with Katya Budanova
Katya Budanova
Yekaterina Vasylievna Budanova , also known as Katya Budanova , , was a fighter pilot in the Soviet Air Force during World War II...

.

Early life

Born in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Litvyak became interested in aviation at an early age. At 14 she enrolled in a flying club
Flying club
A flying club or aero club is a not for profit, member run organization that provides its members with affordable access to aircraft.Many clubs also provide flight training, flight planning facilities, pilot supplies and associated services, as well as organizing social functions, fly-ins and...

. She performed her first solo flight at 15, and later graduated at Kherson military flying school. She became a flight instructor
Flight instructor
A flight instructor is a person who teaches others to fly aircraft. Specific privileges granted to holders of a flight instructor qualification vary from country to country, but very generally, a flight instructor serves to enhance or evaluate the knowledge and skill level of an aviator in pursuit...

 at Kalinin Airclub, and by the time the German-Soviet war broke out, had already trained forty-five pilots.

Women's regiment

After the German attack on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 in June 1941, Litvyak tried to join a military aviation unit, but was turned down for lack of experience. After deliberately exaggerating her pre-war flight time by 100 hours, she joined the all-female 586th Fighter Regiment of the Air Defense Force (586 IAP/PVO, istrebitel'naia aviatsia protivovozdushnoi oborony), which was formed by Marina Raskova
Marina Raskova
Marina Mikhailovna Raskova was a famous Russian navigator. She later became one of over 800,000 women in the military service, founding three female air regiments which would eventually fly over 30,000 sorties in World War II.- Early life :...

. She trained there on the Yakovlev Yak-1
Yakovlev Yak-1
The Yakovlev Yak-1 was a World War II Soviet fighter aircraft. Produced from early 1940, it was a single-seat monoplane with a composite structure and wooden wings....

 aircraft.

Men's regiment

Litvyak flew her first combat flights in the summer of 1942 over Saratov
Saratov
-Modern Saratov:The Saratov region is highly industrialized, due in part to the rich in natural and industrial resources of the area. The region is also one of the more important and largest cultural and scientific centres in Russia...

. In September, she was assigned to the 437 IAP, a men's regiment fighting over Stalingrad. On 10 September she moved along with Katya Budanova, Maria M. Kuznetsova and Raisa Beliaeva, the commander of the group, and accompanying female ground crew, to the regiment airfield, at Verkhnaia Akhtuba, on the east bank of the Volga river. But when they arrived the base was empty and under attack, so they soon moved to Srednaia Akhtuba. Here, flying a Yak-1 carrying the number "32" on the fuselage, she would achieve considerable success. "Liliia Litvyak was a very aggressive person", but an exceptional pilot, recalled Boris Eremin (later lieutenant general
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 of aviation), who was a regimental commander
Commander
Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.-Commander as a naval...

 in the division
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

 to which she and Budanova were assigned, "a born fighter pilot".

In the 437th Fighter Regiment, Litvyak scored her very first two kills on 13 September, three days after her arrival and on her third mission to cover Stalingrad, becoming the very first woman fighter pilot to shoot down an enemy aircraft. That day, four Yak-1s—with Major S. Danilov in the lead—attacked a formation of Junkers Ju 88
Junkers Ju 88
The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers' company through the services of two American aviation engineers in the mid-1930s, it suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early...

s escorted by Messerschmitt Bf 109
Messerschmitt Bf 109
The Messerschmitt Bf 109, often called Me 109, was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser during the early to mid 1930s...

s. Her first kill was a Ju 88 which fell in flames from the sky after several bursts. Then she shot a Bf 109 G-2 "Gustav" off the tail of her squadron commander, Raisa Beliaeva. The Bf 109 was piloted by a decorated pilot from the 4th Air Fleet commanded by General Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (a distant relative of the Red Baron) the 11-victory ace, three-time recipient of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
The Iron Cross is a cross symbol typically in black with a white or silver outline that originated after 1219 when the Kingdom of Jerusalem granted the Teutonic Order the right to combine the Teutonic Black Cross placed above a silver Cross of Jerusalem....

, Staff Sergeant Erwin Maier of the 2nd Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 53
Jagdgeschwader 53
Jagdgeschwader 53 Pik-As was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II. It operated in Western Europe and in the Mediterranean.Jagdgeschwader 53 - or as it was better known, the "Pik As" Geschwader - was one of the oldest German fighter units of World War II with its origins going back to 1937...

. Maier parachuted from his aircraft, was captured by Soviet troops, and asked to see the Russian ace who had outflown him. When he was taken to stand in front of Litvyak, he thought he was being made the butt of a Soviet joke. It was not until Litvyak described each move of the dogfight to him in perfect detail that he knew he had been beaten by a woman pilot.
But according to other authors the first air victory of a female pilot was achieved by 586° IAP's Leutenant Valeriya Khomiakova when she shot down the Ju 88 flown by Oblt. Gerhard Maak of 7./KG76 on the night of 24 September 1942.On 14 September, according to some authors, Litvyak shot down another Bf 109. But on that day, Luftwaffe, on Stalingrad, did not lose any Bf 109.

On 27 September Litvyak scored an air victory against a Ju 88, the gunner having shot up the regiment commander, Major M.S. Khovostnikov. For some historians that was her first kill.

Free hunter

Litvyak, Beliaeva, Budanova and Kuznetsova stayed in the 437 IAP for a short time only, mainly because it was equipped with LaGG 3s rather than Yak-1s, that the women flew, and was lacking the facilities to service the latter. So the four women were moved to the 9th Guards Fighter Regiment (9 GvIAP, gvardeiskii istrebitel’ nyi aviatsionnyi polk). From October 1942 till January 1943, Litvyak and Budanova served, still in the Stalingrad area, with this famous unit, commanded by Lev Shestakov, Hero of Soviet Union.

In January 1943, the 9th was re-equipped with the Bell P-39 Airacobras and Litvyak and Budanova were moved to the 296 IAP (later the 73 GvIAP, Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment) of Nikolai Baranov, of the 8th Air Army, so that they could still fly the Yaks. On February 23, she was awarded the Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star
Established on 6 April 1930, the Order of the Red Star was an order of the Soviet Union, given to Red Army and Soviet Navy personnel for "exceptional service in the cause of the defense of the Soviet Union in both war and peace". It was established by Resolution of the Presidium of the CEC of the...

, made a junior lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces.- United Kingdom and Commonwealth :The rank second lieutenant was introduced throughout the British Army in 1871 to replace the rank of ensign , although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal...

 and selected to take part in the elite air tactic called okhotniki, or "free hunter", where pairs of experienced pilots searched for targets on their own initiative. Twice, she was forced to land due to battle damage. On 22 March she was wounded for the first time. That day she was flying as part of a group of six Yak fighters when they attacked a dozen Ju 88s. Litvyak shot down one of the bombers, but was in turn attacked and wounded by the escorting Bf 109s. She managed to shoot down a Messerschmitt and to return to her airfield and land her plane, but was in severe pain and losing blood.

While in 73 GvIAP, she often flew as wingman of Alexei Frolovich Solomatin. Kapitan Solomatin was a flying ace. He had claimed a total of 39 victories (22 shared), when he flew into the ground, in Pavlonka, and was killed in front of the entire regiment on May 21, while training a new flyer. Lydia was devastated by the crash and wrote a letter to her mother describing how she realized only after Solomatin's death that she had loved him.

Senior Sergeant Inna Pasportnikova, Litvyak's mechanic during the time she flew with the men's regiment, reported in 1990 that after Solomatin's death, Litvyak wanted nothing but to fly combat missions, and she fought desperately.

Litvyak scored against a difficult target on May 31, 1943: an artillery observation balloon manned by a German officer. German artillery was aided in targeting by reports from the observation post on the balloon. The elimination of the balloon had been attempted by other Soviet airmen but all had been driven away by a dense protective belt of anti-aircraft fire defending the balloon. Litvyak volunteered to take out the balloon but was turned down. She insisted, and described for her commander her plan: she would attack it from the rear after flying in a wide circle around the perimeter of the battleground and over German-held territory. The tactic worked—the hydrogen-filled balloon caught fire under her stream of tracer bullets
Tracer ammunition
Tracer ammunition are bullets that are built with a small pyrotechnic charge in their base. Ignited by the burning powder, the phosphorus tail burns very brightly, making the projectile visible to the naked eye...

 and was destroyed.

On June 13, 1943, Litvyak was appointed flight commander of the 3rd Aviation Squadron within 73rd GvIAP.

Lydia made an additional kill on July 16, 1943. That day, six Yaks encountered 30 German bombers with six escorts. The woman ace downed a bomber and shared a victory with a comrade, but her fighter was hit and she had to make a belly landing
Belly landing
A belly landing or gear-up landing occurs when an aircraft lands without its landing gear fully extended and uses its underside, or belly, as its primary landing device...

.
She was wounded again but refused to take medical leave. She shot down two more Bf 109s on 19 and 21 July 1943.

Last Mission

On August 1, 1943, Lydia did not come back to her base of Krasnyy Luch, in the Donbass, from an escort to a flight of Ilyushin Il-2
Ilyushin Il-2
The Ilyushin Il-2 was a ground-attack aircraft in the Second World War, produced by the Soviet Union in very large numbers...

 Shturmoviks. It was her fourth sortie of the day. As the Soviets were returning to base near Orel
Oryol
Oryol or Orel is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River, approximately south-southwest of Moscow...

, a pair of Bf 109 fighters dived on Lydia while she was attacking a large group of German bombers. Soviet pilot Ivan Borisenko recalled: “Lily just didn’t see the Messerschmitt 109s flying cover for the German bombers. A pair of them dived on her and when she did see them she turned to meet them. Then they all disappeared behind a cloud.” Borisenko, involved in the dogfight, saw her a last time, through a gap in the clouds, her Yak-1 pouring smoke and pursued by as many as eight Bf 109s.

Borisenko descended to see if he could find her. No parachute was seen, and no explosion, yet she never returned from the mission. Litvyak was 21 years old. Soviet authorities suspected that she might have been captured, a possibility that prevented them from awarding her the title of Hero of the Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.-Overview:...

.

Recognition and controversy

In an attempt to prove that Litvyak had not been taken captive, Pasportnikova embarked on a 36 year search for the Yakovlev Yak-1 crash site assisted by the public and the media. For three years she was joined by relatives who together combed the most likely areas with a metal detector. In 1979, after uncovering more than 90 other crash sites, 30 aircraft and many lost pilots killed in action, "the searchers discovered that an unidentified woman pilot had been buried in the village of Dmitrievka... in Shakhterski district." It was then assumed that it was Litvyak and that she had been killed in action after sustaining a mortal head wound. Pasportnikova said that a specialist commission was formed to inspect the exhumed body and it concluded the remains were those of Litvyak.

On May 6, 1990, USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

 posthumously awarded Litvyak Hero of the Soviet Union. Her final rank was senior lieutenant.

Death controversy

Arguments have been published that dispute the official version of Litvyak's death. Although Yekaterina Valentina Vaschenko, the curator of the Litvyak museum in Krasnyi Luch
Krasnyi Luch
Krasnyi Luch is a city in the Luhansk Oblast of south-eastern Ukraine. The city is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast.The current estimated population is 89,688 ..-History:...

 has stated that the body was disinterred and examined by forensic specialists who determined that it was indeed Litvyak, Kazimiera Janina "Jean" Cottam claims, on the basis of evidence provided by Ekaterina Polunina, chief mechanic and archivist of the 586th Fighter Regiment in which Litvyak initially served, that the body was never exhumed and that verification was limited to comparison of a number of reports. Cottam, an author and researcher focusing on Soviet women in the military, concludes that Litvyak made a belly-landing in her stricken aircraft, was captured and taken to a prisoner of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 camp. In her book published in 2004, Polunina lists evidence that led her to conclude that Litvyak was pulled from the downed aircraft by German troops and held prisoner for some time.

In 2000, Nina Raspopova, a veteran of the 46th (Taman) Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment
Night Witches
"Night Witches" is the English translation of Nachthexen, a World War II German nickname , for the female military aviators of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, known later as the 46th "Taman" Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, of the Soviet Air Forces...

 (also known as the "Night Witches") informed Polunina that she had seen a woman greatly resembling Litvyak, alive and being interviewed on a Swiss
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 television program. Raspopova claimed that the woman concerned was Russian, appeared to be aged in her late 70s, and was introduced as a mother of three and former Soviet combat pilot. The woman supposedly claimed to have been wounded twice during World War II. However, Litvak did not serve in the "Night Witches" and it is not clear whether Raspopova knew her personally.

Number of kills

There are conflicting claims about Litvyak's victory score in different publications; none are official records. Most often, 11 individual kills and 3 team kills are quoted, but also 8 individual and 4 team, 12 individual and 2 team, or other combinations. Pasportnikova stated in 1990 that the tally was 12 solo kills including the balloon, and three shared. Polunina has written that the kills of top-scoring Soviet pilots, including those of Litvyak and Budanova, were often inflated; and that Litvyak should be credited with five solo aircraft kills and two group kills, including the observation balloon.

The novel Vernis iz Poleta (Return from Flight) by Natalya Kravtsova
Natalya Myeklin
Natalya Fyodorovna Meklin née Kravtsova was a much decorated World War II combat pilot in one of the three women-only Soviet air regiments. They were nicknamed the 'Night Witches' by their German opponents....

 fictionalizes the death of Solomatin, stating that he was killed when he ran out of ammunition while battling with a German Bf 109 fighter plane over his own airfield. Litvyak and others at the airfield watched the fight and witnessed his death.

Litvyak was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
The Soviet government of Russia established the Order of the Red Banner , a military decoration, on September 16, 1918 during the Russian Civil War...

, Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star
Established on 6 April 1930, the Order of the Red Star was an order of the Soviet Union, given to Red Army and Soviet Navy personnel for "exceptional service in the cause of the defense of the Soviet Union in both war and peace". It was established by Resolution of the Presidium of the CEC of the...

, and was twice honored with the Order of the Patriotic War
Order of the Patriotic War
The Order of the Patriotic War is a Soviet military decoration that was awarded to all soldiers in the Soviet armed forces, security troops, and to partisans for heroic deeds during the German-Soviet War, known by the former-Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War.- History :The Order was...

.

Character and private life

Litvyak displayed a rebellious and romantic character. Returning from a successful mission, she would "buzz" the aerodrome and then indulge in unauthorised aerobatics, knowing that it enraged her commander.

Litvyak could also be superstitious, as Paspotnikova testified:

She never believed that she was invincible. She believed that some pilots had luck on their side and others didn't. She firmly believed that, if you survived the first missions, the more you flew and the more experience you got your chances of making it would increase. But you had to have luck on your side.


Despite the predominantly male environment in which she found herself, she never renounced her femininity, and would carry on dyeing her hair blonde, sending her friend Inna Pasportnikova to the hospital to fetch hydrogen peroxide for her. She would fashion scarves from parachute material, dyeing the small pieces in different colours and stitching them together and would not hide her love of flowers, which she picked at every available occasion, favouring red roses. She would make bouquets and keep them in the cockpit, which were promptly discarded by the male pilots who shared her aircraft.

Her comrade Solomatin is believed to have been her fiancé, and after his death she wrote to her mother:

You see, he was not my type, but his insistence and his love for me convinced me to love him... and now, it seems I will never meet someone like him ever again.

White lily, white rose

She was called the "White Lily of Stalingrad" in Soviet press releases; the white lily flower may be translated from Russian as Madonna lily
Madonna lily
Lilium candidum is a plant in the genus Lilium, one of the true lilies. It is native to the Balkans and West Asia. It forms bulbs at ground level, and unlike other lilies, has a basal rosette of leaves through the winter, which die back in summer...

. She has also been called the "White Rose of Stalingrad" in Europe and North America after reports of her exploits were first published in English. A play about her, White Rose, was performed once in Coventry
Coventry
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the county of West Midlands in England. Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 11th largest in the United Kingdom. It is also the second largest city in the English Midlands, after Birmingham, with a population of 300,848, although...

.

Aerial victories

  • September 13, 1942
    • two solo, a Junkers Ju 88 and a Messerschmitt Bf 109 (of E. Maier.) Another source suggests a Heinkel He 111
      Heinkel He 111
      The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter in the early 1930s in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Often described as a "Wolf in sheep's clothing", it masqueraded as a transport aircraft, but its purpose was to provide the Luftwaffe with a fast medium...

       instead of a Ju 88.
  • September 14, 1942
    • one solo, a Bf 109 (according to historian Hans D. Seidl, it was a kill shared with Katya Budanova)
  • September 27, 1942
    • one solo, a Junkers Ju 88
    • one shared, with Raisa Beliaeva, a Messerschmitt Bf 109
  • February 11, 1943
    • one solo, a Junkers Ju 87
      Junkers Ju 87
      The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was a two-man German ground-attack aircraft...

    • one shared, with Alexei Solomatin, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190
      Focke-Wulf Fw 190
      The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger was a German Second World War single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s. Powered by a radial engine, the 190 had ample power and was able to lift larger loads than its well-known counterpart, the Messerschmitt Bf 109...

  • March 1, 1943
    • one solo, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190
  • March 22, 1943
    • two solo, a Messerschmitt Bf 109 and a Junkers Ju 88

  • May 5, 1943
    • one solo, a Messerschmitt Bf 109
  • May 7, 1943
    • one solo, a Messerschmitt Bf 109
  • May 31, 1943
    • one solo, an artillery observation balloon
  • July 16, 1943
    • one solo, Messerschmitt Bf 109. One source claims the victim aircraft had an "Ace of Spades" card painted on the fuselage. Another source claims that this kill was a bomber.
    • one shared (According to another source, the shared kill was a Bf 109 while the solo was a Ju 88)
  • July 19, 1943
    • one solo, a Messerschmitt Bf 109
  • July 21, 1943
    • one a Messerschmitt Bf 109
  • July 31, 1943
    • one solo, a Messerschmitt Bf 109
    • one shared, a Messerschmitt Bf 109 (however, according to the books of Pennington, Cottam, Noggle, Sakaida, Goodpaster, Polak and Seidl, on 31 July 1943, Litvyak did not score any kill)
  • August 1, 1943
    • one solo, a Messerschmitt Bf 109,
    • one shared, a Messerschmitt Bf 109


The following table summarizes Litvyak's victories and her probable victims:
Date (dd.mm.yyyy) Soviet Unit Aircraft flown Enemy Aircraft Pilot & Fate Axis Unit
13.09.1942 437 IAP Yak-1 "White 02" Ju.88 Luftwaffe (**)
13.09.1942 437 IAP Yak-1 "White 02" Bf.109G-2 W.Nr.13556 Obfw. Erwin Meier - POW (11-kill ace) 2./JG 53
14.09.1942 437 IAP Yak-1 "White 02" Bf.109 Luftwaffe (**)
27.09.1942 437 IAP Yak-1 "White 02" Ju.88A-4 W.Nr.3517 Unknown (80% dam, w/o) 5./KG 76
27.09.1942 437 IAP Yak-1 "White 02" Bf.109G-2 W.Nr.14221 Horst Loose - KIA (shared) 4./JG 52.
11.02.1943 296 IAP Yak-1 "Red 32" Fw.190 (shared) Luftwaffe (**)
11.02.1943 296 IAP Yak-1 "Red 32" Ju.87D-3 W.Nr.2948 Gerhard Weber + gunner - MIAs 5./StG 77
1.03.1943 296 IAP Yak-1 "Yellow 44" Fw.190 Luftwaffe (**)
22.03.1943 296 IAP Yak-1 "Yellow 44" Bf.109G-4 "BH+XB" Lt. Franz Müller 9./JG 3
22.03.1943 296 IAP Yak-1 "Yellow 44" Bf.109G-2 "Yellow 2" Uzz. Karl-Otto Harloff 9./JG 3
5.05.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1 "Yellow 44" Bf.109 Luftwaffe (**)
7.05.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1 "Yellow 44" Bf.109 Luftwaffe (**)
16.07.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1b "White 23" Bf.109G-6 W.Nr.15204 Unknown (20% dam) 5./JG 3
16.07.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1b "White 23" Bf.109G-? W.Nr.? Obfw. Hans Grünberg force landed(82-kill ace) 5./JG 3
19.07.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1b "White 23" Bf.109G-6 W.Nr.20005 Unknown (40% dam) 5./JG 3
21.07.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1b "White 23" Bf.109 Luftwaffe (**)
1.08.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1b "White 23" Bf.109G-6 W.Nr.15852 Unknown (50% dam) 2./JG 52
1.08.1943 73 GIAP Yak-1b "White 23" Bf.109G-6 W.Nr.20423 Fw. Hans-Jörg Merkle - KIA (30-kill ace) 1./JG 52


(**) = Overclaim. Not known German combat loss match this claim.

External links

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