Low-floor bus
Overview
 
A low-floor bus is a bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 that has no steps between one or more entrances and part or all of the passenger cabin. Being low floor improves the accessibility
Accessibility
Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity...

 of the bus for the public, particularly the elderly or infirm, or those with push chairs
Baby transport
Baby transport consists of devices for transporting and carrying infants. A "child carrier" or "baby carrier" is a device used to carry an infant or small child on the body of an adult...

, and increasingly, those in wheelchair
Wheelchair
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, designed to be a replacement for walking. The device comes in variations where it is propelled by motors or by the seated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand. Often there are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing...

s.

In the modern context, "low floor bus" refers to a bus that is accessible from a certain minimum height of step from ground level, to distinguish it from some historical bus designs that did feature a level interior floor throughout but with a relatively high-floor
High-floor
High-floor is an expression used to distinguish tram, light rail and other rail vehicles, along with buses and trolleybuses, built to formerly conventional design, from their counterparts of low-floor design....

 height.
Many low-floor buses are low-floor over only a part of the bus, with the rear section raised to accommodate powertrain
Powertrain
In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials, and the final drive...

 equipment.
Encyclopedia
A low-floor bus is a bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 that has no steps between one or more entrances and part or all of the passenger cabin. Being low floor improves the accessibility
Accessibility
Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity...

 of the bus for the public, particularly the elderly or infirm, or those with push chairs
Baby transport
Baby transport consists of devices for transporting and carrying infants. A "child carrier" or "baby carrier" is a device used to carry an infant or small child on the body of an adult...

, and increasingly, those in wheelchair
Wheelchair
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, designed to be a replacement for walking. The device comes in variations where it is propelled by motors or by the seated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand. Often there are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing...

s.

In the modern context, "low floor bus" refers to a bus that is accessible from a certain minimum height of step from ground level, to distinguish it from some historical bus designs that did feature a level interior floor throughout but with a relatively high-floor
High-floor
High-floor is an expression used to distinguish tram, light rail and other rail vehicles, along with buses and trolleybuses, built to formerly conventional design, from their counterparts of low-floor design....

 height.

Configuration

Many low-floor buses are low-floor over only a part of the bus, with the rear section raised to accommodate powertrain
Powertrain
In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant refers to the group of components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials, and the final drive...

 equipment. Van Hool
Van Hool
Van Hool NV is a Belgian coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.The company was founded in 1947 by Bernard van Hool in Koningshooikt, nearby Lier, Belgium. In the early years, the company introduced serial production and exported their products all over Europe...

 has a series of "side-engine rear-drive" buses that puts the engine off to one side of the cabin longitudinally, to maximize usable cabin space. The Czech Irisbus Citelis
Irisbus Citelis
Irisbus Citelis is a wheelchair-accessible city bus produced by Irisbus. It was introduced in 2005 to replace the Agora. It comes in two varieties: Citelis 12, which is of standard length, and Citelis 18, which is articulated and has a length of . Citelis models use Euro 4, Euro 5 & EEV engines...

 - also in Skoda 24Tr trolleybus version - has 100% low floor with the engine in a vertical cabinet at the rear of the bus.

Most bus manufacturers achieve a low floor height by making rear-engined
Rear-engine design
In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle. The center of gravity of the engine itself is past the rear axle...

 rear-wheel drive buses with independent front wheels, so that no axle
Axle
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to its surroundings, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle...

 is needed to pass under the floor of the passenger compartment.

For smaller buses, such as midibus
Midibus
A midibus is a classification of single-decker minibuses which generally are larger than a traditional minibus but smaller than a full-size single decker and can be anywhere between and long...

es, the low-floor capability is achieved by placing the front wheels ahead of the entrance. One of the last types of buses to gain low-floor accessibility as standard was the minibus
Minibus
A minibus or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a...

, where a similar front-wheel arrangement allows around 12 seats and a wheelchair space to be accommodated in very small low-floor minibuses, such as the Optare Alero
Optare Alero
The Optare Alero was a low-floor integral minibus built by Optare between 2001 and 2008. It was built as an alternative to van-derived buses such as the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter.Around 300 were built in the first five years of production...

 and Hino Poncho
Hino Poncho
The is a non-step low-floor minibus built by Hino.- First generation :The Poncho first generation was based on the Fiat Ducato chassis.*VF3ZCPMAC- Second generation :...

.

Accessibility was previously achieved in paratransit
Paratransit
Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. Typically mini-buses are used to provide paratransit service, but also share taxis and jitneys are important providers....

 type applications, which use small vehicles with the fitment of special lifts. The inception of small low-floor buses has allowed the development of several accessible demand-responsive transport schemes using standard 'off-the-shelf' buses.

Low-floor buses usually include an area without seating (or seating that folds up) next to at least one of the doors, where wheelchair
Wheelchair
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, designed to be a replacement for walking. The device comes in variations where it is propelled by motors or by the seated occupant turning the rear wheels by hand. Often there are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing...

s and perambulators
Baby transport
Baby transport consists of devices for transporting and carrying infants. A "child carrier" or "baby carrier" is a device used to carry an infant or small child on the body of an adult...

 can be parked. This is sometimes not the only purpose of this area, though, as many operators employ larger standee areas for high occupancy at peak times. Despite the space existing, operators may also insist that only one or two wheelchairs or pushchairs can be accommodated unfolded, due to space/safety concerns.

An interesting implementation of the low floor design exists in Australia, where Custom Coaches makes a "Hybrid" variant of its CB60 bodywork. These buses combine a smaller low floor area with a small underfloor bin for some luggage. Whilst these buses do not provide a full amount of luggage space, they can be used to house more luggage than what can be held inside the bus itself. Another drawback is the arrangement means the section of the bus that is at kerb height is very short-consisting of enough space to house the wheelchair area and then rising up, to accommodate the luggage bin. These buses also lack the ability to have a centre door.

A disadvantage of the low floor is accommodating the bus's own wheels. With the low floor, the wheels protrude into the passenger cabin, and need to be contained in wheel pockets of waist height, and this occupies space which would otherwise be used for seating. Seating layout for a low-floor bus therefore requires careful design.

Low floors can be complemented by a hydraulic
Hydraulics
Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control,...

 or pneumatic 'kneeling device', which can be used when the bus is not in motion, tilting it or lowering it at the front axle even further, often down to normal kerb
Curb (road)
A curb, or kerb , is the edge where a raised pavement/sidewalk/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other roadway.-Function:...

 height. Depending on how close to the kerb the bus is parked and wheelchair design, this can allow wheelchair users to board unaided. Though such technology has been available and in use on high-floor buses since the 1970s, it is of significant utility on low-floor vehicles only where it enables less-mobile passengers to board and leave the vehicle without help from others. Many vehicles are also equipped with wheel-chair lifts, or ramps which, when combined with a low floor, can provide a nearly level entry.

Alternatives

Many bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

 systems employ a level boarding by using high-floor buses stopping at "station" style bus stops. Specially raised sections of kerb may also be used to achieve accessibility with lesser low floor models, although this is more expensive for the operator, and only attractive for regular busy scheduled routes. For infrequent routes or routes with hail and ride
Hail and ride
Hail and Ride is a concept in public transport in the United Kingdom. Generally, it refers to boarding or alighting a mode of public transport by signalling the driver or conductor that one wishes to board/alight, rather than the more...

 sections, or demand responsive transport
Demand responsive transport
Demand Responsive Transport or Demand-Responsive Transit or Demand Responsive Service or Dial-a-ride or Flexible Transport Services is "an advanced, user-oriented form of public transport characterised by flexible routing and scheduling of small/medium vehicles operating in shared-ride mode...

, raised kerbs would only be feasible in terminus
Bus terminus
A bus terminus is a designated place where a bus or coach starts or ends its scheduled route. The terminus is the designated place that a timetable is timed from. Termini can be located at bus stations, interchanges, bus garages or simple bus stops. Termini can both start and stop at the same...

es.

Some transit agencies refused to order low-floor buses altogether, such as New Jersey Transit
New Jersey Transit
The New Jersey Transit Corporation is a statewide public transportation system serving the United States state of New Jersey, and New York, Orange, and Rockland counties in New York State...

 and MUNI
San Francisco Municipal Railway
The San Francisco Municipal Railway is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California. In 2006, it served with an operating budget of about $700 million...

 owing to terrain conditions in the service area. DART
Dallas Area Rapid Transit
The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority is a transit agency based in Dallas, Texas . It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and 12 of its suburbs...

 still has a preference for high floor buses. Although New York City Transit
New York City Transit Authority
The New York City Transit Authority is a public authority in the U.S. state of New York that operates public transportation in New York City...

 runs some 40 foot low-floors, it originally refused to order low-floor buses, namely D60LFs from New Flyer
New Flyer Industries
New Flyer Industries Inc. is a bus manufacturer in North America, headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It also has factories in Crookston and St. Cloud, Minnesota, USA.-History:...

, after the D60HF, a high floor model, was discontinued mid-delivery. However, they have demonstrated both the D60LF and NovaBus LFSA, the latter of which they have decided to order.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, because of the colloquialism
Colloquialism
A colloquialism is a word or phrase that is common in everyday, unconstrained conversation rather than in formal speech, academic writing, or paralinguistics. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier...

 of "buggy" for push chairs
Baby transport
Baby transport consists of devices for transporting and carrying infants. A "child carrier" or "baby carrier" is a device used to carry an infant or small child on the body of an adult...

, low floor buses are often called buggy buses.

The Dennis Dart SLF (Super Low Floor) marked the wholesale introduction of single-deck
Single-decker bus
A single-decker bus or single-decker is a bus that has a single deck for passengers. Normally the use of the term single-decker refers to a standard two-axled rigid bus, in direct contrast to the use of the term double-decker bus, which is essentially a single decked bus with an extra deck and...

 low floor buses in the United Kingdom in 1995, after many small scale demonstrator usages. Low floor buses were rapidly introduced on high profile routes, notably becoming a requirement for London Buses
London Buses
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London, UK. Buses are required to carry similar red colour schemes and conform to the same fare scheme...

 contracts. The Optare Solo
Optare Solo
The Optare Solo is a low-floor midibus manufactured by Optare in Leeds, UK since 1997. The name "Solo" is a play on the low-floor status of the bus, the manufacturer believing its vehicle having an entrance that is "so low" from the floor, namely 200 mm with kneeling suspension.The innovative...

 introduced in 1997 marked another step change with inroads into smaller usages traditionally served by minibus
Minibus
A minibus or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a...

es. The final phase came with low floor double-deckers
Double-decker bus
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or 'decks'. Global usage of this type of bus is more common in outer touring than in its intra-urban transportion role. Double-decker buses are also commonly found in certain parts of Europe, Asia, and former British colonies and protectorates...

 the Dennis Trident 2
Dennis Trident 2
Dennis Trident 2 is a 2-axle low-floor double-decker bus chassis originally built by Dennis in the United Kingdom, which was unveiled in 1997 and replaced the Dennis Arrow...

 and Volvo B7TL
Volvo B7TL
Volvo B7TL is a low-floor double-decker bus which was launched in 1999 and replaced the 2-axle version of Volvo Olympian...

 entering the mass market, even though they were introduced after the Optare Spectra
Optare Spectra
Launched in 1991, the Optare Spectra is a double-decker bus body built on the DAF DB250 chassis.The vehicle was developed as a joint project between Optare and DAF; based on the designs of the successful MCW Metrobus which Optare had purchased, but they are no means a restlyed Metrobus...

.

Due to the deregulated nature
Bus deregulation
Bus deregulation in Great Britain came into force on 26 October 1986, as part of the Transport Act 1985.The 'Buses' White Paper was the basis of the Transport Act 1985, which provided for the deregulation of local bus services in the whole of the United Kingdom except for Northern Ireland and...

 of the public transport system in the UK, adoption of the higher cost low floor buses was usually in conjunction with some sort of grant or quality partnership with a local authority, as the profitability of many routes was not high enough to justify conversion based purely on increased revenue. It has been reported however that adoption of so called Easy Access buses does have a positive effect of ridership and revenue levels.

Under the Transport Act 1985
Transport Act 1985
The Transport Act 1985 was a Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. It introduced deregulation of bus services throughout Great Britain, although a different system of franchised routes was applied in Greater London. It was introduced by the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher.Bus...

 the Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee (DPTAC) (or commonly DiPTAC) was established to provide independent consultation on accessibility issues. In the same year, the first low floor bus specification was drafted by DPTAC. The Disability Discrimination Act 1995
Disability Discrimination Act 1995
The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which has now been repealed and replaced by the Equality Act 2010 , except in Northern Ireland where the Act still applies...

 provided for the completion of the Public Service Vehicles Accessibility Regulations 2000, which specified that all new public service vehicles over 22 seats should be low floor from 31 December 2000, with smaller vehicles mandated from 1 January 2005. The 2000 regulations do not require retro-fitting of pre-existing vehicles or the enforced sale of non compliant existing vehicles, allowing operators to retain a high floor vehicle until "the end of their economic life". In reality, as the prevalence of low floor buses spreads, combined with grants/incentives, it is likely that the prevalence of high floor vehicles in the national fleet will markedly reduce before many of the last high floor buses reach their feasible end of life, of a 2000 registered bus. In the past, in times of reduced economic investment, it was not uncommon for service buses to be used for 15 to 20 years.

While some coaches
Coach (vehicle)
A coach is a large motor vehicle, a type of bus, used for conveying passengers on excursions and on longer distance express coach scheduled transport between cities - or even between countries...

 have been produced with a small front low floor section at the driver's level, most coaches in the UK are being made accessible through the use of wheelchair lift
Wheelchair lift
A wheelchair lift, also known as a platform lift, is a powered device designed to raise a wheelchair and its occupant in order to overcome a step or similar vertical barrier....

s, with the 2005 Caetano Levante
Caetano Levante
The Caetano Levante is a coach body built on the Scania K-series 6x2 & 4x2, Volvo B12B 4x2 chassis and recently Volvo B9R 4x2 chassis, exclusively for National Express in the UK...

 being one of the largest introductions.

While another widely stated benefit of low floor buses is quicker boarding for able-bodied passengers due to the lack of steps, studies have found the opposite effect in the UK. This is apparently due to the prevailing system of operation where passengers enter and exit through one single front door. It has been suggested that the previous 1980s/90s high floor step entrance buses which featured a centre rail, encouraged a bi-directional flow of entering and exiting passengers simultaneously. The removal of the pole to allow wheelchair/buggy access created the situation where the quintessentially polite British bus passenger would wait for all passengers to alight before boarding, leading to an increase in dwell times
On-time performance
In transportation , schedule adherence or on-time performance refers to the level of success of the service remaining on the published schedule....

.

Bengaluru (Bangalore)

  • Light blue buses: The new ordinary bus under the JnNURM scheme with low floors and LED boards. They also have an LED board inside the bus which displays the next stop the bus is approaching.
  • Marcopolo Non-AC: These buses are also introduced under the JnNURM scheme. They also have low floors. They have LED boards both for displaying route number/route and the approaching stop.
  • Marcopolo AC: Buses from Tata-Marcopolo collaboration introduced under the JnNURM scheme. Their fare is costilier by Rs. 2 as compared to ordinary buses. Usually ply on routes where volvo is not popular.
  • Vajra: Hi-tech buses from Volvo running on routes serving the IT companies' locations and various residential routes as well. Higher fares about 1.5 to 3 times that of ordinary depending on the route. LED boards.

New Delhi

With the introduction of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and the development of dedicated corridors for the service, bus service is set to improve. The Delhi Transport Corporation
Delhi Transport Corporation
Delhi Transport Corporation is the main public transport operator of Delhi. It operates buses on many bus routes, including the mudrika and Bahri Mudrika . It is the largest CNG-powered bus service operator in the world. DTC is operating Interstate Services in 6 states viz...

 (DTC) has started introducing air-conditioned buses and brand new low-floor buses (with floor height of 400 mm (15.75 in) and even higher on one third area as against 230 mm (9.06 in) available internationally) on city streets to replace the conventional buses. A revamp plan is underway to improve bus-shelters in the city and to integrate GPS systems in DTC buses and bus stops so as to provide reliable information about bus arrivals. The Delhi Government decided to expedite this process and procured 6,600 low floor buses for the DTC before commonwealth games
2010 Commonwealth Games
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events, making it the largest Commonwealth Games till date...

 in 2010.

Sydney, Australia

In Sydney, routes may be operated by both high-floor buses and low-floor ones. Selected routes can be set aside specifically for low-floor buses which are considered to be wheelchair-accessible routes. A recent all low-floor bus network is the Metrobus
Metrobus (Sydney)
Metrobus is a high frequency, high capacity public transportation network in Sydney that links key employment and growth centres. Metrobuses run every 10 minutes during peak periods, 15 minutes during off-peak weekday periods, and 20 minutes on weekends, with the intention of making timetables...

 system.

Japan

In Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

,a low-floor bus is called "non-step bus(ノンステップバス)".

Mitsubishi Fuso used to calling a low-floor bus "no-step bus(ノーステップバス)"

At Enshu Railway Company in Hamamatsu Area , a low-floor bus is called "omnibus(オムニバス)", "cho-teisho bus(超低床バス;very low-floor bus)" and "cho-teisho omnibus(超低床オムニバス;very low-floor omnibus)".

Japanese government calls a low-floor bus "cho-teisho non-step bus(超低床ノンステップバス;very low-floor non-step bus)".

List of low-floor buses

Agrale
Agrale
Agrale is a Brazilian manufacturer of military vehicles, motorcycles, scooters, commercial vehicles, engines and agricultural tractors. It is based in Caxias do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Established in 1962, the brand's current model line-up consists of the Marrua SUV and pick-up truck...

 MT 12 LE
Alfabusz Localo
Ashok Leyland
Ashok Leyland
Ashok Leyland is a commercial vehicle manufacturing company based in Chennai, India. Founded in 1948, the company is one of India's leading manufacturers of commercial vehicles, such as trucks and buses, as well as emergency and military vehicles. Operating six plants, Ashok Leyland also makes...


  • i-Bus
  • Luxura
  • Airport Tarmac Coach


Auto Rad Controlle (merged with Ikarus)
  • ARC187.01
  • ARC187.02
  • ARC134.01
  • ARC127.E1


Autosan
Autosan
Autosan S.A. is a Polish bus and coach manufacturer. The company is located in Sanok, Poland.Its sales network includes European , African and Asian countries.Currently it produces approximately 300 buses a year.-History:...


Bustech
Bustech
Bustech is an Australian bus bodywork company, established in 1998 on the Gold Coast, Queensland. It is owned by the Transit Australia Group, where buses are produced for its sister companies, Surfside Buslines and Sunbus, as well as other major Australian customers...

 VST (body)
Blue Bird
Blue Bird Corp.
The Blue Bird Corporation, originally known as the Blue Bird Body Company, is an American manufacturer of school and activity buses. Established in 1932, the company has also manufactured transit buses, motorhomes, and specialty vehicles such as mobile libraries and mobile police command centers...

 Ultra LF
Custom Coaches
Custom Coaches
Custom Coaches is an Australian bus manufacturing company started in 1935 in Guildford, New South Wales, Australia as the Cycle Components Manufacturing Company by Stanley James Hillsdon.-Origins:...

 CB60, CB30 (body)
DAF/VDL Bus
  • DB250LF
    VDL DB250
    The VDL DB250 is a double-decker bus sold in the UK through VDL Bus International's UK dealer Arriva Bus & Coach. A small number of DB250s have also been exported to Istanbul, Turkey.-DB250:...

  • SB120LF
    VDL SB120
    The VDL SB120 is a low-floor light-weight midibus produced from 1999 by VDL Bus International of the Netherlands primarily for the UK market....

  • SB180
  • SB200LF
    VDL SB200
    The VDL SB200 is a light-weight 12m citybus produced from 2001 by VDL Bus International...

  • SB220LF
    DAF SB220
    The DAF SB220 is a city bus chassis produced by DAF Bus International in the 1980s and 1990s.It has been superseded by the DAF/VDL SB200 and SB250.-United Kingdom :*Optare Delta*Ikarus Citibus...

  • SB250LF
    VDL SB250
    The VDL SB250 is a full-size low-floor city bus launched in 1997, which was designed specifically for Continental Europe market by the Dutch bus builder VDL Bus International ....



Daewoo Bus
Daewoo Bus
Daewoo Bus Corporation is a manufacturer of buses. headquartered in Busan, South Korea, established in 2002. These buses are primarily used for public transportation. Daewoo Bus is South Korea's second-largest bus manufacturer, and has been in parnership with GM Daewoo since 2006...


  • BS120CN
  • BS110CN

DAB 1200C
Dallas Smith Corp. - Friendly Bus
Dallas Smith Corporation
Dallas Smith Corporation is a builder of low floor vehicle platforms, including buses for paratransit operators.Founded in 1954, the Greencastle, Indiana-based company has offices in both Greencastle and Phoenix, Arizona.-Products:* LF Trucks* LF vans...

 Ford F-550 LF Shuttle Paratransit Bus
Dennis Specialist Vehicles
Dennis Specialist Vehicles
Dennis Specialist Vehicles is a major British coachbuilder and manufacturer of specialised commercial vehicles based in Guildford, England...

/TransBus/Alexander Dennis
Alexander Dennis
Alexander Dennis Limited is the largest bus builder in the United Kingdom. It incorporated the three last surviving bus manufacturers which started bus production before World War II: Dennis, Alexander and Plaxton.- History :Alexander Dennis was formed as TransBus on 1 January 2001, after the...


  • Dart SLF
  • Trident 2
    Dennis Trident 2
    Dennis Trident 2 is a 2-axle low-floor double-decker bus chassis originally built by Dennis in the United Kingdom, which was unveiled in 1997 and replaced the Dennis Arrow...

  • Trident 3
    Dennis Trident 3
    Dennis Trident 3 is the first low floor double-decker bus chassis built by Dennis in the United Kingdom, with a large number purchased by bus companies in Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States and Canada.-Design:...

  • Enviro200 Dart
  • Enviro300
  • Enviro350H
    Alexander Dennis Enviro350H
    Alexander Dennis Enviro350H is a hybrid-electric powered full-size single-deck bus built by Alexander Dennis. It was unveiled in 2010.The Enviro350H has its powertrain located at the nearside of the rear overhang, similar with the full-low-floor buses in Continental Europe...

  • Enviro400
  • Enviro500


EBL Plasma
Gillig
Gillig
Gillig Corporation, formerly Gillig Bros., is a manufacturer of heavy-duty low-floor transit buses located in Hayward, California. Prior to 1993, Gillig had also been a manufacturer of school buses.-History:...


  • "Advantage" Low Floor
    Gillig Low Floor
    The Gillig Low Floor is a transit bus manufactured by the Gillig Corporation in Hayward, CA. The Low Floor was introduced in 1996. They are available in 29', 35' and 40' lengths. A diesel-electric hybrid version was introduced in 2004. Frameless side windows are an option. The Gillig Low Floor is...

  • Hybrid Low Floor
  • "Extreme" BRT

Hankuk Fiber
  • Primus

Heuliez
Heuliez
Heuliez is a French company that works as a production and design unit for various automakers. It specializes in producing short series for niche markets, such as convertibles or station-wagons....


  • GX117 (midibus)/GX217/GX317 (standard buses)/GX417 (articulated bus)
  • GX127 (midibus)/GX327 (standard bus)/GX427 (articulated bus)


Hino
Hino Motors
-External links:Global* * * Overseas offices****.*.***.*.* - Philippines**...


  • Blue Ribbon City
    Hino Blue Ribbon
    The Hino Blue Ribbon is a heavy-duty bus built by Hino. The range was primarily available as city bus and tourist coach.- RE/RC :*RB10-P *RB10 *RC10-P *RC100-P *RE100 *RC300/320...

     HU2PM/HU8J (Hybrid)
  • Rainbow HR
    Hino Rainbow
    The Hino Rainbow is a medium-duty bus built by Hino. The range was primarily available as city bus and tourist coach. Asia Motors made a badge engineered version called the Asia Cosmos.- Rainbow RJ/RR :*First generation...

  • Poncho HX
    Hino Poncho
    The is a non-step low-floor minibus built by Hino.- First generation :The Poncho first generation was based on the Fiat Ducato chassis.*VF3ZCPMAC- Second generation :...



Hungarobusz H63/H63S
Hyundai Motors
  • New Aero City low-floor
  • Super New Aero City low-floor


Ikarbus
Ikarbus
Ikarbus is a Serbian bus manufacturer based in the Belgrade urban municipality of Zemun. The company was originally established as an aircraft manufacturer in 1923, under the name “Ikarus – the first Serbian airplane, car and engine industry Kovacevic and Co” in Novi Sad by Dimitrije Konjovic,...


  • IK-112N
  • IK-218N


Ikarus
Ikarus Bus
Ikarus is a bus manufacturer based in Budapest, Hungary. It was established in 1895 as Uhri Imre Kovács- és Kocsigyártó Üzeme .-History:...


  • 290 (airport bus)
  • 411, 412, 417
  • 481, 489
  • E91, E94, E94F, E99
  • E127 (rebranded from Auto Rad Controlle ARC127)
  • E134
  • V134 (rebranded from ARC134)
  • V187 (successor of ARC187.02)

Irisbus
Irisbus
Irisbus is a bus manufacturer which was formed through the merger of the bus and coach divisions of Fiat Industrial, Iveco and Renault in January 1999 and Ikarus Bus in late 1999...

 Citelis
Irisbus Citelis
Irisbus Citelis is a wheelchair-accessible city bus produced by Irisbus. It was introduced in 2005 to replace the Agora. It comes in two varieties: Citelis 12, which is of standard length, and Citelis 18, which is articulated and has a length of . Citelis models use Euro 4, Euro 5 & EEV engines...


Isuzu
Isuzu
, is a Japanese car, commercial vehicle and heavy truck manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo. In 2005, Isuzu became the world's largest manufacturer of medium to heavy duty trucks. It has assembly and manufacturing plants in the Japanese city of Fujisawa, as well as in the prefectures...


  • Cubic
    Isuzu Cubic
    The Isuzu Cubic is a heavy-duty bus built by Isuzu. The various models of the vehicle were primarily available as a city bus configuration.- Models :Two-Step*P-LV214/218/314/318 *U-LV218/224/318/324...

     LV832
  • Erga
    Isuzu Erga
    The Isuzu Erga is a heavy-duty bus built by Isuzu. The range was primarily available as city bus.- Models :Non-step , One-step and Two-step*KL-LV280L1/N1/Q1 - 8PE1 engine *KK/KL-LT233J2 - 6HH1 engine...

     LV834/LV280/LV234
  • Erga Mio
    Isuzu Erga Mio
    The Isuzu Erga Mio is a medium-duty bus built by Isuzu. The range was primarily available as city bus.- External links :...

     LR233/LR234


Iveco
Iveco
Iveco, an acronym for Industrial Vehicle Corporation, originally an alliance of European commercial vehicle manufacturers such as Fiat , Unic and Magirus. Iveco is now an Italian truck, bus, and diesel engine manufacturer, based in Turin...

 CityClass
Jelcz
Jelcz
Jelcz is a Polish brand of trucks, buses and trolley buses produced by Zakłady Samochodowe Jelcz SA , a division of Jelczańskie Zakłady Samochodowe or . Currently Zakłady Samochodowe Jelcz SA is closed....


  • M125M VECTO
  • M121I (60% low floor)
  • M181M/1 TANTUS (articulated 60% low floor)


Kravtex
  • Credo BN 12 (60% low floor)
  • Credo BN 18 (80% low floor)
  • Credo Citadell 12
  • Credo Citadell 19
  • Credo EN 12 (60% low floor)


MAN
  • NM/NL/NG/NDxx2
  • Lion's City (NM/NL/NG/NDxx3)
    MAN Lion's City
    MAN Lion's City is a city bus built by the German truck and bus manufacturer MAN Nutzfahrzeuge since 2000. A new generation was launched in 2004....

  • MAN 12.220
  • MAN 12.240
  • MAN 14.220
  • MAN 14.240
  • MAN 18.220
  • MAN 18.240
  • MAN 24.310
    MAN 24.310
    MAN 24.310 is a low-floor double-decker bus model built for the Hong Kong market. Unlike other low-floor double-decker buses in Hong Kong, there are steps in the lower deck aisle after the rear exit....


MAZ
  • 103, 107
  • 203

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz buses
Mercedes-Benz has been making buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany. Since 1995, the brand of Mercedes-Benz buses and coaches is under the umbrella of EvoBus GmbH, belonging 100 % to the Daimler AG.-Heritage:...


  • O405N / O405GN / O405NH
    Mercedes-Benz O405
    The Mercedes-Benz O 405 was a highly successful single-decker bus chassis built by Mercedes-Benz from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s. It was the replacement for the Mercedes-Benz O305 chassis and was widely used in Europe, Australia and Singapore....

  • OC500LE
    Mercedes-Benz OC500LE
    The Mercedes-Benz OC 500 LE is a modular, heavy-duty, twin-axle bus chassis produced by Mercedes-Benz/EvoBus Ibérica S.A. in Sámano, Spain. It was designed as a platform for low-entry city, suburban, and intercity buses weighing a maximum of 18,000 kg. It has much in common with the chassis...

  • O500U
  • Citaro
    Mercedes-Benz O530 Citaro
    The Mercedes-Benz Citaro is the current Mercedes-Benz/EvoBus mainstream single-decker bus intended for public transport, introduced in 1997 and replaced the Mercedes-Benz O405/O405N series...

  • Conecto
  • Cito

Millennium Transit Services RTS Extreme
Mitsubishi Fuso
  • Aero Star
    Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Star
    The Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Star is a heavy-duty bus built by Mitsubishi Fuso. The range was primarily available as city bus.Its principal competitors are Isuzu Erga, UD Trucks Space Runner RA and Hino Blue Ribbon.- Fuso full-size city bus :*MR Series *B800 Series **B800, B805 **B820J...

     MP747/MP37
  • Aero Midi
    Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi
    The Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi is a medium-duty bus built by Mitsubishi Fuso. It is primarily available as city and sightseeing buses.Its principal competitors are Isuzu Erga Mio, Nissan Diesel Space Runner RM and Hino Rainbow....


Neoplan
Neoplan
NEOPLAN Bus GmbH is a German automotive company that manufactures buses, trolleybuses and coaches. NEOPLAN is now a subsidiary of NEOMAN Bus GmbH, which itself is a part of MAN SE.-Foundations:...


  • N814 (the first low-floor bus, 1976), N816
  • N409
  • N40xx series (N4007/4009
    Neoplan N4009
    The Neoplan N4009 is a low-floor midibus built by Neoplan between 1988 and 1999, initially at Stuttgart in Germany and later also in Poland. It is the smaller version of the Neoplan N4016 city bus.-Specifications:...

    /4010/4011/4013/4014/4015/4016
    Neoplan N4016
    The Neoplan N4016 is a low-floor single-deck city bus built by Neoplan until 1999, initially at Stuttgart in Germany and later also in Poland. It is the larger version of the Neoplan N4009 midibus.-Specifications:...

    /4018/4020/4021/4024/4026/4032)
  • Transliner
    Neoplan Transliner
    The NEOPLAN Transliner in Europe is a single-decker inter-urban coach and rental coach built by NEOPLAN Bus GmbH for the European market in 1990s, of either a single-axle or multi-axle bus design. Some Dennis Javelin and MAN coaches in the United Kingdom also have the Transliner bodywork.-American...

     N316NF/N316LNF/N318NF/N318LNF
  • Centroliner
    Neoplan Centroliner
    The NEOPLAN Centroliner is a series of low floor bus which was first unveiled in 1997, and mainly built by NEOPLAN Bus GmbH for the European market...

  • Regioliner
  • Apron
  • Airliner


Neoplan USA
Neoplan USA
Neoplan USA was a major transit bus manufacturing company based in Denver, Colorado, which was entirely separate from the German corporation, Neoplan, licensing its designs from the German company of the same name. The company was founded in 1981 and folded in 2006. It was originally a subsidiary...


  • AN435LF
  • AN440LF
    Neoplan AN440
    The Neoplan Transliner was a series of related mass transit bus models introduced by Neoplan USA in 1981.- Models :The Transliner was available in a wide variety of body styles. Transliners could be ordered in 35', 40', and 60' lengths...

  • AN460LF


New Flyer Industries
New Flyer Industries
New Flyer Industries Inc. is a bus manufacturer in North America, headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It also has factories in Crookston and St. Cloud, Minnesota, USA.-History:...


  • D30LF (diesel) / DE30LF (diesel-electric hybrid) / C30LF (CNG) / L30LF (LNG)
  • D35LF / DE35LF / C35LF / L35LF
  • D40LF / DE40LF / C40LF / L40LF / H40LF / GE40LF (gasoline-electric hybrid) / DE40LF BRT (bus rapid transit)
  • D60LF / DE60LF / DE60LF BRT
  • D40i / DE40i Invero
  • D40LFR / DE40LFR / E40LFR / C40LFR / H40LFR / GE40LFR / L40LFR
  • D60LFR / DE60LFR / E60LFR

North American Bus Industries
North American Bus Industries
North American Bus Industries, commonly known as NABI, is a major transit bus manufacturing company based in Anniston, Alabama. NABI was founded in 1992 when the Hungarian firm Ikarus Bus, a key bus supplier to Central, Eastern Europe, spun off a majority share of their American operations to...


  • 35-LFW
  • 40-LFW
  • 60-LFW / 60-BRT (bus rapid transit)
  • Excel
  • Solo


Nova Bus LFS
Nova Bus
Nova Bus is a Canadian bus manufacturer in North America, owned by Volvo Buses, and headquartered in Saint-Eustache, Quebec, Canada.- History :The factory was originally a General Motors plant for building city transit buses intended for the Canadian market...


Orion Bus Industries
Orion Bus Industries
Orion International, previously Orion Bus Industries and Ontario Bus Industries in Canada and Bus Industries of America in the United States, is a bus manufacturer based in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada and established by the Government of Ontario in 1975...


  • Orion II
  • Orion VI
  • Orion VII

Optare
Optare
Optare plc is a bus manufacturer and importer based in Leeds and Blackburn, UK. The company operates from three main business units, Bus Manufacturing, Coach Sales and Unitec....


  • Excel/Excel II
    Optare Excel
    The Optare Excel is a low-floor full-size single-decker bus manufactured by Optare.Manufactured as an integral bus, the Excel was launched in 1995 as one of the first low-floor single-deck vehicles. The styling of the body was in keeping with existing Optare products, especially at the rear...

  • Solo
    Optare Solo
    The Optare Solo is a low-floor midibus manufactured by Optare in Leeds, UK since 1997. The name "Solo" is a play on the low-floor status of the bus, the manufacturer believing its vehicle having an entrance that is "so low" from the floor, namely 200 mm with kneeling suspension.The innovative...

  • Alero
    Optare Alero
    The Optare Alero was a low-floor integral minibus built by Optare between 2001 and 2008. It was built as an alternative to van-derived buses such as the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter.Around 300 were built in the first five years of production...

  • Tempo
    Optare Tempo
    The Optare Tempo is a full-size single-deck bus manufactured by Optare and was launched in late 2004. It is marketed and sold as the replacement for the Optare Excel.It is designed as a lightweight bus, to use less fuel than traditional heavy duty integrals....

  • Versa
    Optare Versa
    The Optare Versa is a midibus built by Optare in its Leeds factory. It was officially launched in Britain at the Euro Bus Expo 2006 at the NEC, Birmingham, on 7 November 2006, with the first order of 25 buses being placed by Stagecoach on the same day....

  • Rapta
    Optare Rapta
    The Optare Rapta was an integral double decker launched at the Euro Bus Expo on 4th November 2008. It was one of the first of the new model range to have the new family look, the other of which is the new Solo+ . The Rapta is the first new Optare-designed double decker since the Spectra low-floor...



Renault
Renault
Renault S.A. is a French automaker producing cars, vans, and in the past, autorail vehicles, trucks, tractors, vans and also buses/coaches. Its alliance with Nissan makes it the world's third largest automaker...

  • Renault Agora
    Renault Agora
    The Irisbus Agora was a low-floor bus designed and built by Renault from 1996 to 2002, date upon which it has been built by Irisbus, firstly a joint-venture with Fiat subsidiary Iveco from 1999, with Iveco engines...


Scania
  • K94UB
    Scania K94
    The Scania K94 is a rear-engined bus built by Scania of Sweden.It could be built as a coach or intercity bus , but one example of the low-entry citybus version was produced in 2000.In Hong Kong, the K94UB has been fitted with a Volgren 12m double-deck bodywork and is currently in operation with...

  • L94UA/L94UB
    Scania L94
    The Scania L94 is a longitudinal inclined-engined bus built by Scania AB, which was a direct replacement of Scania L113. It is used widely in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Australia...

  • N94UA/N94UB/N94UD
    Scania N94
    The Scania N94 was a transverse-engined low-floor city bus built by Scania AB, which was a direct replacement of Scania N113.It was originally available with rigid version N94UB and articulated version N94UA, but from 2002 a double-deck version known as the N94UD also became available.The N94UD was...

  • OmniCity
    Scania OmniCity
    The Scania OmniCity is an integrally-constructed transverse-engined low floor citybus available on the European market. The OmniCity is a complete product built in Poland by Scania AB, a company based in Sweden....

  • OmniLink
    Scania OmniLink
    The Scania OmniLink is an integrally-constructed rear longitudinal-engined citybus available on the European market. It is a complete product built by Scania AB, a company based in Sweden....

  • KxxxUB/UD
    Scania K-series
    Scania K-series is a series of bus with longitudinally, straight-up mounted Euro IV engine at the rear. For the 5- and 6-cylinder engines Scania is using exhaust gas recirculation system to fulfill the legal Euro IV emission standard...

  • NxxxUA/UB/UD
    Scania N-series
    Scania N-series is a series of city bus with straight-up, transversely mounted Euro IV/Euro V engine at the rear.It is available as N230UB, N270UB as well as the N230UD and N270UD...



Setra
Setra
Setra is a Neu-Ulm, Germany-based manufacturer of commercial buses and touring coaches, and recently a subsidiary of Daimler AG.The name "Setra" comes from "Selbsttragend"...


  • S215NC, S217NC
  • S300NC
  • S315NF, S319NF
  • S415NF (not yet in service)


Solaris
Solaris Bus & Coach
Solaris Bus & Coach S.A. is a bus, coach and trolleybus manufacturer based in Bolechowo-Osiedle and Środa Wielkopolska, near Poznań, Poland.It is a family-owned business, with Krzysztof Olszewski as president and his wife Solange as chairman...


  • Urbino 10/12/15/18


Solbus
Solbus
Solbus is the fastest growing Polish bus producer founded 2001 in Solec Kujawski. It has been described as one of the "major players in Poland's automotive industry". In 2005 it accounted for 20% of bus production in Poland, and was named by the business daily Puls Biznesu as the best company and...

  • SN11M

SOR
  • NB 12 CITY
  • NB18 CITY


TATA Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...


  • Tata Marcopolo
  • Tata Starbus


UD Trucks(old name:Nissan Diesel)
UD Trucks
UD Trucks Corporation is a Japanese company whose principal business is the manufacture and sales of light, medium and heavy duty diesel trucks, buses, bus chassis and special-purpose vehicles. The company is owned 100% by the Volvo Group since 2007. Formerly known as Nissan Diesel, the company...


  • UA
    Nissan Diesel UA
    The Nissan Diesel UA is a heavy-duty bus built by Nissan Diesel. The range was primarily available as city bus.- U/UA :*U/UA20/30 *U35 *K-U/UA31/36 *P-U/UA32 *P-U/UA33/50 - UA :...

     UA272/472
  • Space Runner JP
    Nissan Diesel Space Runner JP
    The Nissan Diesel Space Runner JP is a medium-duty bus built by Nissan Diesel. The range was primarily available as city bus.- External links :*...

  • Space Runner RA
    Nissan Diesel Space Runner RA
    The Nissan Diesel Space Runner RA is a heavy-duty bus built by Nissan Diesel. The range was primarily available as city bus.Space Runner RA engine using AdBlue Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction technology.- Space Runner A :...

  • Space Runner RM
    Nissan Diesel Space Runner RM
    The Nissan Diesel Space Runner RM is a midium-duty bus built by Nissan Diesel. The range was primarily available as city bus.- Models :*RM90 *K-RM80 *P-RM81 *P-RB80 *U-RM/JM210...



Van Hool
Van Hool
Van Hool NV is a Belgian coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.The company was founded in 1947 by Bernard van Hool in Koningshooikt, nearby Lier, Belgium. In the early years, the company introduced serial production and exported their products all over Europe...


  • A308
  • A320
  • A300
  • A360
  • A330
  • A600
  • AG300
  • AG500
  • AGG300


Volgren
Volgren
Volgren is an Australian bodywork company previously owned by Volvo and the Grenda Corporation but is now entirely owned by the latter. It was established in 1977, initially supplying bodywork for Volvo buses sold in Australia, and later supplying bus bodywork on all types of chassis for both local...

  • CR221L, CR221LD, CR223LD, CR228L (body)

Volkswagen Trucks and Buses
Volkswagen Trucks and Buses
Volkswagen Trucks and Buses , , is a Brazilian manufacturer of commercial vehicles. It manufactures heavy trucks and buses under the Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles marque....

  • 17-260 EOT Low Entry

Volvo
Volvo Buses
Volvo Buses is a subsidiary and a business area of the Swedish vehicle maker Volvo, which became an independent division in 1968. It is based in Göteborg....


  • B6LE
    Volvo B6
    The Volvo B6 is a midibus manufactured by Volvo between 1991 and 2000. Its low-floor variant, the Volvo B6LE, was first built in 1994.The Volvo B6/B6LE chassis was built to compete with the Dennis Dart/Dart SLF chassis. It could be fitted with Volvo TD63E/TD63ES engine...

  • B6BLE
  • B7L
    Volvo B7L
    Volvo B7L was a low floor citybus chassis with a rear engine mounted vertically on the left of the rear overhang, it was built as a replacement for the Volvo B10L...

  • B7RLE
    Volvo B7RLE
    Volvo B7RLE is a low-floor single-deck citybus launched initially in Australia in 2001, and then in the United Kingdom in 2003 to supplement the B7L single-decker, which was unsuccessful in both countries. It is similar to the B7L's predecessor, the B10BLE...

  • B7TL
    Volvo B7TL
    Volvo B7TL is a low-floor double-decker bus which was launched in 1999 and replaced the 2-axle version of Volvo Olympian...

  • B9L
  • B9S Articulated
  • B9TL
    Volvo B9TL
    The Volvo B9TL is a low-floor double-decker bus built by Volvo Buses since 2002. It superseded the older Volvo B10TL and the Volvo B7TL.-Chassis:...

  • B10L
    Volvo B10L
    The Volvo B10L is a rear-engined, low-floor single-deck city bus chassis built by Volvo between c. 1993 and c. 2005. An articulated version of the B10L, known as the B10LA, was also produced.-United Kingdom:...

  • B10TL
    Volvo B10TL
    Volvo Super Olympian, also known as B10TL, is a low-floor double-decker bus which replaced the 3-axle version of Volvo Olympian ....

  • B10BLE
    Volvo B10BLE
    The Volvo B10BLE is a low-entry city bus chassis which was popular in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and Australia. It was launched around 1992 with the engine mounted on the rear overhang of the bus. It was the successor of the citybus version of Volvo B10B and is used as a base for single-deck...

  • B12BLE
    Volvo B12BLE
    The Volvo B12BLE is a low-entry city and suburban bus chassis launched in 2001 with an engine mounted on the rear overhang. It replaced the Volvo B10BLE and is used as a base for single deck buses in Europe and Australia....

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